JAGANNATH UNIVERSITY FACUTLY OF ARCHITECTURE PRESENTATION ON LE CORBUSIER
Le Corbusier Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, better known as Le Corbusier. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930. October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965) He was architect ,designer urbanist and writer. His career spanned five decades, with his buildings constructed throughout Europe, India and America.
EARLY LIFE AND CARRER(1914-1930)Le Corbusier taught at his old school in La- chaux-de-Fond during World War I. Until the end of the first world war he worked in switzerland. Were he worked on theoretical architectural studies using modern techniques. Among these was his project for the Domino House (1914–1915)
In 1908, He studied architecture in Vienna with Josef Hoffmann. Between October 1910 and March 1911, he worked near Berlin for the renowned architect Peter Behrens. Soon he would begin his own architectural practice with his cousin, Pierre Jeanneret (1896– 1967), a partnership that would last until the 1950s.In 1918, Le Corbusier met the Cubist painter Amédée Ozenfant.
After World War II, Le Corbusier attempted to realize his urban planning schemes on a small scale by constructing a series of "unités" (the housing block unit of the Radiant City) around France. The most famous of these was the Unité dHabitation of Marseilles (1946–1952). In the 1950s, a unique opportunity to translate the Radiant City on a grand scale presented itself in the construction of the Union Territory Chandigarh. The new capital of Indian states of Punjab and Haryana and the first planned city in India. Unité dHabitation France Le corbusier Marseille or Cité Radieuse .
LE CORBUSIER – THE MODULAR Le Corbusier explicitly used the golden ratio in his Modulor system for the scale of architectural proportion. The Modulor is an anthropometric scale of pr oportions devised by him. It is based on the height of an English man with his arm raised.
INFLUENCES He saw this system as a continuation of the long tradition of Vitruvius, Leonardo da Vincis and , the work of Leon Battista Alberti. They used the proportions of the human body to improve the appearance and function of architecture. Le Corbusier described it as a "range of harmonious measurements to suit the human scale, universally applicable to
BUILDING WITH MODULARSYSTEM Unité dHabitation in Marseilles Church of Sainte Marie de La Tourette Carpenter Centre for the Visual Arts
CHANDIGARH PLANNING Historical Background Selection of site Planning To select a suitable site, the Govt. of Punjab appointed a Committee in 1948 under the Chairmanship of P.L Verma, Chief Engineer to assess and evaluate the existing towns in the State for setting up the proposed capital of
The present site was selected in 1948 taking into account various attributes such as its Central location in the state, proximity to the national capital & availability of sufficient water supply, fertile of soil, gradient of land for natural drainage. An American Firm, M/s. Mayer, Whittlessay and Glass was commissioned in 1950 to prepare the Master Plan for the new City Albert Mayer and Mathew Novicki evolved a fan shaped Master Plan and worked out conceptual sketches of the super block. The super block was designed as a self –sufficient neighborhood units placed along the curvilinear roads and comprised of cluster type housing, markets and centrally located open spaces.
Le Corbusiers Master Plan The Master plan prepared by Le Corbusier was broadly similar to the one prepared by the team of planners led by Albert Mayer and Mathew Novicki. Except that the shape of the city plan was modified from one with a curving road network to rectangular shape with a grid iron pattern for the fast traffic roads, besides reducing its area for reason of economy.
Due to economic constraints, the master plan was to be realized in two phases, catering to a total population of half a million. . Phase-I consisting of 30 low density sector spread over an area of 9000 acres (Sector 1 to 30) for 1,50,000 people . Phase-II consisting of 17 considerably high density Sectors ( Sectors 31 to 47) spread over an area of 6000 acres for a population of 3,50,000.
The primary module of city‟s design is a Sector, a neighborhood unit of size 800 meters x 1200 meters. It is a self-sufficient unit having shops, school, health centers and places of recreations and worship. The population of a sector varies between 3000 and 20000 depending upon the sizes of plots and the topography of the area.
The open hand The Open Hand (La Main Ouverte) is a recurring motif in Le Corbusiers architecture. This is a sign of relief and reconciliation. It is open to give and open to receive. The largest of the many Open Hand sculptures that Le Corbusier created is a The Open Hand Monument in 28 meter high version in Chandigarh, Chandigarh India. , India
Buildings by le corbusier beforeChandigarh planning. Villa Roche. Pavillon Suisse (Swiss Pavilion).
location Paris functionVILLA ROCHE private house, museum, galleryProject Year: 1923-1925 The Villa La Roche is a perfect showcase for Le Corbusiers new architecture. The house would serve as a private gallery to display La Roches extensive art collection.
The Villa acted as an exhibition space for Mr. Roche‟s collection of avant-garde artwork, and is a pure assemblage of spatial volumes that interlocks the dual programs of domicile and gallery. It including a north orientation and existing trees and height and boundary limitation. Inside the building, to display the art, an „architectural promenade‟ was made. A theme inspired by Le Corbusiers visit to the Acropolis in 1911. The promenade goes up and down staircases, leads through tight spaces, in-between balconies, open surveys, down ramps and into a beautifully lit library.
BUILDING FEATURES OF VILLA ROCHE. The Villa was imagined as a “spatial experience” and consists of a specifically deliberate path which guides the inhabitant and unveils the artwork as an itinerary through history. The promenade lead us into a succession of wonderfully illuminated spaces which were perceptibly designed to be experiential and viewed from a single, fixed point. Precisely placed wall openings, stairs, ramps, and balconies divide the space into three dimensional grid-like layers which are permeable to stunning illumination. In contrast to the entirely white façade, the vivid internal color palate harmonizes the otherwise asymmetrical arrangement of the Villa.
Pavillon Suisse (Swiss Pavilion)Pavillon Suisse (Swiss Pavilion)7 boulevard Jourdan75014 ParisFrance Citi university was founded in 1921 to provide accommodation and support for foreign students in Paris.
BUILDING DETAILS The free facade and horizontal window have become a continuous glazed curtain wall, on the south side of the building. The pilotis have developed from thin columns to six massive reinforcedconcrete. The plan accommodates them in a separate block sitting on the earth. its curvaceous form contrasting with thesimple slab of the studentaccommodation.
Building form The work consists of two volumes clearly differentiated. On the one hand, the flag-shaped parallelepiped containing the student dormitories, and the other containing the free areas of reunion, all the individual spaces and the social space . The volume of rooms is separated from the soil through large columns of concrete.
StructureSystem of beams andcolumns of reinforcedconcrete. Materials Concrete, stone and glass.
MILL OWNERS ASSOCIATION BUILDING location Ahmedabad function auditorium, meeting room, office A ceremonial ramp makes for a grand approach into a triple- height entrance hall. Arrival is on the first floor, where (as per the original design) the executives‟ offices and boardroom are located
Building characteristic The ground floor houses the work spaces of the clerks and a separate, single-storey canteen at the rear. On the third floor is a high, top-lit auditorium with a roof canopy and a curved, enclosing wall, in addition to a generous lobby. The east and west façades are in the form of sun breakers , one of Corbusier‟s many formal inventions. while avoiding harsh sun, permit visual connection and air movement.
On the second floor of the Mill Owners‟ Building, the lobby is treated as “an open space defined by harsh, angular forms. And the auditorium as an enclosed space delineated by soft, curvilinear forms. While the brise-soleil act as free facades made of rough shuttered concrete, the north and south sides, built in rough brickwork, are almost unbroken.
SECRETARIAT BUILDING location Chandigarh function government The Secretariat building is a long, horizontal concrete slab form, 254 meters long and 42 meters high
The building is composed of block divided by expansion joints and measures over 800 feet long, bookended by two sculptural ramps providing vertical circulation throughout the facilities‟ levels. The massive, horizontal complex is comprised of 8 stories of rough-cast concrete. The building has notable similarities with Corbusier‟s Marseille block and had an equally lofty goal: to revolutionize the modern office building.
The whole structure is constructed in „beton brut‟ (rough- cast concrete) with Corbusier‟s signature „brise-soleils‟ facade. Over 800 feet long, the extensive facade of the building gives a sculptural aesthetic with exposed concrete ramps, punctured with small square windows dictating the front and rear views The cafeteria rests atop the terrace, where one can have a spectacular view of the city.
Similarly, the roof garden and its promenade set against the surrounding landscape, which constantly changes as the observer‟s angle of vision changes.. To maximize natural lighting and increase cross- ventilation, a long and narrow plan was implemented. The Secretariat is a simpler and more conventional form where variations of structure and internal distribution do not interrupt its compact volume.
FAMOUS QUOTES BYLE CORBUSIER “To create architecture is to put in order. Put what in order? Function and objects.” Space and light and order. Those are the things that men need just as much as they need bread or a place to sleep.” A house is a machine for living in.”