LE CORB sought to embody the materially minimalist lifestyle of the monks through a series of dualities, his own personal dialectic: individual-collective; incremential-continous; secular-religious; light-dark; high-low; lucid-obscure; nature-architecture; irrational-rational. These dualities combined with Le Corbusier's incredible understanding of the monks' daily life generated a series of forms in an almost harsh contrast to one another that expressed his notion of pure and beautiful geometries.
The social pairing of the individual and the collective can be seen in the horizontal band of balconies for the individual monks and the walled block of thesanctuary.
The dualistic spatial pairing of walls and columns is understood where the column system creates horizontal spaces and wall creates vertical spaces.
Finally, the opposition of nature and architecture can be seen in the fact that the monastery appears divorced from the hillside it is located on, Le Corbusier set a horizontal level at the highest point and extended this straight out over the slope of the hill. Another description of the duality between nature and architecture can be seen in the contrast of the forested site and brutality of the reinforced concrete strucure.
The supports. To solve a problem scientifically means in the first place to distinguish between its elements. Hence in the case of a building a distinction can immediately be made between the supporting and the non- supporting elements. The earlier foundations, on which the building rested without a mathematical check, are replaced by individual foundations and the walls by individual supports. Both supports and support foundations are precisely calculated according to the burdens they are called upon to carry. These supports are spaced out at specific, equal intervals, with no thought for the interior arrangement of the building. They rise directly from the floor to 3, 4, 6, etc. metres and elevate the ground floor. The rooms are thereby removed from the dampness of the soil; they have light and air; the building plot is left to the garden, which consequently passes under the house. The same area is also gained on the flat roof. 2. The roof gardens. The flat roof demands in the first place systematic utilization for domestic purposes: roof terrace, roof garden. On the other hand, the reinforced concrete demands protection against changing temperatures. Overactivity on the part of the reinforced concrete is prevented by the maintenance of a constant humidity on the roof concrete. The roof terrace satisfies both demands (a rain dampened layer of sand covered with concrete slabs with lawns in the interstices; the earth of the flowerbeds in direct contact with the layer of sand). In this way the rain water will flow off extremely slowly. Waste pipes in the interior of the building. Thus a latent humidity will remain continually on the roof skin. The roof gardens will display highly luxuriant vegetation. Shrubs and even small trees up to 3 or 4 metres tall can be planted. In this way the roof garden will become the most favoured place in the building. In general, roof gardens mean to a city the recovery of all the built- up area.3. The free designing of the ground- plan. The support system carries the intermediate ceilings and rises up to the roof. The interior walls may be placed wherever required, each floor being entirely independent of the rest. There are no longer any supporting walls but only membranes of any thickness required. The result of this is absolute freedom in designing the ground- plan; that is to say, free utilization of the available means, which makes it easy to offset the rather high cost of reinforced concrete construction.4. The horizontal window. Together with the intermediate ceilings the supports form rectangular openings in the facade through which light and air enter copiously. The window extends from support to support and thus becomes a horizontal window. Stilted vertical windows consequently disappear, as do unpleasant mullions. In this way, rooms are equably lit from wall to wall. Experiments have shown that a room thus lit has an eight times stronger illumination than the same room lit by vertical windows with the same window area. The whole history of architecture revolves exclusively around the wall apertures. Through use of the horizontal window reinforced concrete suddenly provides the possibility of maximum illumination.5. Free design of the facade. By projecting the floor beyond the supporting pillars, like a balcony all round the building, the whole facade is extended beyond the supporting construction. It thereby loses its supportive quality and the windows may be extended to any length at will, without any direct relationship to the interior division. A window may just as well be 10 metres long for a dwelling house as 200 metres for a palatial building (our design for the League of Nations building in Geneva). The facade may thus be designed freely.
Modern works of le corbusier and 5 poits of architecture
MODERN WORKS OF
5 POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE
Figure 1: Le-Corbusier
October 06, 1887
August 27, 1965
École des Arts Décoratifs at La Chauxde-Fonds
PLACE OF BIRTH:
La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland
PLACE OF DEATH:
Cap Martin, France
AKA: Charles Jeanneret-Gris
Born 6 October at 38 rue de la Serre, La
Chaux-de-Fonds, de Charles-Edouard
Jeanneret (Le Corbusier), son of Georges
Edouard Jeanneret, watch engraver and
enameller, and of Marie Charlotte Amelie
Jeanneret-Perret, music teacher
Figure 2: Le-Corbusier (left) with his brother and parents
Primary school in La Chaux-de-Fonds
Studies watch engraving at the Art School, under Charles L’Eplattenier
Enters the Advanced Decorative Arts
Course (based at the Art School)
directed by Charles L’Eplattenier, who
interests Le Corbusier in architecture.
Figure 3: Ornaments-geometrics
Commissioned by Louis Fallet, a
member of the Board of the Art
School, to design a villa, which he
builds in collaboration with the
architect Rene Chapallaz.
Figure 4: Entry de Ville, Nuremberg
Watchcase designed and engraved by
Jeanneret in Milan.
Figure 5: Watch engraving by Jeanneret at the art school
In September, trip to Italy de two and a half month :
In November leaves for Vienna via Budapest.
Stayed in Vienna for 4 months : where he works on the plans for
the Stolzer and Jacquemet villas in La Chaux-de-Fonds.
Figure 6:Works in Vienna
Foundation of the Ateliers d’Art Reunis (United Art Studios).
Participation in a national ski race (Grindelwald).
April : commissioned by the Art School of La Chaux-de-Fonds to
research the decorative arts movement in Germany. " Writes his
etude sur le movement d’art decoratif en Allemagne (Study of the
decorative art movement in Germany) in 1912.
Meets Walter Gropius and Mies Van der Rohe.
In May, he leaves for his journey to the East.
During this trip, he made numerous drawings, sketches and notes in
his sketchbooks, as well as several hundred photographs.
October: returns to La Chaux-de-Fonds, via the Charterhouse of
Ema , in order to set up a new section of the Art School with
Figure 7:Le-Corbusier at Acropole
Figure 8:Sketch of Le Parthenon, Athens
La Chaux-de-Fonds : Builds the villa Jeanneret-Perret in the rue de la
Montage (for his parents) and the Villa Favre-Jacot in the nearby town
of Le Locle.
Figure 9:Family of Jeannaret under ppergola in Circa
Exhibition of 10 watercolors "Le langage des Pierres" (the language of
stones), at the Salon d’Automne, Paris.
Figure 10:Acropole D Athens
Occasional trips to Paris to study in the Bibliotheque National Print
Works on his manuscript "La construction des villes".
Figure 11:Construction drawings of Cathedral De Rouen
Launches " L’Esprit Nouveau magazine " with Amedee Ozenfant and
Figure 12:Manager’s card for L’Esprit Nouveau magazine
Exhibits the plan of a contemporary city for three million people at
the Salon d’Automne.
Works on a number of unexecuted architectural projects: maison
Builds the Villa Besnus (in the Vaucresson suburb of Paris) and the
Ozenfant Studio in Paris.
Publishes Vers une Architecture (based on articles published in L’Esprit
Nouveau), published in English in 1927 as Towards a New Architecture.
FIGURE 13: TOWARDS A NEW ARCHITECTURE BY LE CORBUSIER
Establishes his architectural office at 35 rue de Sevres (6th
Publishes L’Urbanisme (based on articles in L’Esprit Nouveau).
Figure 14:Collaborators in studio
Death of Georges Edouard Jeanneret, father of Le Corbusier, on
Publishes Architecture d’epoque machinist (Architecture of the
Figure 15:Potrait of his father
Founder member of CIAM (Congress Internationaux d’architecture
moderne) at the castle of La Sarraz, in Switzerland.
Publishes Une Maison - un Pala is (A house - a palace).
Figure 16:Le-Corbusier with other participants at CIAM
Builds the apartment block at 24 rue Nungesser-et-Coli, Boulogne-surSeine, including a penthouse apartment and studio for himself.
Takes part in the planning competition for the Exposition international
des arts et techniques.
Publishes Aircraft and La Ville Radiuses (The Radiant City).
First trip to the USA, where he lectures in
Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Madison and Hartford.
Works on the plan of Paris and his Cartesian skyscraper.
Builds the Pavilion des Temps Nouveaux at the International
Exhibition in Paris
Starts working on the Chapel at Ron champ.
Consultant to the administration of Punjab for the planning of the
new capital city of Chandigarh, with Pierre Jeanneret, Maxwell Fry
and Jane Drew.
Figure 17:Le-Corbusier in Chandigarh
18 February, first trip to India : visits Chandigarh and Ahmadabad.
Plans for the U.N.E.S.C.O. Headquarters in Paris are rejected.
Presentation of the "Open Hand" monument in Chandigarh.
Figure 18:Le-Corbusier and his team in Chandigarh
Figure 19:The Open-Hand
Trip to Chandigarh for the inauguration of the High Court building by
Figure 20:Le-Corbusier and Jwaharlal Nehru in Chandigarh
Figure 21:Le-Corbusier in front of High Court in Chandigarh
• Revises the study of the Monument of the Open Hand for
• Construction of the stadium in Firminy.
• On 27 August, Le Corbusier dies while swimming at Cap-Martin.
• On 1 September, Official Funeral in the Cour Carree at the Louvre.
Burial in the cemetery at Cap-Martin.
Figure 22:Le-Corbusier ‘s funeral
SAINTE MARIE DE LA TOURETTE (1956-1960)
FIGURE 29: SAINTE MARIE DE LA TOURETTE
Architectural styleModernist, International
Town or cityÉveux, Rhône-Alpes
• Sainte Marie de La Tourette is a Dominican Order priory in a valley near
Lyon, France designed by the architect Le Corbusier and constructed
between 1956 and 1960.
La Tourette is considered one of the more important buildings of the late
• It was under the instigation of Reverend Father Couturier that the
Dominicans of Lyon charged Le Corbusier with the task of bringing into
being at Éveux, near Lyon, the Convent of La Tourette, in the midst of
nature, located in a small vale that opens out onto the forest.
• unique example in which to explore a case study of architectural form as
understood by Le Corbusier’s beliefs, attitudes, and personal morphologies
toward his profession.
SAINT MARIA LA TOURETTE IS A STUDY OF DUALISTIC
FIGURE 30: DUALISTIC RELATIONSHIPS
FIGURE 31: COLLECTIVE AND INDIVIDUAL
1. SOCIAL PAIRING OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND
FIGURE 32: WALLS AND COLUMNS
2. SPATIAL PAIRING OF WALLS AND
FIGURE 33: NATURE AND ARCHITECTURE
3. OPPOSITION OF NATURE AND
FIGURE 34: ENTRANCE FLOOR PLAN
FIGURE 35: REFECTORY FLOOR PLAN
FIGURE 36: CELL FLOOR PLAN
FIGURE 37: SECTION DRAWING AND EXTERIOR VIEW
AS A WHOLE, THE MONASTERY IS GOVERNED THROUGH THE
FORMAL AND CULTURAL LOGICS OF A PROGRAM.
THESE PLANS ILLUSTRATE A FORMAL
GOVERNANCE. EACH PROGRAMATIC
TYPOLOGY, IS DELINEATED THROUGH
THE MESSAGE OF THESE SPACES SUGGEST
SINGULAR FUNCTIONALITY, THIS IS
PLAUSIBLE BEING THAT THE MONKS OF LA
TOURETTE LED A VERY STRUCTURED AND
FIGURE 38: FORMAL PROGRAM
THESE PLANS ILLUSTRATE A
CULTURAL LOGIC OF LA
BECAUSE THE MONKS LIVED MOSTLY IN
SOLITUDE, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE EXIST
AS A CULTURAL BOUNDARY BETWEEN
THE INSIDERS AND THE OUTSIDERS.
FIGURE 39: FORMAL PROGRAM
• The structural frame is of rough reinforced concrete.
• The panes of glass located on the three exterior faces achieve, for the
first time, the system called "the undulatory glass surface".
• In the garden-court of the cloister, the fenestration is composed of large
concrete elements reaching from floor to ceiling, perforated with glazed
voids and separated from one another by "ventilators": vertical slits
covered by metal mosquito netting and furnished with a pivoting
• The corridors leading to the dwelling cells are lit by a horizontal
opening located under the ceiling.
• Built as a Chapel, residence and place of learning for Dominican
friars, the monastery groups around a central courtyard a U-shaped
mass, and the court is closed off by the chapel at the end.
• Though still functioning for a greatly-reduced population of monks, La
Tourette has become something of a pilgrimage site for students of
architecture. Overnight stays can be arranged in the unused cells.
Saint-Pierre, Firminy (1965 – 2006)
FIGURE 40: SAINT – PIERRE
LocationFirminy, Loire, Fran
none, designed as
• Designed to be a church in the model city of Firminy Vert, the
construction of Saint-Pierre was begun in 1971, six years after Le
Corbusier's death in 1965.
• Due to local political conflicts it remained stalled from 1975 to
2003, when the local government declared the mouldering concrete
ruin an "architectural heritage" and financed its completion.
• The building was completed by the French architect, José
Oubrerie, Le Corbusier's student for many years.
• It has been used for many different purposes, as a secondary school
and as a shelter.
• As the laicist French state may not use public funds for religious
buildings, Saint-Pierre is now used as a cultural venue.
• The building is in the shape of a pyramid with a square base of 25
meters side playing in a truncated cone which rises to 33 meters in
• On the ground floor, the church has four exhibition halls and a
• The structure on the top floor has a square base and an internal spiral
leads to a sphere. It contains a pulpit and an altar and can
accommodate Christian religious celebrations.
• In the nave main, the play of light and contrast reveals the extent of
the elevation of the building.
• Light enters the church through openings in the dome that draw the
constellation Orion (Le Corbusier had not defined what constellation
would appear on the wall).
• However, the shape and the material used (raw concrete) give this
monument poor acoustics.
Le Corbusier manages a kind of architectural alchemy: creating the
effect of stained glass windows with only paint and concrete.
FIGURE 41: SAINTE PIERRE
Each side of the structure glows with a different color, which can be seen
streaming through the windows and gleaming on the polished concrete
floors. Behind the altar is a different effect entirely: round holes the size of
drinking glasses punched into the wall like tiny stars.
FIGURE 43: STRUCTURE GLOWS WITH DIFFERENT COLOURS
FIGURE 42: ROUND HOLES ON THE WALL
the ceiling glows with "light cones," apertures in the concrete also
painted with different colors. These seemingly random geometric
skylights are actually placed purposely to illuminate the altar on specific
FIGURE 44: LIGHT CONES IN THE CEILING
FIGURE 45: CONTELLATION ON THE WALL
As the sun moves throughout the day, the "stained glass" reflections shift
along the floor, as do the waves of light that travel along the interior walls.
FIGURE 46: REFLECTION ON THE FLOOR DUE TO STAINED GLASS
5 POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE
The following points in no way relate to aesthetic fantasies or a striving
for fashionable effects, but concern architectural facts that imply an
entirely new kind of building, from the dwelling house to palatial edifices.
THE ROOF GARDENS
THE FREE DESIGNING OF THE GROUND PLAN
THE HORIZONTAL WINDOW
FREE DESIGN OF THE FAÇADE
The five essential points set out above represent a fundamentally new
aesthetic. Nothing is left to us of the architecture of past epochs, just as
we can no longer derive any benefit from the literary and historical
teaching given in schools.
VILLA SAVOYE (1928-1931)
Figure 23: Villa Savoye
ARCHITECTURAL STYLEModernist, International
ADDRESS82, Rue de Villiers 78300 Poissy
It was designed by Le Corbusier as a paradigm of the "machine as a
home", so that the functions of everyday life inside become critical to its
design. The movement of cars to enter the interior of the house is the
trigger for the design of the building.
It also includes the fact that housing is designed as an object that allegedly
landed on the landscape, is totally autonomous and it can be placed
anywhere in the world. Architecture followed the style of airplanes, cars and
ships, with the declared aim of achieving mass production of housing.
Pillars supporting the ground floor also advanced this idea, and the
independence of the Villa from its garden, and was recognized as one of
the key points of the first generation of International Architecture.
GROUND FLOOR COMPRISES
2. OFFICES FOR THE SERVICE
3. GARAGE (SPACE FOR 3
The ground floor is largely determined by the
movement of a car entering the building. This
movement also determines the
structure, based on an orthogonal grid of
concrete pillars separated 4.75 meters from
each other. This forms a square grid of 23.5
meters on the side, on top of which sits the
Figure 24: Villa Savoye Ground Floor Plan
FIRST FLOOR COMPRISES OF:
Figure 25: Villa Savoye First Floor Plan
5 POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE:
Figure 26: Villa Savoye
1. Support of ground-level pilotis, elevating the building from the
earth and allowed an extended continuity of the garden
2. Functional roof, serving as a garden and terrace, reclaiming for
nature the land occupied by the building.
3. Free floor plan, relieved of load-bearing walls, allowing walls to
be placed freely and only where aesthetically needed.
4. Long horizontal windows, providing illumination and ventilation.
5. Freely-designed facades, serving only as a skin of the wall and
windows and unconstrained by load-bearing considerations.
1. All four sides of the building was designed in response to the view and the
orientation of the sun.
2. The plan was set out using the principle ratios of the Golden section: in this
case a square divided into sixteen equal parts, extended on two sides to
incorporate the projecting façades and then further divided to give the
position of the ramp and the entrance.
3. The four columns in the entrance hall seemingly direct the visitor up the
4. The ramp, that can be seen from almost everywhere in the house continues
up to the first floor living area and salon before continuing externally from
the first floor roof terrace up to the second floor solarium.
CARPENTERS CENTER FOR THE VISUAL
ARCHITECTURAL STYLEModernist, International
Figure 27: Carpenter Center For Visual Arts
1. It was designed to be home to Harvard’s visual arts, the
Carpenter Center houses large open studio spaces for
students to work and showcase their art.
2. In addition to being a place for art, it holds the largest
collection of 35mm films in the New England region often
holding screenings of independent, international, and silent
3. It was meant to be the synthesis of the arts where architecture
would join with painting, sculpture, photography and film.
4. It takes on a less than traditional approach to the design and
organization of the interior spaces.
5. Rather the Carpenter Center is a mix of Corbusier’s earlier
works with the typical beton-brut concrete, angled brise soleils
that were used in Chandigarh, and ondulatoires [narrow
6. From first glance, it appears to be an inverted version of Villa
Savoye embodying the Five Points of Architecture on the
exterior of the building rather than within like Villa Savoye.
5 POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE:
Figure 28: Carpenter Center For Visual Arts
1. Pilotis – The replacement of supporting walls by a grid of reinforced
concrete columns that bears the load of the structure is the basis of the new
2. Roof gardens – The flat roof can be utilized for any purpose while also
providing essential protection to the concrete roof.
3. The free designing of the ground plan – The absence of supporting walls
means that the house is unrestrained in its internal usage.
4. The free design of façade – By separating the exterior of the building from
its structural function the façade becomes free.
5. The horizontal window – The façade can be cut along its entire length to
allow rooms to be lit equally.
1. The five levels of the building function as open and flexible working spaces for
painting, drawing, and sculpture.
2. The ramp through the heart of the building encourages public circulation and
provides views into the studios, making the creative process visible through the
3. The Sert Gallery, at the top of the ramp, features the work of contemporary artists.
4. The main gallery at street level hosts a variety of exhibitions supporting the
curriculum of the Department.
5. It is also home to the Harvard Film Archive, which brings to the public a unique
program of classic, rare and experimental films.
6. It also has an architectural promenade that runs through the center of the building
that connects the interior studios, galleries, and screening rooms to the public spaces
within the building, as well as to the campus.