• Introduction• What makes it a Hybrid?• Evolution of Hybrid cars• Why Hybrid cars?• Components, model and how it works?• Variants• Hybrid performance, efficiency and maintenance• Advanced technologies• Advantages and disadvantages• Conclusion• References
• In an era where energy conservation is a developing “trend” not only among the learned but also among the ordinary responsible citizens.• Fuel efficiency along with minimum pollution has become the benchmark for any new automobile.• In the same context “Hybrid Cars” come as the latest addition.
• Any vehicle is hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power.• A Simple Example: A mo-ped (a motorized pedal bike) is a type of hybrid because it combines the power of a gasoline engine with the pedal power of its rider.• A hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) combines the power of a conventional internal combustion engine with an electric motor.
• 1839: First electric vehicle• 1898: Ferdin and Porsche built a hybrid• 1905: Gas-Electric car• 1997: Toyota Prius available in Japan• 1999: Honda Insight released in US(70 mpg)• 2002: Honda Civic Hybrid launched• 2004: Toyota Prius II introduced; Ford Escape Hybrid introduced• 2007: Toyota Highlander Hybrid• 2009: Mercedes-Benz S400 Blue Hybrid (First lithium-ion battery hybrid and first Mercedes hybrid)• 2010: Mazda Tribute Crossover
• As there is a constant rise in the fuel prices, it is a must for us to look for alternatives such as hybrids.• Hybrids have the optimum mileage in its class.• Dependency on fossils fuels can be decreased.• They produce much less emissions and use about 50% less fuel than the average new vehicle in the same class(Partial-Zero emissions).
• Regenerative braking actually makes city driving more economical than on the highway.• Plug-in Hybrid vehicles eventually can be charged at parking locations using renewable energy. They will use at least half as much fuel as the Hybrids .
• Hybrids are less-emission vehicles.• Will cut down emissions of global-warming pollutants from one third to a half.• Later models may cut down these emissions even more.
• IC Engine• Electric Motor• Batteries• Transmission
• Hybrid Cars integrate the power of the conventional gasoline engine with that of an electric motor.• A high powered battery pack provides energy to the motor which itself gets recharged when the car is decelerating.• The gas engine can also assist the battery in recharging, which kills the need to plug the car to an external source of energy.
• Mild Hybrids are incapable of independently operating the vehicle.• The electric motor acts as a side-kick to the gas engine, assisting it whenever surplus power is needed.• The Internal-Combustion Engines (both gasoline and diesel) installed in Hybrid cars are often smaller than those in normal cars for a simple reason that Hybrids have the electric motor for assistance.
• The key factor for the hybrid car is its ability to use a smaller engine.• The hybrid engine is sized for running at the average power not the peak.• When it does reach that point that it needs help up a hill or to pass someone, it draws extra power from the batteries to run the electric motor to get the job done.
• Shuts the engine off at low speeds.• Recovers energy and stores it into the battery.• Displacement of cylinders is small so less fuel consumption.• They use electric power at starts and stops.• They use the gasoline engine at cruising speeds.• Smaller engines are more efficient.
• Warranties: The average warranty for a hybrid now is around either 8 yr/ 100,000 miles or even 10 year/ 150,000 miles.• Brake pads: No maintenance.• Batteries: $6800 for new Toyota and Honda hybrid But batteries tested to go for 180,000 miles and more.
• Regenerative braking• Electric motor drive assist• Automatic start/shutoff
Revolution in Battery Technology:• Today’s automotive starter batteries: Lead-acid.• RAV4 EV(Toyota Prius hybrid battery): Nickel Metal-Hydride.• New batteries based on Lithium I-ion or Li- polymer:5x lighter for same energy!• These advancements make it possible for larger battery storage in vehicles.
BMW’s BRIGHT IDEA:• BMW has moved onto the hybrid gas- electric vehicle, with X3 SUV that features super capacitors instead of batteries to store energy.• The “ super caps ” are safely designed so that in the case of an accident they get discharged immediately, so as to avoid further possible damage.
• Excellent gas mileage• Fewer tailpipe emissions• Lighter batteries than electric vehicles• Regenerative braking system that stores electrical energy in batteries• Uses less fuel to recharge batteries• 20% -25% better mileage than ICE• 30% reduction in emissions• Less maintenance compared to conventional cars• Increased engine life
• Reduced, but not emission-free.• HECs are partial zero-emission vehicles (PZEVs)–they produce zero emissions only when engine is not running.• Slightly expensive than conventional vehicles.• Has a payback period in average use.• Batteries are expensive and are toxic waste.
• Present day automobiles, not only stress on power, performance & luxury, but also focuses on emissions, efficiency & reliability.• The demand for fossil fuels will be at a critical stage in the coming future, resulting in high prices of fuels.• The present emission rates from the vehicles are so high that they add to the global warming .• There is a need for clean & less emission vehicles.• Hence, Hybrids are the vehicles of the future.
• www.howstuffworks.com• www.wikipedia.org• www.hybridcars.com• www.greencar.com• www.alternativefuels.about.com• www.fueleconomy.gov• Electric and Hybrid Cars: A History by Judy Anderson• All About Electric and Hybrid Cars by Stephanie Bearce