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4 Mulches And Practical Turf
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4 Mulches And Practical Turf

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  • Transcript

    • 1.  
    • 2. Mulching to Reduce Evaporation
    • 3. Mulching to Reduce Evaporation
      • Terms
      • Mulch Soil Amendment
      • Applied on surface Mixed into soil
    • 4. Benefits of Mulching
    • 5. Benefits of Mulching
      • Reduces evaporation by 25-50%
      • Organic mulches promotes soil microorganism activity (which improves soil tilth, reducing
      • Stabilizes soil moisture
      • Prevents soil compaction
      • Control weeds
      • Moderates soil temperature extremes
      • Controls erosion
      • Gives a finished look
    • 6. Mulch: edging & grading
      • When mulch is added above grade it readily spreads off the bed onto the lawn or sidewalk creating a mowing or trip hazard.
      grass or sidewalk level mulch layer soil level
    • 7. Mulch: edging & grading
      • An effective alternative is to drop the soil level in the mulch bed so the top of the mulch is at grade level.
        • However, ensure that the mulched bed doesn’t fill wilt water draining from higher areas .
      grass or sidewalk level soil level mulch layer
    • 8. Mulch: edging & grading
      • An effective alternative is to round down the soil level along the edge of the bed. This gives a nice finished edge at grade level and creates a raised bed effect for the flowerbed.
      grass or sidewalk level soil level mulch layer soil and mulch taper down to grade
    • 9. Wood/bark chip mulch
    • 10. Wood/bark chip mulch
      • Benefits
        • Great for trees, shrubs, perennial flowers, and small fruits
        • Creates favorable environment for earthworms and soil microorganisms.
    • 11. Wood/bark chip mulch
      • Benefits
        • On shrub and flowerbeds, cuts irrigation need by as much as 50%
          • Note: Does not reduce irrigation need over tree rooting area because only a small portion of the rooting area is typically mulched.
    • 12. Wood/bark chip mulch
      • Benefits
        • Woody chips placed on the surface does not tie up nitrogen
          • Sawdust and very fine chips, when used as a mulch, can tie-up soil nitrogen and can decrease soil oxygen levels.
          • Do not plow wood/back chips into the soil.
    • 13. Wood/bark chip mulch
      • Product selection
        • Primary selection based on desired appearance and cost .
        • Wood chips decompose faster, enriching the soil.
        • Bark chips decompose slower, requiring less frequent replenishment.
    • 14. Wood/bark chip mulch
      • Cedar mulch
        • True cedar ( Cedrus spp.) can be phytotoxic to young plants when sawdust is used a mulch or soil amendment.
        • “Red cedar” chips made from Juniper (Eastern Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana ) or Arborvitae (Western Red Cedar, Thuja spp.) are NOT phytotoxic.
        • In Colorado, most “cedar” mulch (unless bagged and shipped in from other parts of the country) would be Juniper or Arborvitae.
    • 15. Wood/bark chip mulch application
      • Depth
        • 3” to 4” standard
          • Best weed control
          • Eliminates compaction forces of foot traffic
        • 1-2” for poorly drained soils
          • On compacted/clayey soils with poor drainage, 3-4” may reduce water evaporation so much that susceptible plants develop root rot on wet years and under frequent irrigation
        • >4” -- may reduce soil oxygen levels
    • 16. Wood/bark chip mulch application
      • Around trees
        • Great around trees, protecting from “lawn mower blight”
        • Do NOT make “mulch volcanoes” -- Keep mulch back about 6” from trunk
          • Softens trunk bark when wet
          • Decreases natural trunk taper
        • On newly planted trees, do NOT put chips directly over the root ball.
    • 17. Wood/bark chip mulch application
      • Chips blow in windy areas
        • Shredded type chips more wind resistant
        • Generally not suited for windy areas.
      • Chips float
        • Not suited for area with standing water or heavy surface runoff.
    • 18. Wood/bark chip mulch application
      • Chips over landscape fabric
        • Standard procedure on commercial installations
        • Greater soil improvement with out fabric
        • Weed seeds that germinate above the fabric are difficult to pull.
      • Chips over newspapers
        • Couple of layers of newspaper blocks out light, preventing weed seed germination .
    • 19. Wood/bark chip mulch application
      • Converting lawn to mulch area
        • Standard procedure to spray out grass with Round-up (glyphosate) first. Apply mulch after grass has died.
        • Do not put mulch over growing lawn.
    • 20. Grass clipping mulch
    • 21. Grass clipping mulch
        • Great choice for vegetable and flower beds that are annually cultivated to prepare a seed bed.
          • Adds a small amount of organic matter to soil
    • 22. Grass clipping mulch
        • Apply fresh green clippings only in thin layers, allowing it to dry between applications.
          • Thick layers will mat and stink.
        • Do not use clippings from lawns treated with pesticides for at least 4 weeks after application.
    • 23. Newspaper under mulch
    • 24. Newspaper under mulch
        • A couple of sheets, blocks out light preventing weed seed germination.
        • Do not use more than a couple of layers, the high carbon content can cause a carbon to nitrogen imbalance, creating a nitrogen deficiency.
    • 25. Newspaper under mulch
        • Blow away quickly. Apply immediately before adding chips or grass top layer.
        • Newspapers are printed on soy-based inks, that are safe. Do not use glossy print materials, as their inks may contain heavy metals.
    • 26. Rock mulch with landscape fabric
    • 27. Rock mulch with landscape fabric
      • Great for non-crop areas
      • Doesn’t blow or float away
      • Doesn’t decompose (lower maintenance)
        • Doesn’t build soil tilth
    • 28. Rock mulch with landscape fabric
      • Pea gravel
        • May increase soil temperature, resulting in increased spring-time plant growth.
        • May reduce evaporation from soil surface
    • 29. Rock mulch with landscape fabric
      • Heat sink
        • Raising temperatures (summer “people space” issue)
        • Increasing irrigation requirements
    • 30. Rock mulch with landscape fabric
        • Will interfere with shrub rejuvenation pruning. Basically replace flowering shrubs when they become overgrown and woody.
    • 31. Rock mulch with landscape fabric
        • Not recommended adjacent to lawn areas (safety issue)
        • Not recommended in children’s play areas (safety issue)
    • 32. Rock mulch
        • NEVER use rock over black plastic in plant beds (soil water and oxygen issue)
    • 33.
      • Creating practical turf and non-turf areas
    • 34. Select turf based on actual use of the site.
      • Higher quality =
      • High water demand
      • Expectations?
      • Lower quality =
      • Lower water demand
    • 35. Water-wise lawn care
      • Higher quality =
      • High water demand
      • Expectations?
      • Lower quality =
      • Lower water demand
      • Routine irrigation
        • High performance Bluegrass varieties and turf-type tall fescue
      • Reduced irrigation
        • Reduced inputs Bluegrass varieties and turf-type tall fescue
      • Non-irrigated
        • Buffalograss
        • Blue Grama
    • 36. Water-wise lawn care
      • High water demand
      • Expectations?
      • Low water demand
      • Increased drought tolerance with 3”- 4” mowing height.
      • Spring fertilization decreases drought tolerance.
      • Any grass is intolerant of traffic when under water stress.
    • 37. Water-wise lawn care
      • High water demand
      • Expectations?
      • Low water demand
      During periods of water shortage, reduce expectations.
    • 38. Water-wise gardening is not anti-turf, it is about matching the expectation with the actual use of the site.
      • Grass provides significant environmental and people benefits.
    • 39.
      • Reduces surface runoff
        • An average golf course of 150 acres can absorbs 4 million gallons of water during a 1” rain.
        • Thick turf allows 15 times less runoff than a thin turf.
        • A dense turf can reduce runoff to almost zero.
      Grass protects surface water quality
    • 40.
      • Reduces surface runoff
        • On a slope with good soil tilth, dense sod can absorbs 7.6”/hour compared to 2.4/hour for a thin sod
        • When compared to a non-grass area (like a garden or field) grassy areas reduce soil erosion caused by runoff by 84 to 668 times
      Grass protects surface water quality
    • 41. To protect surface water quality, direct surface runoff onto grass areas allowing for natural filtering in this biologically active turf soil.
    • 42.
      • Traps dust and pollen
      • Reduces noise, summer heat, and glare (improving “people space”)
      • Controls soil erosion by wind
      Grass mitigates pollutions
    • 43.
      • Soil microbial activity breaks down pollutants (such as air contaminants, pesticides and pollen)
      Grass mitigates pollutions
    • 44.
      • It takes 25 square feet of actively growing turf to convert the carbon dioxide, CO 2 , into oxygen, O 2 , needed per person per day.
      Grass converts CO 2 to O 2
    • 45. Actively growing grass turf supports soil microorganism activity, which improves soil structure.
    • 46.
      • Cool, dirt-free play space for children and adults
      Turf is basic to “people space”
    • 47.
      • Element in landscape design
        • Gives unity to the landscape design elements
        • Provides a neutral background setting off flowers and shrubs
      Turf is basic to “people space”
    • 48.
      • Property value and marketability
      • Fire Control
      Other benefits of turf
    • 49. Objective: Match turf with needs of site!
      • Expectations?
    • 50. Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation.
      • Standard for high aesthetic value “people space”
        • Seasonal irrigation required = 34” water
    • 51. Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation.
      • Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered.
    • 52. Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation.
      • Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered.
      • Bluegrass goes dormant under water stress.
      • Makes a great reduced input lawn, allowing it go dormant in hot/dry weather.
    • 53. Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation.
      • Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered.
      • Bluegrass goes dormant under water stress.
      • Makes a great reduced input lawn, allowing it go dormant in hot/dry weather.
      • “ Drought-tolerant varieties use 25% less water .
    • 54. Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation.
      • Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered.
      • Bluegrass goes dormant under water stress.
      • Makes a great reduced input lawn, allowing it go dormant in hot/dry weather.
      • “ Drought-tolerant varieties use 25% less water.
    • 55. Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation.
      • Bottom line
      • It’s not the grass that demands the water, but rather the gardener!
    • 56. Turf-type tall fescue requires irrigation
      • Actual irrigation requirement depends on soil conditions, precipitation, and management style.
      • Actual water use of turf-quality tall fescue is 10% less than turf-quality bluegrass.
      • If conditions allow deeper rooting, it will maintain green color longer between irrigation.
        • Will also require longer irrigation period
      • Tall fescue does not tolerate long-term drought, as it can not go dormant.
    • 57. Turf-type tall fescue requires irrigation
      • Reduced input tall fescue
        • Makes a good reduced input lawn where top quality is not essential for the landscape design.
    • 58. Buffalograss quality is dependant on the amount of rain and irrigation it receives.
      • Turf-quality Buffalograss requires 50% less irrigation per season than bluegrass. This is partly due to being slower to green up in the spring and faster to go dormant in the fall.
      • For turf-quality Buffalograss, the summer (June-August) irrigation requirement is 1”/ week. (By comparison, bluegrass is 1.3”/week.)
      • Dormant brown from early fall to late spring
      • Bunch grass
    • 59. Comparative Annual Water Requirements 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35” Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34”
    • 60. Comparative Annual Water Requirements 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35” Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34” Turf quality Tall Fescue (90% ET) 31”
    • 61. Comparative Annual Water Requirements 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35” Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34” Turf quality Tall Fescue (90% ET) 31” Turf quality Buffalo grass (50% ET) 17”
    • 62. Comparative Annual Water Requirements 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35” Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34” Turf quality Tall Fescue (90% ET) 31” 26” “ Drought tolerant” KBG cultivars (75% ET ) Turf quality Buffalo grass (50% ET) 17”
    • 63. Comparative Annual Water Requirements Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34” Turf quality Tall Fescue (90% ET) 31” 26” “ Drought tolerant” KBG cultivars (75% ET ) Turf quality Buffalo grass (50% ET) 17” 20” Reduced quality KBG and Tall Fescue watered at 60% ET (grass will thin) 31” Moderate quality KBG and Tall Fescue watered at 80% ET Summer dormant (June-August) KBG (40% ET) 14” 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35”
    • 64. Creating practical turf areas and non-turf areas
      • Take home message:
        • Match turf type with use of site.
    • 65. Maintaining with good horticultural practices
      • Healthy plants are more tolerant of insect and disease problems.
      • Healthy plants have fewer insect and disease problems
      • Iron chlorosis, a symptoms of springtime over-watering
    • 66. Summary:
      • 1.
      • 2.
      • 3.
      • 4.
    • 67. 7 Principles of Water-Wise Gardening
      • Planning and design for water conservation, beauty, and utility
      • Improving the soil
      • Creating practical turf and non-turf areas
      • Watering efficiently with appropriate irrigation methods
      • Selecting plants and grouping them according to water need
      • Mulching to reduce evaporation
      • Maintaining with good horticultural practices