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HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

Sharath S
Sharath S

HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES 1. INTRODUCTION A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has two types of energy storage units, electricity and fuel. Electricity means that a battery (sometimes assisted by ultracaps) is used to store the energy, and that an electromotor (from now on called motor) will be used as traction motor. Fuel means that a tank is required, and that an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE, from now on called engine) is used to generate mechanical power, or that a fuel cell will be used to convert fuel to electrical energy. In the latter case, traction will be performed by the electromotor only. In the first case, the vehicle will have both an engine and a motor. Depending on the drive train structure (how motor and engine are connected), we can distinguish between parallel, series or combined HEVs. Depending on the share of the electromotor to the traction power, we can distinguish between mild or micro hybrid (start-stop systems), power assist hybrid, full hybrid and plug-in hybrid. Depending on the nature of the non-electric energy source, we can distinguish between combustion (ICE), fuel cell, hydraulic or pneumatic power, and human power. In the first case, the ICE is a spark ignition engines (gasoline) or compression ignition direct injection (diesel) engine. In the first two cases, the energy conversion unit may be powered by gasoline, methanol, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, or other alternative fuels. Motors are the "work horses" of Hybrid Electric Vehicle drive systems. The electric traction motor drives the wheels of the vehicle. Unlike a traditional vehicle, where the engine must "ramp up" before full torque can be provided, an electric motor provides full torque at low speeds. The motor also has low noise and high efficiency. Other characteristics include excellent "off the line" acceleration, good drive control, good fault tolerance and flexibility in relation to voltage fluctuations. The front-running motor technologies for HEV applications include PMSM (permanent magnet synchronous motor), BLDC (brushless DC motor), SRM (switched reluctance motor) and AC induction motor. A main advantage of an electromotor is the possibility to function as generator. In all HEV systems, mechanical braking energy is regenerated. The maximum operational braking torque is less than the maximum traction torque; there is always a mechanical braking system integrated in a car. The battery pack in a HEV has a much higher voltage than the SIL automotive 12 Volts battery, in order to reduce the currents and the I2R losses. Accessories such as power steering and air conditioning are powered by electric motors instead of being attached to the combustion engine. This allows efficiency gains as the accessories can run at a constant speed or can be switched off, regardless of how fast the combustion engine is running. Especially in long haul trucks, electrical power steering saves a lot of energy.

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SHARATH S
01JST16PAE013
CONTENTS
 What is Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)?
 Why HEV?
 Working of HEV
 Components of HEV
 Types of HEV
 Hybrid Performance
 Hybrid Efficiency
 Hybrid Maintenance
 Advantages and Disadvantages the HEV’s
What is HEV?
 A Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid
vehicle and electric vehicle that combines a conventional
internal combustion engine (ICE) system with
an electric propulsion system (hybrid vehicle drivetrain).
Why HEV?
Working of HEV
Working of HEV
 (a) Electric power only: Up to speeds of usually 40 km/h, the
electric motor works with only the energy of the batteries, which
are not recharged by the ICE.
 (b) ICE + electric power: if more energy is needed (during
acceleration or at high speed), the electric motor starts working
in parallel to the heat engine, achieving greater power
 (c) ICE + battery charging: if less power is required, excess of
energy is used to charge the batteries. Operating the engine at
higher torque than necessary, it runs at a higher efficiency.
 (d) Regenerative breaking: While braking or decelerating, the
electric motor takes profit of the kinetic energy of the moving
vehicle to act as a generator.

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HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

  • 2. CONTENTS  What is Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)?  Why HEV?  Working of HEV  Components of HEV  Types of HEV  Hybrid Performance  Hybrid Efficiency  Hybrid Maintenance  Advantages and Disadvantages the HEV’s
  • 3. What is HEV?  A Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) system with an electric propulsion system (hybrid vehicle drivetrain).
  • 6. Working of HEV  (a) Electric power only: Up to speeds of usually 40 km/h, the electric motor works with only the energy of the batteries, which are not recharged by the ICE.  (b) ICE + electric power: if more energy is needed (during acceleration or at high speed), the electric motor starts working in parallel to the heat engine, achieving greater power  (c) ICE + battery charging: if less power is required, excess of energy is used to charge the batteries. Operating the engine at higher torque than necessary, it runs at a higher efficiency.  (d) Regenerative breaking: While braking or decelerating, the electric motor takes profit of the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle to act as a generator.
  • 7. Components of a Hybrid  Gasoline engine  Much like our engines but smaller and is made with advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency.  Fuel Tank  Energy storing device for the gasoline engine  Gas has a much larger density than the batteries  Example: 1,000 pounds of batteries store as much energy as 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gas
  • 8. Continuing Components  Electric Motor  Advance electronics allow it to act as either an motor or a generator.  Example: When needed it can take power from the batteries to accelerate the car. Or as the car slows down it acts as a generator and returns that energy to the batteries.  Generator  Similar to an electric motor, just it acts only to produce electrical power.  Mainly in series hybrids
  • 9. Continuing Components  Batteries  Energy storage device for the electric motor.  Transmission  Transmission on a hybrid performs the same as a transmission on our cars.  How a transmission works is that it takes power from the engine or motor and sends to the driveshaft which turns your axle to move your car.
  • 10. Types of HEV 1. Parallel Hybrid 2. Series Hybrid 3. Power-Split Hybrid
  • 11. Parallel Hybrid  Has a fuel tank that supplies gas to the engine like a regular car.  It also has a set of batteries that run an electric motor.  Both the engine and electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time.  Ex- Honda civic hybrid
  • 12. Series Hybrid  The fuel tank goes to the engine, but the engine turns a generator.  Then the generator can either charge the batteries or power an electric motor that drives the transmission.  The gasoline engine does not directly power the car.  Ex- Renault kangoo
  • 13. Series v/s Parallel Hybrid Advantages:  ICE running mostly at optimal speed and torque  ICE can be turned off in zero emission zone  Low fuel consumption  High fuel efficiency Disadvantages:  Many energy conversions -> energy loss  More suitable for city driving Advantages:  ICE directly connected to wheels ->fewer power conversions  Electric machine and gearboxes present -> ICE working point can be chosen freely Disadvantages:  ICE & electrical machines must be mounted together
  • 15. Hybrid Performance  The key for the hybrid car is its ability to use a smaller engine.  A conventional engine is sized for peak power requirement, when a study shows that most drivers reach this less than 1% of our driving time.  The hybrid engine is sized for running at the average power not the peak. But when it does reach that point that it needs help up a hill or to pass someone, it draws extra power from the batteries and the electric motor to get the job done.
  • 16. Hybrid Efficiency  Recovers energy and stores it into the battery  Regenerative braking  Sometimes it will shut the engine off  Reduces aerodynamic drag  Low rolling resistance tires  Stiffer and inflated more  1/2 the drag on the road  Lightweight Materials  Carbon fiber  Metals  Aluminum  Magnesium
  • 17. Hybrid Maintenance  Warranties  The average warranty for a hybrid now is around either 8 yr/ 100,000 mile or even 10 year/ 150,000 mile  Batteries  $6800 for new Toyota and Honda hybrid  But batteries tested to go for 180,000 miles and some
  • 18. Advantages and disadvantages of the hybrids  Some advantages of the hybrid car are the better fuel economy and the environmental fact of the lower emissions of the vehicle. But at the same time there are also disadvantages of having a hybrid car some of the disadvantages are the higher prices on the cars and the lack of places and opportunities of getting the alternate fuels. Some of them also don’t have as much power as your average gas engine.