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4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
4 Mulches And Practical Turf
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4 Mulches And Practical Turf

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    1.  
    2. Mulching to Reduce Evaporation
    3. Mulching to Reduce Evaporation <ul><li>Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch Soil Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Applied on surface Mixed into soil </li></ul>
    4. Benefits of Mulching
    5. Benefits of Mulching <ul><li>Reduces evaporation by 25-50% </li></ul><ul><li>Organic mulches promotes soil microorganism activity (which improves soil tilth, reducing </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizes soil moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents soil compaction </li></ul><ul><li>Control weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Moderates soil temperature extremes </li></ul><ul><li>Controls erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Gives a finished look </li></ul>
    6. Mulch: edging & grading <ul><li>When mulch is added above grade it readily spreads off the bed onto the lawn or sidewalk creating a mowing or trip hazard. </li></ul>grass or sidewalk level mulch layer soil level
    7. Mulch: edging & grading <ul><li>An effective alternative is to drop the soil level in the mulch bed so the top of the mulch is at grade level. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, ensure that the mulched bed doesn’t fill wilt water draining from higher areas . </li></ul></ul>grass or sidewalk level soil level mulch layer
    8. Mulch: edging & grading <ul><li>An effective alternative is to round down the soil level along the edge of the bed. This gives a nice finished edge at grade level and creates a raised bed effect for the flowerbed. </li></ul>grass or sidewalk level soil level mulch layer soil and mulch taper down to grade
    9. Wood/bark chip mulch
    10. Wood/bark chip mulch <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great for trees, shrubs, perennial flowers, and small fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates favorable environment for earthworms and soil microorganisms. </li></ul></ul>
    11. Wood/bark chip mulch <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On shrub and flowerbeds, cuts irrigation need by as much as 50% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Does not reduce irrigation need over tree rooting area because only a small portion of the rooting area is typically mulched. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. Wood/bark chip mulch <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woody chips placed on the surface does not tie up nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sawdust and very fine chips, when used as a mulch, can tie-up soil nitrogen and can decrease soil oxygen levels. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not plow wood/back chips into the soil. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. Wood/bark chip mulch <ul><li>Product selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary selection based on desired appearance and cost . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood chips decompose faster, enriching the soil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bark chips decompose slower, requiring less frequent replenishment. </li></ul></ul>
    14. Wood/bark chip mulch <ul><li>Cedar mulch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True cedar ( Cedrus spp.) can be phytotoxic to young plants when sawdust is used a mulch or soil amendment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Red cedar” chips made from Juniper (Eastern Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana ) or Arborvitae (Western Red Cedar, Thuja spp.) are NOT phytotoxic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Colorado, most “cedar” mulch (unless bagged and shipped in from other parts of the country) would be Juniper or Arborvitae. </li></ul></ul>
    15. Wood/bark chip mulch application <ul><li>Depth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3” to 4” standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best weed control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates compaction forces of foot traffic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-2” for poorly drained soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On compacted/clayey soils with poor drainage, 3-4” may reduce water evaporation so much that susceptible plants develop root rot on wet years and under frequent irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>4” -- may reduce soil oxygen levels </li></ul></ul>
    16. Wood/bark chip mulch application <ul><li>Around trees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great around trees, protecting from “lawn mower blight” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT make “mulch volcanoes” -- Keep mulch back about 6” from trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Softens trunk bark when wet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases natural trunk taper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On newly planted trees, do NOT put chips directly over the root ball. </li></ul></ul>
    17. Wood/bark chip mulch application <ul><li>Chips blow in windy areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shredded type chips more wind resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally not suited for windy areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chips float </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not suited for area with standing water or heavy surface runoff. </li></ul></ul>
    18. Wood/bark chip mulch application <ul><li>Chips over landscape fabric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard procedure on commercial installations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater soil improvement with out fabric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weed seeds that germinate above the fabric are difficult to pull. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chips over newspapers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Couple of layers of newspaper blocks out light, preventing weed seed germination . </li></ul></ul>
    19. Wood/bark chip mulch application <ul><li>Converting lawn to mulch area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard procedure to spray out grass with Round-up (glyphosate) first. Apply mulch after grass has died. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not put mulch over growing lawn. </li></ul></ul>
    20. Grass clipping mulch
    21. Grass clipping mulch <ul><ul><li>Great choice for vegetable and flower beds that are annually cultivated to prepare a seed bed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adds a small amount of organic matter to soil </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. Grass clipping mulch <ul><ul><li>Apply fresh green clippings only in thin layers, allowing it to dry between applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thick layers will mat and stink. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use clippings from lawns treated with pesticides for at least 4 weeks after application. </li></ul></ul>
    23. Newspaper under mulch
    24. Newspaper under mulch <ul><ul><li>A couple of sheets, blocks out light preventing weed seed germination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use more than a couple of layers, the high carbon content can cause a carbon to nitrogen imbalance, creating a nitrogen deficiency. </li></ul></ul>
    25. Newspaper under mulch <ul><ul><li>Blow away quickly. Apply immediately before adding chips or grass top layer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers are printed on soy-based inks, that are safe. Do not use glossy print materials, as their inks may contain heavy metals. </li></ul></ul>
    26. Rock mulch with landscape fabric
    27. Rock mulch with landscape fabric <ul><li>Great for non-crop areas </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t blow or float away </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t decompose (lower maintenance) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t build soil tilth </li></ul></ul>
    28. Rock mulch with landscape fabric <ul><li>Pea gravel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May increase soil temperature, resulting in increased spring-time plant growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May reduce evaporation from soil surface </li></ul></ul>
    29. Rock mulch with landscape fabric <ul><li>Heat sink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raising temperatures (summer “people space” issue) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing irrigation requirements </li></ul></ul>
    30. Rock mulch with landscape fabric <ul><ul><li>Will interfere with shrub rejuvenation pruning. Basically replace flowering shrubs when they become overgrown and woody. </li></ul></ul>
    31. Rock mulch with landscape fabric <ul><ul><li>Not recommended adjacent to lawn areas (safety issue) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not recommended in children’s play areas (safety issue) </li></ul></ul>
    32. Rock mulch <ul><ul><li>NEVER use rock over black plastic in plant beds (soil water and oxygen issue) </li></ul></ul>
    33. <ul><li>Creating practical turf and non-turf areas </li></ul>
    34. Select turf based on actual use of the site. <ul><li>Higher quality = </li></ul><ul><li>High water demand </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations? </li></ul><ul><li>Lower quality = </li></ul><ul><li>Lower water demand </li></ul>
    35. Water-wise lawn care <ul><li>Higher quality = </li></ul><ul><li>High water demand </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations? </li></ul><ul><li>Lower quality = </li></ul><ul><li>Lower water demand </li></ul><ul><li>Routine irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High performance Bluegrass varieties and turf-type tall fescue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduced irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced inputs Bluegrass varieties and turf-type tall fescue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-irrigated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffalograss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue Grama </li></ul></ul>
    36. Water-wise lawn care <ul><li>High water demand </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations? </li></ul><ul><li>Low water demand </li></ul><ul><li>Increased drought tolerance with 3”- 4” mowing height. </li></ul><ul><li>Spring fertilization decreases drought tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>Any grass is intolerant of traffic when under water stress. </li></ul>
    37. Water-wise lawn care <ul><li>High water demand </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations? </li></ul><ul><li>Low water demand </li></ul>During periods of water shortage, reduce expectations.
    38. Water-wise gardening is not anti-turf, it is about matching the expectation with the actual use of the site. <ul><li>Grass provides significant environmental and people benefits. </li></ul>
    39. <ul><li>Reduces surface runoff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An average golf course of 150 acres can absorbs 4 million gallons of water during a 1” rain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick turf allows 15 times less runoff than a thin turf. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A dense turf can reduce runoff to almost zero. </li></ul></ul>Grass protects surface water quality
    40. <ul><li>Reduces surface runoff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On a slope with good soil tilth, dense sod can absorbs 7.6”/hour compared to 2.4/hour for a thin sod </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When compared to a non-grass area (like a garden or field) grassy areas reduce soil erosion caused by runoff by 84 to 668 times </li></ul></ul>Grass protects surface water quality
    41. To protect surface water quality, direct surface runoff onto grass areas allowing for natural filtering in this biologically active turf soil.
    42. <ul><li>Traps dust and pollen </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces noise, summer heat, and glare (improving “people space”) </li></ul><ul><li>Controls soil erosion by wind </li></ul>Grass mitigates pollutions
    43. <ul><li>Soil microbial activity breaks down pollutants (such as air contaminants, pesticides and pollen) </li></ul>Grass mitigates pollutions
    44. <ul><li>It takes 25 square feet of actively growing turf to convert the carbon dioxide, CO 2 , into oxygen, O 2 , needed per person per day. </li></ul>Grass converts CO 2 to O 2
    45. Actively growing grass turf supports soil microorganism activity, which improves soil structure.
    46. <ul><li>Cool, dirt-free play space for children and adults </li></ul>Turf is basic to “people space”
    47. <ul><li>Element in landscape design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives unity to the landscape design elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a neutral background setting off flowers and shrubs </li></ul></ul>Turf is basic to “people space”
    48. <ul><li>Property value and marketability </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Control </li></ul>Other benefits of turf
    49. Objective: Match turf with needs of site! <ul><li>Expectations? </li></ul>
    50. Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation. <ul><li>Standard for high aesthetic value “people space” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal irrigation required = 34” water </li></ul></ul>
    51. Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation. <ul><li>Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered. </li></ul>
    52. Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation. <ul><li>Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluegrass goes dormant under water stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes a great reduced input lawn, allowing it go dormant in hot/dry weather. </li></ul>
    53. Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation. <ul><li>Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluegrass goes dormant under water stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes a great reduced input lawn, allowing it go dormant in hot/dry weather. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Drought-tolerant varieties use 25% less water . </li></ul>
    54. Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation. <ul><li>Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluegrass goes dormant under water stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes a great reduced input lawn, allowing it go dormant in hot/dry weather. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Drought-tolerant varieties use 25% less water. </li></ul>
    55. Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation. <ul><li>Bottom line </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not the grass that demands the water, but rather the gardener! </li></ul>
    56. Turf-type tall fescue requires irrigation <ul><li>Actual irrigation requirement depends on soil conditions, precipitation, and management style. </li></ul><ul><li>Actual water use of turf-quality tall fescue is 10% less than turf-quality bluegrass. </li></ul><ul><li>If conditions allow deeper rooting, it will maintain green color longer between irrigation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will also require longer irrigation period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tall fescue does not tolerate long-term drought, as it can not go dormant. </li></ul>
    57. Turf-type tall fescue requires irrigation <ul><li>Reduced input tall fescue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes a good reduced input lawn where top quality is not essential for the landscape design. </li></ul></ul>
    58. Buffalograss quality is dependant on the amount of rain and irrigation it receives. <ul><li>Turf-quality Buffalograss requires 50% less irrigation per season than bluegrass. This is partly due to being slower to green up in the spring and faster to go dormant in the fall. </li></ul><ul><li>For turf-quality Buffalograss, the summer (June-August) irrigation requirement is 1”/ week. (By comparison, bluegrass is 1.3”/week.) </li></ul><ul><li>Dormant brown from early fall to late spring </li></ul><ul><li>Bunch grass </li></ul>
    59. Comparative Annual Water Requirements 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35” Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34”
    60. Comparative Annual Water Requirements 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35” Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34” Turf quality Tall Fescue (90% ET) 31”
    61. Comparative Annual Water Requirements 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35” Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34” Turf quality Tall Fescue (90% ET) 31” Turf quality Buffalo grass (50% ET) 17”
    62. Comparative Annual Water Requirements 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35” Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34” Turf quality Tall Fescue (90% ET) 31” 26” “ Drought tolerant” KBG cultivars (75% ET ) Turf quality Buffalo grass (50% ET) 17”
    63. Comparative Annual Water Requirements Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34” Turf quality Tall Fescue (90% ET) 31” 26” “ Drought tolerant” KBG cultivars (75% ET ) Turf quality Buffalo grass (50% ET) 17” 20” Reduced quality KBG and Tall Fescue watered at 60% ET (grass will thin) 31” Moderate quality KBG and Tall Fescue watered at 80% ET Summer dormant (June-August) KBG (40% ET) 14” 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35”
    64. Creating practical turf areas and non-turf areas <ul><li>Take home message: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Match turf type with use of site. </li></ul></ul>
    65. Maintaining with good horticultural practices <ul><li>Healthy plants are more tolerant of insect and disease problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy plants have fewer insect and disease problems </li></ul><ul><li>Iron chlorosis, a symptoms of springtime over-watering </li></ul>
    66. Summary: <ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><li>2. </li></ul><ul><li>3. </li></ul><ul><li>4. </li></ul>
    67. 7 Principles of Water-Wise Gardening <ul><li>Planning and design for water conservation, beauty, and utility </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Creating practical turf and non-turf areas </li></ul><ul><li>Watering efficiently with appropriate irrigation methods </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting plants and grouping them according to water need </li></ul><ul><li>Mulching to reduce evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining with good horticultural practices </li></ul>

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