The soil having PH less than 7 is called acidic soil
Extremely acidic soil has PH between 4-4.75
Causes of Acidic Soil?
There are three basic things (PNK) that cause
acidic soil. The first, and most common, is simply
that the organic matter and minerals that break
down in a soil over time are acidic in nature, and
make the soil acidic. This is common in pine
forests and peat bogs.
Acid rain also becomes a cause of acid soil
Adding pulverized limestone or dolomite limestone
(which has magnesium in addition to the calcium
carbonate that makes up regular lime) is one of the
fastest ways to increase your soil's pH. You'll
generally want to look for something called "garden
lime" or the above-mentioned "dolomite limestone"
for your garden.
The soil with excess salt (NaCl) is called saline
These salts originate from the natural weathering
of minerals or from fossil salt deposits left from
ancient sea beds.
Saline soil problems
It is caused by the accumulation of soluble salts in
the root zone. These excess salts reduce plant
growth by altering water uptake and causing
There are two ways to manage saline soils:
First, salts can be moved below the root zone by
applying more water than the plant needs. This
method is called the leaching
Second, salts can be moved away from the root
zone to locations in the soil, other than below the
root zone, where they are not harmful.
Soils with high levels of exchangeable sodium (Na)
and low levels of total salts are called Sodic soils
Sodic soils may impact plant growth by:
1.) Specific toxicity to sodium sensitive plants
2.) Nutrient deficiencies or imbalances
3.) High pH
There are usually three options for
correcting soil-related problems:
change the plant species to a more
change the variety to a more tolerant
change the soil.
Alkali, or alkaline, soils are clay soils with high pH, a poor
soil structure and a low infiltration capacity. Often they
have a hard calcareous layer at 0.5 to 1 meter depth.
The causes of soil alkalinity are natural or they can be
natural cause is the presence of soil minerals
producing sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium
bicarbonate (NaHCO3) upon weathering
no other source of man made sodium salts addition to
the agriculture fields
Alkaline soils with solid CaCO3 can be
reclaimed with grass cultures, organic
compost, waste hair and feathers, organic
garbage, etc. ensuring the incorporation of
much acidifying material (inorganic or organic
material) into the soil, and enhancing
dissolved Ca in the field water by releasing
CO2 gas. Deep plowing and incorporating the
calcareous subsoil into the top soil also helps
crusted soilsclay soils
They are characterised by low bulk density
of the topsoil resulting in the sinking of
farm animals and labourers as well as
poor anchorage to paddy seedlings.
Such soils can be reclaimed by, passing of
400 kg stone roller.
The size of the particles
are the largest. It is
granular and consists of
rock and mineral
particles that are very
small. The texture is
coarse.. Sandy soil is
composed of 60-70%
sand, 20-25% silt and
Hard pan occurs in red soil areas below 15 cm
depth due to the movement of clay and iron
hydroxides and settling at shallow depth,
preventing the root proliferation.
These soils can be reclaimed by
Chiselling the soils with chisel plough at 0.5 m
interval first in one direction and then in the
direction perpendicular to the previous one, once
in three years.
The soils are weakly aggregated soil structure are easily
broken by the impact of rain drops resulting in the
formation of clay crust at the soil surface.
The clay pan prevent the emerging seedlings and arrest
the free exchange of gasses between the soil and
soft clay soil
soft clay soil Defined as saturated clay soils that
have low values of shear strength and
coefficient of textures also have high values for
compression and secondary compression and
A soil which is possible
to bear high stress value
low settlement. In case
that soil exposed to high
amount of moisture they
quickly collapse and a
high settlement occur.
Swelling soil Is the soil that gives a significant increase
in size when absorbed water as it gives high shrinkage
ratio at the exit of the water. The swelling ratio
depends on increasing dry density and increase the
percentage of clay
Dispersion can occur in any given soil with a high
percentage of exchangeable sodium percentage
(ESP), causing internal erosion and eventually piping
through embankment dams.
Water logging refers to the saturation of soil
with water. Soil may be regarded as water
logged when the water table of the
groundwater is too high to conveniently
permit an anticipated activity, like agriculture.
Causes Of Water Logging
Prevention Of Water Logging
There are many following steps to control
the water logging:
Lowering Full Supply Level
Lining Of Canals and water courses
Provision Of Intercepting Drains
Provision Of Surface Drains