Dynamic Injection of WAI-ARIA into Web Content #w4a13

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WAI-ARIA enables Web developers to make dynamic content accessible to users of assistive technologies (ATs) but there remain many sites on the Web that do not use it. Unfortunately the default behaviour of ATs when handling such pages is often sub-optimal, leaving users struggling to use the content. We present ACup: a flexible approach that injects JavaScript into the page to detect and classify any changes to the Document Object Model (DOM). These changes are then presented to the user using a WAI-ARIA live region that was injected when the page was loaded. The style of presentation varies according to the characteristics of each update (using rules previously bound to be effective) and can simply be changed, for example to test novel presentation approaches, or to apply a more fine-grained classification. This may be used to enable AT users to benefit more rapidly from advances in user-interface design.

Presented at the 10th International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility – 13-15th May 2013 – Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Dynamic Injection of WAI-ARIA into Web Content #w4a13

  1. 1. ACup: Dynamically Injecting WAI-ARIASimon Harper1Andy Brown2School of Computer ScienceUniversity of ManchesterMay 13th, 20131simon.harper@manchester.ac.uk, @sharpic2andrew.brown@cs.manchester.ac.uk
  2. 2. MotivationMany Web pages contain dynamiccontentThis can be problematic for AT usersWAI-ARIA provides a solution...if implemented (well)What if has not been used?Auto-suggest listBrown and Harper, W4A 2013 ACup: Dynamically Injecting WAI-ARIA 2 / 10
  3. 3. AxsJAXAccess-Enabling AJAXCharles Chen and T.V. RamanA Framework for injecting accessibility features into Web 2.0 applications.Developing an AxsJAX script requires:Technical knowledge: xpaths, JavaScriptPre-knowledge of the structure of the page/applicationWhat if we don’t have this information, or these skills?Brown and Harper, W4A 2013 ACup: Dynamically Injecting WAI-ARIA 3 / 10
  4. 4. Research Questions1 Can injected JavaScript:monitor a Web page for updates?classify those updates?2 Can post-load injected WAI-ARIA be used to modify screen readerbehaviour?3 Performance: robustness and speed?4 How generalisable is the process?Brown and Harper, W4A 2013 ACup: Dynamically Injecting WAI-ARIA 4 / 10
  5. 5. An overviewBrown and Harper, W4A 2013 ACup: Dynamically Injecting WAI-ARIA 5 / 10
  6. 6. Classification of updatesUpdates classified according to:How it was initiated:by the user (mouse click, key-press,...)automaticallyThe effect it had on the page:Content addedremovedreplacedBrown and Harper, W4A 2013 ACup: Dynamically Injecting WAI-ARIA 6 / 10
  7. 7. EvaluationClassification system tested on 20 of the most popular Web sitesClassification by initiation 100% correctClassification by effect correct on 85% of sitesSome problematic cases:complex auto-suggest list updates‘pre-loading’ of dynamic contentmis-match between visual changes and DOM updatesMany page changes did not involve modification to DOM structureBrown and Harper, W4A 2013 ACup: Dynamically Injecting WAI-ARIA 7 / 10
  8. 8. Modifying the UIClassification is only a means to an end... We need to:Modify the user interfaceEnable easy modificationAchieved by injecting WAI-ARIA enabled HTML into the page.ACup is designed for adapting the following according to update class:Non-speech notificationSpeech announcementContent spoken automatically: all, first sentence, noneBrown and Harper, W4A 2013 ACup: Dynamically Injecting WAI-ARIA 8 / 10
  9. 9. ConclusionsWe have shown that:Injected JavaScript can be used to detect and classify updatesInjected ARIA-enabled HTML can ’push’ content to the ATPages without ARIA can be made more accessible without modifyingthe browser or ATBrown and Harper, W4A 2013 ACup: Dynamically Injecting WAI-ARIA 9 / 10
  10. 10. Questions?Slides:http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.700716Technical reports:http://www.manchester.ac.uk/escholar/uk-ac-man-scw:194383http://www.manchester.ac.uk/escholar/uk-ac-man-scw:194367Code:https://bitbucket.org/webergonomicslab/acupContact:simon.harper@manchester.ac.uk @sharpicandrew.brown@cs.manchester.ac.ukBrown and Harper, W4A 2013 ACup: Dynamically Injecting WAI-ARIA 10 / 10

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