Modern works of le corbusier and 5 poits of architecture

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CONTAINS TIMELINE OF LE CORBUSIER'S CAREER AS AN ARCHITECT AND A FEW OF HIS WORKS. ALSO CONTAINS HIS THEORY OF 5 POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE WITH 2 EXAMPLES OF THE SAME.

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  • LE CORB sought to embody the materially minimalist lifestyle of the monks through a series of dualities, his own personal dialectic: individual-collective; incremential-continous; secular-religious; light-dark; high-low; lucid-obscure; nature-architecture; irrational-rational. These dualities combined with Le Corbusier's incredible understanding of the monks' daily life generated a series of forms in an almost harsh contrast to one another that expressed his notion of pure and beautiful geometries.
  • The social pairing of the individual and the collective can be seen in the horizontal band of balconies for the individual monks and the walled block of thesanctuary.
  • The dualistic spatial pairing of walls and columns is understood where the column system creates horizontal spaces and wall creates vertical spaces.
  • Finally, the opposition of nature and architecture can be seen in the fact that the monastery appears divorced from the hillside it is located on, Le Corbusier set a horizontal level at the highest point and extended this straight out over the slope of the hill. Another description of the duality between nature and architecture can be seen in the contrast of the forested site and brutality of the reinforced concrete strucure.
  • The supports. To solve a problem scientifically means in the first place to distinguish between its elements. Hence in the case of a building a distinction can immediately be made between the supporting and the non- supporting elements. The earlier foundations, on which the building rested without a mathematical check, are replaced by individual foundations and the walls by individual supports. Both supports and support foundations are precisely calculated according to the burdens they are called upon to carry. These supports are spaced out at specific, equal intervals, with no thought for the interior arrangement of the building. They rise directly from the floor to 3, 4, 6, etc. metres and elevate the ground floor. The rooms are thereby removed from the dampness of the soil; they have light and air; the building plot is left to the garden, which consequently passes under the house. The same area is also gained on the flat roof. 2. The roof gardens. The flat roof demands in the first place systematic utilization for domestic purposes: roof terrace, roof garden. On the other hand, the reinforced concrete demands protection against changing temperatures. Overactivity on the part of the reinforced concrete is prevented by the maintenance of a constant humidity on the roof concrete. The roof terrace satisfies both demands (a rain dampened layer of sand covered with concrete slabs with lawns in the interstices; the earth of the flowerbeds in direct contact with the layer of sand). In this way the rain water will flow off extremely slowly. Waste pipes in the interior of the building. Thus a latent humidity will remain continually on the roof skin. The roof gardens will display highly luxuriant vegetation. Shrubs and even small trees up to 3 or 4 metres tall can be planted. In this way the roof garden will become the most favoured place in the building. In general, roof gardens mean to a city the recovery of all the built- up area.3. The free designing of the ground- plan. The support system carries the intermediate ceilings and rises up to the roof. The interior walls may be placed wherever required, each floor being entirely independent of the rest. There are no longer any supporting walls but only membranes of any thickness required. The result of this is absolute freedom in designing the ground- plan; that is to say, free utilization of the available means, which makes it easy to offset the rather high cost of reinforced concrete construction.4. The horizontal window. Together with the intermediate ceilings the supports form rectangular openings in the facade through which light and air enter copiously. The window extends from support to support and thus becomes a horizontal window. Stilted vertical windows consequently disappear, as do unpleasant mullions. In this way, rooms are equably lit from wall to wall. Experiments have shown that a room thus lit has an eight times stronger illumination than the same room lit by vertical windows with the same window area. The whole history of architecture revolves exclusively around the wall apertures. Through use of the horizontal window reinforced concrete suddenly provides the possibility of maximum illumination.5. Free design of the facade. By projecting the floor beyond the supporting pillars, like a balcony all round the building, the whole facade is extended beyond the supporting construction. It thereby loses its supportive quality and the windows may be extended to any length at will, without any direct relationship to the interior division. A window may just as well be 10 metres long for a dwelling house as 200 metres for a palatial building (our design for the League of Nations building in Geneva). The facade may thus be designed freely.
  • Modern works of le corbusier and 5 poits of architecture

    1. 1. MODERN WORKS OF Le CORBUSIER & 5 POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE PRESENTED BY MANIK BANSAL-33 SHEIFALI AGGARWAL-34
    2. 2. Figure 1: Le-Corbusier Reference: http://www.biography.com/people/le-corbusier-9376609 NAME: Le Corbusier OCCUPATION: Architect, Artist BIRTH DATE: October 06, 1887 DEATH DATE: August 27, 1965 EDUCATION: École des Arts Décoratifs at La Chauxde-Fonds PLACE OF BIRTH: La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland PLACE OF DEATH: Cap Martin, France FULL NAME: Le Corbusier AKA: Charles Jeanneret-Gris ORIGINALLY: Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris
    3. 3. TIMELINE (1887-1965) 1887 Born 6 October at 38 rue de la Serre, La Chaux-de-Fonds, de Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier), son of Georges Edouard Jeanneret, watch engraver and enameller, and of Marie Charlotte Amelie Jeanneret-Perret, music teacher Figure 2: Le-Corbusier (left) with his brother and parents Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/m orpheus.aspx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=6641&sysLanguage =en-en&itemPos=8&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    4. 4. 1891 Primary school in La Chaux-de-Fonds 1900 Studies watch engraving at the Art School, under Charles L’Eplattenier .
    5. 5. 1904 Enters the Advanced Decorative Arts Course (based at the Art School) directed by Charles L’Eplattenier, who interests Le Corbusier in architecture. Figure 3: Ornaments-geometrics Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/m orpheus.aspx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=6639&sysLanguage =en-en&itemPos=6&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    6. 6. 1905 Commissioned by Louis Fallet, a member of the Board of the Art School, to design a villa, which he builds in collaboration with the architect Rene Chapallaz. Figure 4: Entry de Ville, Nuremberg Reference:www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.as px?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=6646&sysLanguage=enen&itemPos=13&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    7. 7. 1906 Watchcase designed and engraved by Jeanneret in Milan. Figure 5: Watch engraving by Jeanneret at the art school Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.asp x?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=6654&sysLanguage=enen&itemPos=21&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    8. 8. 1907 • In September, trip to Italy de two and a half month : Milan, Florence0. • In November leaves for Vienna via Budapest. • Stayed in Vienna for 4 months : where he works on the plans for the Stolzer and Jacquemet villas in La Chaux-de-Fonds.
    9. 9. Figure 6:Works in Vienna Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=6658&sysLanguage=enen&itemPos=25&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    10. 10. 1910 • Foundation of the Ateliers d’Art Reunis (United Art Studios). • Participation in a national ski race (Grindelwald). • April : commissioned by the Art School of La Chaux-de-Fonds to research the decorative arts movement in Germany. " Writes his etude sur le movement d’art decoratif en Allemagne (Study of the decorative art movement in Germany) in 1912. • Meets Walter Gropius and Mies Van der Rohe.
    11. 11. 1911 • In May, he leaves for his journey to the East. During this trip, he made numerous drawings, sketches and notes in his sketchbooks, as well as several hundred photographs. • October: returns to La Chaux-de-Fonds, via the Charterhouse of Ema , in order to set up a new section of the Art School with L’Eplattenier Figure 7:Le-Corbusier at Acropole Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.as px?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=6668&sysLanguage=enen&itemPos=35&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15 Figure 8:Sketch of Le Parthenon, Athens Reference:www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysI d=13&IrisObjectId=6672&sysLanguage=enen&itemPos=39&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    12. 12. 1912 La Chaux-de-Fonds : Builds the villa Jeanneret-Perret in the rue de la Montage (for his parents) and the Villa Favre-Jacot in the nearby town of Le Locle. Figure 9:Family of Jeannaret under ppergola in Circa Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId =13&IrisObjectId=6675&sysLanguage=enen&itemPos=42&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    13. 13. 1913 Exhibition of 10 watercolors "Le langage des Pierres" (the language of stones), at the Salon d’Automne, Paris. Figure 10:Acropole D Athens Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=668 9&sysLanguage=en-en&itemPos=56&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    14. 14. 1915 Occasional trips to Paris to study in the Bibliotheque National Print Room. Works on his manuscript "La construction des villes". Figure 11:Construction drawings of Cathedral De Rouen Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=13&IrisO bjectId=6719&sysLanguage=en-en&itemPos=83&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    15. 15. 1919 Launches " L’Esprit Nouveau magazine " with Amedee Ozenfant and Paul Dermee. Figure 12:Manager’s card for L’Esprit Nouveau magazine Reference:www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=6725&sysL anguage=en-en&itemPos=89&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    16. 16. 1922 • Exhibits the plan of a contemporary city for three million people at the Salon d’Automne. • Works on a number of unexecuted architectural projects: maison Citrohan, Immeubles-villas. • Builds the Villa Besnus (in the Vaucresson suburb of Paris) and the Ozenfant Studio in Paris.
    17. 17. 1923 Publishes Vers une Architecture (based on articles published in L’Esprit Nouveau), published in English in 1927 as Towards a New Architecture. FIGURE 13: TOWARDS A NEW ARCHITECTURE BY LE CORBUSIER Source: http://ebooksmio.com/uploads/posts/2012-03-19/towards-a-new-architecture_1.jpg
    18. 18. 1924 • Establishes his architectural office at 35 rue de Sevres (6th arrondissement). • Publishes L’Urbanisme (based on articles in L’Esprit Nouveau). Figure 14:Collaborators in studio Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=13&Iri sObjectId=6731&sysLanguage=en-en&itemPos=95&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    19. 19. 1926 • • Death of Georges Edouard Jeanneret, father of Le Corbusier, on 11th April. Publishes Architecture d’epoque machinist (Architecture of the machine age) Figure 15:Potrait of his father Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=1 3&IrisObjectId=6835&sysLanguage=en-
    20. 20. 1928 • • Founder member of CIAM (Congress Internationaux d’architecture moderne) at the castle of La Sarraz, in Switzerland. Publishes Une Maison - un Pala is (A house - a palace). Figure 16:Le-Corbusier with other participants at CIAM Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=13&Iri sObjectId=6860&sysLanguage=enen&itemPos=218&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    21. 21. 1931 Builds the apartment block at 24 rue Nungesser-et-Coli, Boulogne-surSeine, including a penthouse apartment and studio for himself. 1932 Takes part in the planning competition for the Exposition international des arts et techniques.
    22. 22. 1935 • • Publishes Aircraft and La Ville Radiuses (The Radiant City). First trip to the USA, where he lectures in Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Madison and Hartford. 1937 • • Works on the plan of Paris and his Cartesian skyscraper. Builds the Pavilion des Temps Nouveaux at the International Exhibition in Paris
    23. 23. 1950 • • Starts working on the Chapel at Ron champ. Consultant to the administration of Punjab for the planning of the new capital city of Chandigarh, with Pierre Jeanneret, Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew. Figure 17:Le-Corbusier in Chandigarh Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId= 13&IrisObjectId=6854&sysLanguage=enen&itemPos=212&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    24. 24. 1951 • • • 18 February, first trip to India : visits Chandigarh and Ahmadabad. Plans for the U.N.E.S.C.O. Headquarters in Paris are rejected. Presentation of the "Open Hand" monument in Chandigarh. Figure 18:Le-Corbusier and his team in Chandigarh Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus. aspx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=6942&sysLanguage=enen&itemPos=294&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15 Figure 19:The Open-Hand Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus. aspx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=6893&sysLanguage=enen&itemPos=248&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    25. 25. 1955 Trip to Chandigarh for the inauguration of the High Court building by Jawaharlal Nehru. Figure 20:Le-Corbusier and Jwaharlal Nehru in Chandigarh Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.a spx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=6891&sysLanguage=enen&itemPos=247&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15 Figure 21:Le-Corbusier in front of High Court in Chandigarh Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sy sId=13&IrisObjectId=6893&sysLanguage=enen&itemPos=248&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    26. 26. 1965 • Revises the study of the Monument of the Open Hand for Chandigarh. • Construction of the stadium in Firminy. • On 27 August, Le Corbusier dies while swimming at Cap-Martin. • On 1 September, Official Funeral in the Cour Carree at the Louvre. Burial in the cemetery at Cap-Martin. Figure 22:Le-Corbusier ‘s funeral Reference:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=68 35&sysLanguage=en-en&itemPos=193&itemCount=300&sysParentId=15
    27. 27. SAINTE MARIE DE LA TOURETTE (1956-1960) FIGURE 29: SAINTE MARIE DE LA TOURETTE Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sainte_Marie_de_La_Tourette_2007.jpg TypeConvent Architectural styleModernist, International Town or cityÉveux, Rhône-Alpes CountryFrance Construction started1956 Completed1960 Renovated1981 ArchitectLe Corbusier
    28. 28. ABOUT: • Sainte Marie de La Tourette is a Dominican Order priory in a valley near Lyon, France designed by the architect Le Corbusier and constructed between 1956 and 1960. La Tourette is considered one of the more important buildings of the late Modernist style. • It was under the instigation of Reverend Father Couturier that the Dominicans of Lyon charged Le Corbusier with the task of bringing into being at Éveux, near Lyon, the Convent of La Tourette, in the midst of nature, located in a small vale that opens out onto the forest. • unique example in which to explore a case study of architectural form as understood by Le Corbusier’s beliefs, attitudes, and personal morphologies toward his profession.
    29. 29. SAINT MARIA LA TOURETTE IS A STUDY OF DUALISTIC RELATIONSHIPS INDIVIDUAL COLLECTIVE LIGHT DARK NATURE ARCH INCREMENTIAL CONTINOUS HIGH LOW IRRATIONAL RATIONAL SECULAR RELIGIOUS LUCID OBSCURE INDIVIDUAL COLLECTIVE FIGURE 30: DUALISTIC RELATIONSHIPS SOURCE: http://davidjenista.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/case-study-full.pdf
    30. 30. FIGURE 31: COLLECTIVE AND INDIVIDUAL SOURCE: http://williamlang.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/formal-stategies-form-analysis.pdf 1. SOCIAL PAIRING OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE COLLECTIVE
    31. 31. FIGURE 32: WALLS AND COLUMNS SOURCE: http://williamlang.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/formal-stategies-form-analysis.pdf 2. SPATIAL PAIRING OF WALLS AND COLUMNS
    32. 32. FIGURE 33: NATURE AND ARCHITECTURE SOURCE: http://williamlang.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/formal-stategies-form-analysis.pdf 3. OPPOSITION OF NATURE AND ARCHITECTURE
    33. 33. FIGURE 34: ENTRANCE FLOOR PLAN SOURCE: http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbc-drawing.cgi/Convent_of_La_Tourette.html/La_Tourette_Plan_1.jpg
    34. 34. FIGURE 35: REFECTORY FLOOR PLAN SOURCE: http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbc-drawing.cgi/Convent_of_La_Tourette.html/La_Tourette_Plan_1.jpg
    35. 35. FIGURE 36: CELL FLOOR PLAN SOURCE: http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbc-drawing.cgi/Convent_of_La_Tourette.html/La_Tourette_Plan_1.jpg
    36. 36. FIGURE 37: SECTION DRAWING AND EXTERIOR VIEW SOURCE: http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbc-drawing.cgi/Convent_of_La_Tourette.html/La_Tourette_Plan_1.jpg
    37. 37. AS A WHOLE, THE MONASTERY IS GOVERNED THROUGH THE FORMAL AND CULTURAL LOGICS OF A PROGRAM. THESE PLANS ILLUSTRATE A FORMAL GOVERNANCE. EACH PROGRAMATIC TYPOLOGY, IS DELINEATED THROUGH COLOUR. PRAYER DINING EDUCATION LIVING VISITOR HOLDING THE MESSAGE OF THESE SPACES SUGGEST SINGULAR FUNCTIONALITY, THIS IS PLAUSIBLE BEING THAT THE MONKS OF LA TOURETTE LED A VERY STRUCTURED AND STRICT LIFESTYLE. FIGURE 38: FORMAL PROGRAM SOURCE: http://davidjenista.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/case-study-full.pdf
    38. 38. THESE PLANS ILLUSTRATE A CULTURAL LOGIC OF LA TOURETTE. PUBLIC SPACE PRIVATE SPACE BECAUSE THE MONKS LIVED MOSTLY IN SOLITUDE, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE EXIST AS A CULTURAL BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE INSIDERS AND THE OUTSIDERS. FIGURE 39: FORMAL PROGRAM SOURCE: http://davidjenista.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/case-study-full.pdf
    39. 39. FACTS: • The structural frame is of rough reinforced concrete. • The panes of glass located on the three exterior faces achieve, for the first time, the system called "the undulatory glass surface". • In the garden-court of the cloister, the fenestration is composed of large concrete elements reaching from floor to ceiling, perforated with glazed voids and separated from one another by "ventilators": vertical slits covered by metal mosquito netting and furnished with a pivoting shutter. • The corridors leading to the dwelling cells are lit by a horizontal opening located under the ceiling. • Built as a Chapel, residence and place of learning for Dominican friars, the monastery groups around a central courtyard a U-shaped mass, and the court is closed off by the chapel at the end. • Though still functioning for a greatly-reduced population of monks, La Tourette has become something of a pilgrimage site for students of architecture. Overnight stays can be arranged in the unused cells.
    40. 40. Saint-Pierre, Firminy (1965 – 2006) FIGURE 40: SAINT – PIERRE REFERENCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EgliseSaintPierreLeCorbusierFirminy.jpg LocationFirminy, Loire, Fran ce AffiliationCurrently none, designed as Roman Catholic church Architect(s)Le Corbusier Architectural typeChurch Completed2006 MaterialsConcrete
    41. 41. ABOUT: • Designed to be a church in the model city of Firminy Vert, the construction of Saint-Pierre was begun in 1971, six years after Le Corbusier's death in 1965. • Due to local political conflicts it remained stalled from 1975 to 2003, when the local government declared the mouldering concrete ruin an "architectural heritage" and financed its completion. • The building was completed by the French architect, José Oubrerie, Le Corbusier's student for many years. • It has been used for many different purposes, as a secondary school and as a shelter. • As the laicist French state may not use public funds for religious buildings, Saint-Pierre is now used as a cultural venue.
    42. 42. FEATURES: • The building is in the shape of a pyramid with a square base of 25 meters side playing in a truncated cone which rises to 33 meters in height. • On the ground floor, the church has four exhibition halls and a conference room. • The structure on the top floor has a square base and an internal spiral leads to a sphere. It contains a pulpit and an altar and can accommodate Christian religious celebrations. • In the nave main, the play of light and contrast reveals the extent of the elevation of the building. • Light enters the church through openings in the dome that draw the constellation Orion (Le Corbusier had not defined what constellation would appear on the wall). • However, the shape and the material used (raw concrete) give this monument poor acoustics.
    43. 43. Le Corbusier manages a kind of architectural alchemy: creating the effect of stained glass windows with only paint and concrete. FIGURE 41: SAINTE PIERRE REFERNCE: http://gizmodo.com/a-rare-tour-of-le-corbusiers-last-and-most-brilliant-1349702440
    44. 44. Each side of the structure glows with a different color, which can be seen streaming through the windows and gleaming on the polished concrete floors. Behind the altar is a different effect entirely: round holes the size of drinking glasses punched into the wall like tiny stars. FIGURE 43: STRUCTURE GLOWS WITH DIFFERENT COLOURS REFERNCE: http://gizmodo.com/a-rare-tour-of-le-corbusiers-last-andmost-brilliant-1349702440 FIGURE 42: ROUND HOLES ON THE WALL REFERNCE: http://gizmodo.com/a-rare-tour-of-lecorbusiers-last-and-most-brilliant-1349702440
    45. 45. the ceiling glows with "light cones," apertures in the concrete also painted with different colors. These seemingly random geometric skylights are actually placed purposely to illuminate the altar on specific holy days. FIGURE 44: LIGHT CONES IN THE CEILING SOURCE: http://gizmodo.com/a-rare-tour-of-le-corbusiers-lastand-most-brilliant-1349702440 FIGURE 45: CONTELLATION ON THE WALL SOURCE: http://gizmodo.com/a-rare-tour-of-le-corbusiers-lastand-most-brilliant-1349702440
    46. 46. As the sun moves throughout the day, the "stained glass" reflections shift along the floor, as do the waves of light that travel along the interior walls. FIGURE 46: REFLECTION ON THE FLOOR DUE TO STAINED GLASS SOURCE: http://gizmodo.com/a-rare-tour-of-le-corbusiers-last-and-most-brilliant-1349702440
    47. 47. 5 POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE The following points in no way relate to aesthetic fantasies or a striving for fashionable effects, but concern architectural facts that imply an entirely new kind of building, from the dwelling house to palatial edifices. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. THE SUPPORTS THE ROOF GARDENS THE FREE DESIGNING OF THE GROUND PLAN THE HORIZONTAL WINDOW FREE DESIGN OF THE FAÇADE The five essential points set out above represent a fundamentally new aesthetic. Nothing is left to us of the architecture of past epochs, just as we can no longer derive any benefit from the literary and historical teaching given in schools.
    48. 48. VILLA SAVOYE (1928-1931) Figure 23: Villa Savoye Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VillaSavoye.jpg TYPEVILLA ARCHITECTURAL STYLEModernist, International ADDRESS82, Rue de Villiers 78300 Poissy TOWN/CITYPoissy, Yvelines COUNTRYFrance CONSTRUCTION STARTED1928 COMPLETED1931 RENOVATED1963, 1985-1997 OWNERFrench government
    49. 49. CONCEPT • • • It was designed by Le Corbusier as a paradigm of the "machine as a home", so that the functions of everyday life inside become critical to its design. The movement of cars to enter the interior of the house is the trigger for the design of the building. It also includes the fact that housing is designed as an object that allegedly landed on the landscape, is totally autonomous and it can be placed anywhere in the world. Architecture followed the style of airplanes, cars and ships, with the declared aim of achieving mass production of housing. Pillars supporting the ground floor also advanced this idea, and the independence of the Villa from its garden, and was recognized as one of the key points of the first generation of International Architecture.
    50. 50. FUNCTIONS: GROUND FLOOR COMPRISES OF: 1. HALL 2. OFFICES FOR THE SERVICE 3. GARAGE (SPACE FOR 3 CARS) The ground floor is largely determined by the movement of a car entering the building. This movement also determines the structure, based on an orthogonal grid of concrete pillars separated 4.75 meters from each other. This forms a square grid of 23.5 meters on the side, on top of which sits the Villa Figure 24: Villa Savoye Ground Floor Plan Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VillaSavoye.jpg
    51. 51. FIRST FLOOR COMPRISES OF: 1. 2. 3. 4. Figure 25: Villa Savoye First Floor Plan Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VillaSavoye.jpg LIVING ROOM KITCHEN BEDROOMS BATHROOMS
    52. 52. 5 POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE: 2 5 4 1 Figure 26: Villa Savoye Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VillaSavoye.jpg 3
    53. 53. 1. Support of ground-level pilotis, elevating the building from the earth and allowed an extended continuity of the garden beneath. 2. Functional roof, serving as a garden and terrace, reclaiming for nature the land occupied by the building. 3. Free floor plan, relieved of load-bearing walls, allowing walls to be placed freely and only where aesthetically needed. 4. Long horizontal windows, providing illumination and ventilation. 5. Freely-designed facades, serving only as a skin of the wall and windows and unconstrained by load-bearing considerations.
    54. 54. FACTS: 1. All four sides of the building was designed in response to the view and the orientation of the sun. 2. The plan was set out using the principle ratios of the Golden section: in this case a square divided into sixteen equal parts, extended on two sides to incorporate the projecting façades and then further divided to give the position of the ramp and the entrance. 3. The four columns in the entrance hall seemingly direct the visitor up the ramp. 4. The ramp, that can be seen from almost everywhere in the house continues up to the first floor living area and salon before continuing externally from the first floor roof terrace up to the second floor solarium.
    55. 55. CARPENTERS CENTER FOR THE VISUAL ARTS(1963) ARCHITECTURAL STYLEModernist, International TOWN/CITYCambridge, Massachusetts COUNTRYUNITED STATES COMPLETED1963 Figure 27: Carpenter Center For Visual Arts Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carpenter_center.jpg
    56. 56. FEATURES: 1. It was designed to be home to Harvard’s visual arts, the Carpenter Center houses large open studio spaces for students to work and showcase their art. 2. In addition to being a place for art, it holds the largest collection of 35mm films in the New England region often holding screenings of independent, international, and silent films. 3. It was meant to be the synthesis of the arts where architecture would join with painting, sculpture, photography and film.
    57. 57. 4. It takes on a less than traditional approach to the design and organization of the interior spaces. 5. Rather the Carpenter Center is a mix of Corbusier’s earlier works with the typical beton-brut concrete, angled brise soleils that were used in Chandigarh, and ondulatoires [narrow windows]. 6. From first glance, it appears to be an inverted version of Villa Savoye embodying the Five Points of Architecture on the exterior of the building rather than within like Villa Savoye.
    58. 58. 5 POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE: 2 4 5 1 3 Figure 28: Carpenter Center For Visual Arts Reference:http://www.google.co.in/imgres?newwindow=1&sa=X&biw=1366&bih=624&tbm=isch&tbnid=Pwe6OudP1Le3xM:& imgrefurl=https://exploringvenustas.wordpress.com/tag/carpentercenterforthevisualarts/&docid=BixPbEitwHnAlM&imgurl=http ://exploringvenustas.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/carpentercenterforthevisualarts.jpg&w=640&h=424&ei=Xmx6UrXH8HRrQe 6j4GIDw&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:1,s:0,i:81&iact=rc&page=1&tbnh=182&tbnw=276&start=0&ndsp=16&tx=164&ty=145
    59. 59. 1. Pilotis – The replacement of supporting walls by a grid of reinforced concrete columns that bears the load of the structure is the basis of the new aesthetic. 2. Roof gardens – The flat roof can be utilized for any purpose while also providing essential protection to the concrete roof. 3. The free designing of the ground plan – The absence of supporting walls means that the house is unrestrained in its internal usage. 4. The free design of façade – By separating the exterior of the building from its structural function the façade becomes free. 5. The horizontal window – The façade can be cut along its entire length to allow rooms to be lit equally.
    60. 60. FACTS: 1. The five levels of the building function as open and flexible working spaces for painting, drawing, and sculpture. 2. The ramp through the heart of the building encourages public circulation and provides views into the studios, making the creative process visible through the building design. 3. The Sert Gallery, at the top of the ramp, features the work of contemporary artists. 4. The main gallery at street level hosts a variety of exhibitions supporting the curriculum of the Department. 5. It is also home to the Harvard Film Archive, which brings to the public a unique program of classic, rare and experimental films. 6. It also has an architectural promenade that runs through the center of the building that connects the interior studios, galleries, and screening rooms to the public spaces within the building, as well as to the campus.
    61. 61. BIBLIOGRAPHY • http://davidjenista.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/case-study-full.pdf • http://williamlang.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/formal-stategies-form-analysis.pdf • http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Convent_of_La_Tourette.html • http://architectuul.com/architecture/sainte-marie-de-la-tourette • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sainte_Marie_de_La_Tourette • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Pierre,_Firminy • http://gizmodo.com/a-rare-tour-of-le-corbusiers-last-and-most-brilliant-1349702440 • http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89glise_Saint-Pierre_de_Firminy

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