Stress management
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Stress management

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introduction to stress with its physiology and its management, individual and organizational aspect

introduction to stress with its physiology and its management, individual and organizational aspect

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Stress management Stress management Presentation Transcript

  • STRESS MANAGEMENT Dr.Sharad H. Gajuryal Junior Resident, MD Hospital Administration BPKIHS,Dharan
  • STRESS IS A STATE OF MENTAL OR EMOTIONAL STRAIN OR TENSION RESULTING FROM ADVERSE OR DEMANDING CIRCUMSTANCES OR ANYTHING THAT POSES A CHALLENGE OR A THREAT TO OUR WELL-BEING IS A STRESS.
  • Some stresses get you going and they are good for you - without any stress at all many say our lives would be boring and would probably feel pointless. However, when the stresses undermine both our mental and physical health they are bad. In this text we shall be focusing on stress that is bad for you. View slide
  •  To understand the stress response, we must possess a fundamental knowledge not only of psychology but of physiology as well. - George Everly View slide
  • STRESS & FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE- PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENON  The way we respond to a challenge may also be a type of stress.. When faced with a challenge or a threat, our body activates resources to protect us - to either get away as fast as we can, or fight. If we are upstairs at home and an earthquake starts, the faster we can get oneself and our family out the more likely we are all to survive. If you need to save somebody's life during that earthquake, by lifting a heavy weight that has fallen on them, you will need components in your body to be activated to give you that extra strength - that extra push.
  •  Our fight-or-flight response is our body's sympathetic nervous system reacting to a stressful event. Our body produces larger quantities of the chemicals cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline, which trigger a higher heart rate, heightened muscle preparedness, sweating, and alertness - all these factors help us protect ourselves in a dangerous or challenging situation. Non-essential body functions slow down, such as our digestive and immune systems when we are in fight- or flight response mode. All resources can then be concentrated on rapid breathing, blood flow, alertness and muscle use.
  • HARVARD PHYSIOLOGIST WALTER CANNON COINED THE TERM FIGHT- OR-FLIGHT RESPONSE TO DESCRIBE OUR BODY'S AUTOMATIC RESPONSE WHEN WE PERCEIVE THREAT OR DANGER. THIS IS A PRIMITIVE RESPONSE THAT GIVES US STRENGTH, POWER, AND SPEED TO AVOID HARM.
  • THE FREEZE RESPONSE HAS SINCE THEN BEEN ADDED. IN EARLIER TIMES, STRESSFUL SITUATIONS REFERRED TO THE ANIMALS IN THE WILD, AND MAN HAD TO BE IN A READY STATE WHEN ENCOUNTERED WITH THESE TO EITHER FIGHT OR RUN AWAY FROM THEM. IN MODERN SOCIETY, THE ELEMENTS OF STRESS HAVE BEEN REPLACED BY DEADLINES, MEETINGS, NOISE POLLUTION, RUSH-HOUR TRAFFIC, AND THE LIKE.
  •  Stress can be seen in anyone, either housewife or student , tea maker or an office manager, doctor or pilot, everyone has stress related to their work and living circumstances.  While talking about an organization, individual can get stressed due to external factor or organizational factor or even due to individual factor.  These dynamic condition leads individual confronted from an opportunity with constrains because of which outcome is uncertain and important .
  • CAUSES OF STRESS 1. Environmental Factor 2. Organizational Factor 3. Individual Factor
  • ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:-  Economic uncertainties  Political uncertainties  Technological uncertainties  Similarly it's everywhere in our daily lives: noise, crowds, pollution. Environmental stresses may be individually minor, but can accumulate to form a high background stress load, diminishing your capacity for dealing with stress from other sources.
  • ORGANIZATIONAL FACTOR:  Work Content: 1. Job Content-Monotonous, Unpleasant, aversive task. 2. Workload and work pace- Having too much work and have to work in certain period of time under pressure. Working in an overcrowded room or visible place, where interruptions are constant can increase anxiety & stress. 3. Working Hour- Strict and unpredictable working hours, Badly designed shifts 4. Participation and Control: Lack of Participation in decision making / Lack of control over tasks.
  •  Work Context: 1. Organizational Culture: Poor Leadership, Poor Communication, Lack of clarity about organizational structure and objectives. 2. Role in the organization: Role conflicts create expectations that may be hard to reconcile or satisfy. - Role overload is experienced when the employee is expected to do more than time permits. - Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood & employee is not sure what he or she is to do
  •  3.Interpersonal Relationship: Poor relationship with co-workers, isolation or solitary works, inadequate or unsupportive supervision. Lack of social support from the colleagues & poor interpersonal relationships .  4.Career development, status and pay: Job insecurity, Lack of promotion, Being over-skilled or under-skilled for job.
  • INDIVIDUAL FACTOR  Individual works about 40-50 hrs a week.  People encounter 120 plus non-work hrs per week–outside the work place–family & others.  Family issues, economic problems, marital relationship, discipline troubles with children are the examples that create stress for employees ----- ------- bring to work place.
  •  Health:Aging, diagnosis of a new disease, complications from an existing disease, and undiagnosed symptoms can increase stress  Life Changes:The death of a loved one, changing jobs, moving houses, and sending a child off to college are examples of big life changes that can be stressful.  Financial:Financial trouble is a common source of stress. Credit card debt, not making rent, inability to provide for a family—not being able to make ends meet can put a serious amount of stress on a person
  •  Relationships: Arguments with a spouse, parent, or child can certainly increase stress. Problems among other members of the family, even if you’re not directly involved, can cause additional stress.  Emotional Problems: Unexpressed anger, low self-esteem, depression and loneliness will cause personal stress.
  • EFFECTS OF STRESS  Affects different people in different way.  Physiological effects– Headaches, Hypertension, Heart disease, Digestive problems, increased blood pressure, Musculoskeletal disorder, affect immune system impairing people’s ability to fight infections.  Psychological effects: Anxiety, Depression, & Decrease in job satisfaction, unable to relax and concentrate, Having difficulty in thinking logically and difficulty in decision making .
  •  Behavioral effects: Absenteeism, Turnover, alcoholism & smoking, & sleep disorders, Drug abuse
  • WORK STRESS AND EFFECT IN ORGANIZATION 1. Increasing absenteeism 2. Decreased commitment to work 3. Impairing performance and productivity 4. Increasing complaints from clients and customers 5. Damaging the organizational image 6. Increasing staff turn over 7. Increasing unsafe working practice and accident rates
  • MANAGEMENT OF STRESS Stress also Known as “managerial illness” can be avioded and managed. It should be treated at both organizational and individual level as stress not only affects the individual but also results in harm to the organizations. 1. Individual approaches 2. Organizational approaches
  • 1. Individual approaches:  Physical exercise – increase heart capacity & provide mental diversion from work pressure.  Relaxation techniques – meditation, hypnosis, aerobics etc.  Expanding social network - having friends & family, or work colleagues to talk to provide outlet when stress becomes excessive.
  •  Time management-  Making daily list of activities to be accomplished.  Prioritizing activities by importance & urgency.  Scheduling activities according to the priorities set  Proper Nutrition
  • STRESS MANAGEMENT- ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACH  Work stress is a challenge to healthy and saftey of workers and to healthiness of an organization.  Work stress can be effectively managed by applying a risk management approach for work stress.  It assesses the possible risk in working environment that may cause particular hazard to cause harm to employee.
  • PREVENTION OF WORK STRESS There are number of ways by which the risk of work stress can be reduced. These include: --Primary prevention,reducing stress through: ergonomics,work and environmental design --Secondary prevention,reducing stress through: worker education and training, and --Tertiary prevention, reducing the impact of stress by developing more sensitive and resonsive management systems and enhanced occupational health provision.
  • ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACHES  Improved personnel selection  Job placement  Use of realistic goal setting  Redesigning of jobs  Stress management trainings  Increased employees involvement  Improved organizational communication  Establishment of corporate wellness programs
  • THANK-YOU