Ma;tpd; mwpKfk;1.1 mwpKfk;       Gj;jhapuk; Mz;Lf;Fupa mgptpUj;jp ,yf;Ffis Nehf;fp efh;e;J nry;Yk;cyf nraw;ghLfspy; midtUf...
,g;gpd;dzpia   mbg;gilahff;   nfhz;L   aho;g;ghzk;  gy;fiyf;foff;fy;tpapaw;Wiwapd; gl;lg;gpd; fy;tp bg;GNshkh newpapd; ,uz...
ngUk;ghYk;   jkpo;g;ghlj;Jld; njhlh;GilajhfNt     Vida    ghlq;fs;fhzg;gLfpd;wd.    ,e;jtifapy; jkpo;g;ghl mwpit Nkk;gLj;j...
1.6 Ma;Tf;fhd epahag;ghL       jkpopy; xypNgjr; nrhw;fisr; rupahd Kiwapy; vOj> thrpf;fj; njupahJtpl;lhy; gy topfspYk; gpd;...
,yf;fpa kPsha;T       ,yf;fpa     kPsha;thdJ     xU    Ma;tpd;   Kf;fpakhd   gbepiyahff;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j kPsha;thdJ Ma...
ekJ ehl;ilg;nghWj;j kl;by; cly;CdKw;wth;fspd; fy;tp njhlh;ghdrpe;jid Mq;fpNyah; Ml;rpf;fhyj;jpNyNa Njhw;wk; ngw;wjidf; fhz...
4. [Pd; nfd;Nkhh; mwpf;if – 1962    ,t;twpf;ifapy; tpopg;Gydw;Nwhhpd; fy;tp njhlh;ghfNt mjpfkhff; Fwpg;gplg;gl;L    cs;sJ....
13. 1981y; fy;tp nts;isawpf;if ntspte;jJ.                     ,jpy; tpNrlfy;tp gw;wpg; ngupjhff;    Fwpg;gplhtpbDk;> tpNrl...
2.1.3 cl;gLj;jy; fy;tp     tpNrl NjitAila gps;isfis> rhjhuz ghlrhiyfspy;> rhjhuztFg;giwfspy; itj;J fw;gpj;jy; cl;gLj;jy; f...
cl;gLj;jy; fy;tp vd;gJ ntWkNd xU jdpeguhNyh md;wpg; ghlrhiyahNyhkl;Lk; ntw;wpfukhfr; nraw;gLj;jp tpl KbahjJ. mJ r%fj;jpd; ...
ghlrhiyfspy;     cl;gLj;jy; fy;tpia      eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;Fg;    nghUj;jkhd gpNuuizfis Kd;itf;Fk;NghJ 1995y; N[hd;rd; vd;g...
topfhl;baJ.     capupdq;fSf;Fs;Ns       mbg;gilj;njhlh;G    nfhz;ltw;iwf;FLk;gq;fshfg; ghFghL nra;Ak; Nehf;fpid mbnahw;wp ...
1. zfu> efu> dfu xypfs;        2. yfu> sfu> ofu xypfs;        3. ufu> wfu xypfs;.     Kjyhk; njhFjpapYs;s %d;W vOj;Jf;fSk;...
2.1.5   jkpo;nkhopiaf; fw;gpf;ifapy; mjd; ghlNehf;fq;fshfg; gpd;tUtd        mikfpd;wd.    1. jkpo;nkhopiaj; njhlh;ghlw; fU...
Ma;T Kiwapay;       Xu; Ma;tpy; kpf Kf;fpa gq;F tfpg;gJ juT Nrfupj;jy; MFk;. Nrfupf;Fk;juTfisg; nghWj;Nj Ma;T jpl;lkplg;gL...
xt;nthU MrpupaUk; jk; tFg;giwapy; vOk; gpur;rpidfSf;Fj; jPh;TfhZk;tifapy; vspikahd eilKiwg;gads;s Ma;Tfis nray;epiy Ma;T v...
tiuaiwfs; vd;gd fUj;jpy; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.     ,t;tifapy; ,q;FMa;thdJ tpNrlfy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fisj; jpUj;...
elj;Jk; jpwidf;nfhz;l mjpgUld; mh;g;gzpg;igNa tho;thff;fUjp epw;Fk; Mw;wy;kpF Mrhd;fisAk; nfhz;L gz;GkpF khzth;fSf;fhfj; J...
mtjhdpg;G            fye;Jiuahly;            tpdhf;nfhj;J            guPl;irfs;            Neu;fhzy;3.3.1 mtjhdpg;G       ...
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;.        gpd;dh; gpw;Nrhjid xd;W toq;fg;glL Gs;spfs; ngwg;gLk;.gpw;Nrhjid>       Kw;NrhjidfspypUe;J       ...
juT mspf;ifAk; gFg;gha;Tk;      Ma;nthd;wpNy Nrfupj;j jfty;fis xOq;FgLj;jp> juTg;gFg;gha;itNkw;nfhs;Sk; NghJ jhd; Ma;tpw;f...
fhzg;gl;ldh;.    mth;fs; mjpfhiyapy; vOe;J Ntiyf;Fr; nrd;W ,uNt tPLjpUk;Gfpd;wth;fshfTk; fhzg;gl;ldh;.       ,th;fspy; xU ...
4.2 juTfisg; gFg;gha;T nra;jy;      mtjhdpg;gpd; %yk; ngwg;gl;l gFg;gha;tpd;gb khzth;fs; fw;wypy; fhl;baMh;tk; FiwthfTk;  ...
Nghjpa tpsf;fkpd;ik         ,g;gFjpapy; tpUg;gkpd;ikvd;gd toq;fg;gl;lNghJ khzth; mspj;j tpilfs; tUkhW> Nghjpa gapw;rpapd;i...
FOt+f;fk;        jk; fUj;Jf;fisg; gpwUld; gfpu tpUk;gpaik        njhlh;ghly; Njitia czh;e;jik        kfpo;r;rpfukhd fw;wYf...
60                                                                                    Ehw;WtPjk;                    50    ...
4.4 epiyikia vt;thW                       khw;wyhk;           vd    Ma;Tnra;ag;glf;            $batpdhit cUthf;fy;        ...
“xypNgjr;nrhw;fisj;          jpUj;jkhf        vOJk;        Mw;wiy           xOq;FgLj;jg;gl;lgapw;rpfs;     %yk;      Nkk;g...
nraYf;fhd jpl;lKk; mKyhf;fKk;xU nray; epiy Ma;tpNy jpl;lkpLjy; Kf;fpa gq;if tfpf;fpd;wJ. Ma;itnrt;tdNt jpl;lkpLk; NghJ jhd...
‘jd;dhYk; fw;f KbAk;’ vd;w kdg;ghq;F Vw;gLfpd;wJ.                         ,jw;F Nkyjpf Neuj;ijg;gad;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tJld; kh...
ntt;NtW tpjkhd fhfpjq;fisg; gy;NtW                           tbtq;fspy;     kbj;jy;>                fpopj;jy;> rpWrpW tbtq...
Ma;thsuhy; mwpTWj;jg;gl;ldh;. ,t;thW khzth; jltp thrpj;J mNjNghy;        vOJtjdhy; ve;nje;j ,lj;jpy; vd;ndd;d xypNgjr;nrhw...
•   gpnwapy; jl;lr;Rg;nghwpapy; vOjg;gof;Fjy;              Ma;thsuhy; Ma;tpw;Fl;gLj;jpa khzth;fs; fdp;l ,ilepiy        khz...
2. xypg;gjpT ehlhtpy; Nfl;ly;.                myk; - fyg;ig                            Mop – fly;> rf;fuk;> Nkhjpuk;      ...
6. gpd;tUk; nrhw;fis itj;J thf;fpak; mikf;f topg;gLj;jy;.                    1)   tpop                    2)   mWF        ...
epiwTiuAk; tpjg;GiufSk;       Xh; Ma;tpw;F kjpg;gPL Kf;fpakhdjhFk;.  mNjNghy; mt;tha;T gw;wpaepiwTiuAk; tpjg;GiuAk; mtrpak...
6.2 Gyg;ghLfspd; njhFg;Gk; mspf;ifAk;gpw;Nrhjidg; gFg;gha;T                               gpw;Nrhjidg; gFg;gha;T          ...
Kw;                     K Nrhji gpw;Nrhjid Gs;s                           id         dg; spfspd; xg;gPL                   ...
∑,q;F D            =                            =                            = 30       #dpaf; fUJNfhs; H0 : KOj;njhFjpf;F...
t ml;ltizg; ngWkhdj;jpw;fhf>Rahjpdg;gb (df)                            = 8-1                                           = 7...
,j;jifa nray;epiy Ma;thdJ vjph;tUk; fhyq;fspy; Ma;thsUf;Ff;fw;gpj;jypy; njhopy; thz;ik tpUj;jpia mjpfupf;Fk;.          mj;...
NkYk;     ,k;khzth;fSf;Fg;    ghlg;Gj;jfq;fis    gpnwapy;   vOj;jpy;mbj;Jf;nfhLf;f eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,jd...
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  1. 1. Ma;tpd; mwpKfk;1.1 mwpKfk; Gj;jhapuk; Mz;Lf;Fupa mgptpUj;jp ,yf;Ffis Nehf;fp efh;e;J nry;Yk;cyf nraw;ghLfspy; midtUf;Fk; mbg;gilf; fy;tpia toq;FtJ gw;wpagzp,yf;F Kjd;ik ngw;Ws;sJ. FLk;gj;jpw;Fk; r%fj;jpw;Fk; Rikfshf ,Uf;ff;$ba kdpjh;fis FLk;gj;jpd;> r%fj;jpd; tsq;fsha; khw;WtJ fy;tp MFk;.,t;tsT Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j fy;tpia vy;NyhuhYk; ,yFthfg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;sKbtjpy;iy. gy;NtW tifahd cly;> csf;FiwghLfs; fhuzkhff; fy;tpfw;gjpNy ,lh;ghLfis vjph;Nehf;Ffpd;w khzth;fSk; ek;kpilNa ,Uf;fpd;wdh;.,th;fSk; nghJthd fy;tp ePNuhl;lj;jpy; ,izj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;wrpe;jidapd; tpisthfNt tpNrlfy;tpj;Jiw cjakhdJ. gue;J tpupe;j gutplag;gug;Gf;fis cs;slf;fpa xU Jiwahf midj;J ehLfspYk; ,Jtsh;r;rpaile;J tUfpd;wJ. rhjhuz tFg;giw xd;wpy; ,Ue;J jdJ fw;wy; nraw;ghl;bidNkw;nfhs;tjpy; ngUksT ,lUWfpd;w khzth;fNs tpNrlNjit cilNahh; Mthh;.,th;fs; nghJthfg; ghh;itf;FiwghL cilNahh;> Nfl;ly; FiwghL cilNahh;>cly; cWg;Gf;fs; ghjpg;Gw;Nwhh; vd tifg;gLj;jg;gl;lhYk; ,yq;ifapy;tpNrlNjit cilNahiug; gjpd;%d;W tifahf tifg;gLj;jp cs;sdh;. tpNrlNjitaila khzth;fisg; Nghjpg;gjw;fhd xU fy;tp KiwikNatpNrlfy;tp MFk;. ,J tpNrl fw;gpj;jy; El;gq;fs;> tpNrlcgfuzq;fs;> Vidatsq;fs; vd;gtw;iw cs;slf;fpajhfTk;> tpNrl gapw;rp ngw;w Mrpupah;fshy;nraw;gLj;jg;gLtjhfTk; ,Uf;Fk;. xU gps;isf;F toq;fg;glf; $ba mjp cr;rkhdfy;tpapidAk; mjd; Clhd Nkk;ghl;bidAk; toq;FtNj ,t;tpNrl fy;tpapd;mbg;gil ,yf;fhf cs;sJ. tpNrlfy;tp myfpy; Kw;whfg; ghh;itf;FiwghL cilNahh; jkpopy;xypNgjr;nrhw;fis (yfu>sfu>ofu>wfu>ufu>dfu>zfu) vOJtjpy; ngUQ;rpukq;fisvjph;Nehf;Ffpd;wdh;. rhjhuz khzth;fNs ,t;xypNgjr; nrhw;fis thrpf;f> vOjr;rpukg;gLk;NghJ Kw;whfg; ghh;itaw;w khzth;fs; ,t;tplaj;jpy; kpfTk; rpukq;fisvjph;Nehf;Ffpd;wdh;.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   1  
  2. 2. ,g;gpd;dzpia mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L aho;g;ghzk; gy;fiyf;foff;fy;tpapaw;Wiwapd; gl;lg;gpd; fy;tp bg;GNshkh newpapd; ,uz;lhk; tUlkhztuhfpa Ma;thsh; jdJ gl;lg;gpd; gbg;gpd; gFjpj; Njitia epiwT nra;Ak;KfkhfTk;> ,d;iwa etPd fy;tpg;Gyj;jpy; fw;wy; fw;gpj;jNyhL kl;Lkd;wpfsepiyia Ma;T nra;Ak; Ma;thsdhfTk; Mrpupah; xUth; jd; tfpgq;if tpUj;jpnra;J ,w;iwg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;w gpd;dzpapYk; nray;epiy Ma;T %ykhftFg;giwapd; fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; nrad;KiwfspD}lhf rpwe;j milTj;jpwidVw;gLj;jyhk; vd;w tifapy; ,t; Ma;tpid Ma;thsh; Kd;ndLf;fpd;whh;.1.2 Ma;Tj;jiyg;G tpNrlfy;tp myF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fisj; jpUj;jkhf vOJk;Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;. (ah/a+dpad; fy;Y}up> fdp;l ,ilepiy tpNrlfy;tp myFkhzth;fSldhd nray;epiy Ma;T)1.3 Ma;Tg; gpd;dzp tpNrlfy;tp vd;gJ gue;J tpupe;j gy tplag;gug;Gfis cs;slf;fpa xUJiwahf ,d;W tsh;r;rpaile;J tUfpd;wJ. ,j;Jiwapd; gq;fspg;gpd;wp ehl;bd;xl;Lnkhj;jf; fy;tp Kd;Ndw;wk; rhj;jpakw;wJ vd;gJ ,d;W gyuhYk; czug;gl;LtUfpd;wJ. Rdhkp Nghd;w ,aw;if mdh;j;jq;fs;> Aj;jk; Nghd;w fhuzq;fshy; tpNrlNjitAila gps;isfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfupg;ghdJ ,d;Wjtph;f;fKbahjnjhd;whfp tpl;lJ. ghlrhiyf;fy;tpapy; jkpo;g;ghlkhdJ fl;lhaghlkhff; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,Jmwpit kl;Lky;yhky; MSikiaAk; tsh;r;rpngw itf;fpd;wJ. kdpjdJcs;sj;jpNy gw;gy vz;zq;fs; Njhd;Wk;. me;j vz;zq;fisj; jd;idr;#o;e;jpUg;NghUf;Fj; njuptpf;f nkhop gad;gLfpd;wJ. NkYk; kdpjd; rpe;jpf;fTk;>mwpit tpUj;jp nra;aTk;> eaf;Fk; jpwid Nkk;gLj;jTk;> Rakhf Mf;fq;fisg;gilf;fTk; rthy;fis ntw;wpfukhf vjph;nfhs;sTk; nkhop gad;gLfpd;wJ.khzth;fspd; thrpg;G> vOj;J> Nfl;ly;> Ngr;R Nghd;w jpwd;fis tsh;f;f nkhopgad;gLfpd;wJ.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   2  
  3. 3. ngUk;ghYk; jkpo;g;ghlj;Jld; njhlh;GilajhfNt Vida ghlq;fs;fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,e;jtifapy; jkpo;g;ghl mwpit Nkk;gLj;j KidAk;NghJgy;NtW gpur;rpidfs; Vw;gLfpd;wd. ,jpy; Kf;fpakhfj; jkpopy; xypNgjr;nrhw;fisj; jpUj;jkhf vOj Kbahik vd;wgpur;rpid ,dq;fhzg; gl;lJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf Ma;thsUf;F> tpNrlfy;tp myF khzth;fs; xypNgjr;nrhw;fisj; jpUj;jkhf vOJk; jpwidg; ngWth; vd;w Fwpf;Nfhis Nehf;fpr;nry;yNtz;ba Njit fhzg;gl;lJ.1.4 Ma;tpd; Fwpf;Nfhs;fs; 1. fw;wy; fw;gpj;jYf;F ,ila+whf cs;s khzth;fis ,dq;fhzy;. 2. mjw;fhd fhuzq;fisf; fz;lwpjy;. 3. gpur;ridf;fhd jPh;Tfsif; fz;L gpbj;jy;.1.5 Ma;Tg; gpur;rpid tpNrlfy;tp myfpy; Kw;whfg; ghh;itf;FiwghL cilNahh; jkpopy; xypNgjr;nrhw;fis vOJtjpy; ngUQ;rpukq;fis vjph;Nehf;Ffpd;wdh;. Rhjhuz khzth;fNs,t;xypNgjr; nrhw;fis thrpf;f> vOjr; rpukg;gLk;NghJ Kw;whfg; ghu;itaw;Nwhu;,t;tplaj;jpy; kpfTk; rpukq;fis vjph;Nehf;Ffpd;wdh;. tpNrlfy;tp myF khzth;fs; xypNgjr; nrhw;fisj; jpUj;jkhf vOjKbahj jd;ikahy; mtw;iwg; gpioahfNt tpsq;fpf; nfhs;fpd;wdh;. mtw;wpd;fUj;Jf;fSk; khw;wkilfpd;wd. ngWNgWfSk; Fiwtilfpd;wd. ,t;thwhd epiyahdJ Ma;thsuhfpa MrpupaUf;F kl;Lkd;wp VidaMrpupah;fSf;Fk; rthyhf mikfpd;wJ. ,ijf; fUj;jpw; nfhz;L Ma;thsuhfpajkpo; MrpupauJ kdjpy; khzth;fsJ ,j;jifa epiyg;ghlhdJ rpe;jidiaVw;gLj;jpaJ. mjd; tpisthf ,k;khzth;fisAk; vjph; fhyj;jpy; fy;tpkhd;fshfkhw;wpaikf;f Ntz;Lk; vDk; Mjq;fk; Njhd;wpl> mk;khzth;fis mZfKw;gLfpd;wdh;.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   3  
  4. 4. 1.6 Ma;Tf;fhd epahag;ghL jkpopy; xypNgjr; nrhw;fisr; rupahd Kiwapy; vOj> thrpf;fj; njupahJtpl;lhy; gy topfspYk; gpd;dilTfis vjph;nfhs;s NeupLk;. mjhtJ njhlh;e;JvOj;Jg;gpio tpl;Nl vOJth;. vdNt mth;fSf;Fg; Gs;spfSk; FiwthfNtfpilf;Fk;. ,J jkpopy; kl;Lky;y Vida ghlq;fspYk; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk;.xypNgjr; nrhw;fis ,dq;fhz KbahjNghJ vOj;Jg;gpiofs; mjpfkhfpirtrkak;> rq;fPjk; Nghd;w ghlq;fspYk; kpf;f Fiwthd Gs;spfisNa ngWth;. NkYk; ghh;itaw;Nwhh; f.ngh.j.(rh/j)> f.ngh.j(c/j) guPl;ir vOJk; NghJgpnwapy; vOj;jpy; itj;Nj mt;tpilj;jhs;fs; jpUj;jg;gLtjdhy; ,th;fSf;fhdngWNgWfs; Fiwtila tha;g;gz;L. ,jdhy; jkpopy; xypNgjr; nrhw;fisj; jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiyNkk;gLj;j Ntz;ba epiyfhzg;gl;lJ. ,t;tplh;ghl;il ePf;Ftjw;Fg; Gjpa khw;Weltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhz;L khzth; milit Nkk;gLj;jy; vd;gij Nehf;fhff;nfhz;Ls;sJ ,t;tha;T. ,t;tha;tpNy nray;epiy Ma;Tf;fhd mwpKfk;> Ma;Tg;gpd;dzp> Ma;tpd;Fwpf;Nfhs;fs;> Ma;Tg; gpur;rpid> Ma;Tf;fhd epahag;ghL vd;gd gw;wpNehf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,dp mLj;j ,aypy; ,yf;fpa kPsha;T gw;wp Nehf;fg;gLk;.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   4  
  5. 5. ,yf;fpa kPsha;T ,yf;fpa kPsha;thdJ xU Ma;tpd; Kf;fpakhd gbepiyahff;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j kPsha;thdJ Ma;tpw;fhd mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghl;Lr; rl;lfk;xd;iw cUthf;Ftjw;F cWJizahf mikfpd;wJ. Ma;Tj; jiyg;nghd;iwj;njupTnra;j gpd;dh; njhlh;e;J Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba gzp ,yf;fpa kPsha;thFk;.Ma;Tj;jiyg;Gld; njhlh;Gila E}y;fs;> fl;Liufs;> gUt,jo;fs;> rQ;rpiffs;Nghd;w gy;NtW Mtzq;fs; vd midj;J ntspaPLfisAk; Njbf;fz;Lgpbj;Jj;Njitahd Fwpg;Gf;fisAk; Nrh;j;J Nfhl;ghl;Lr; rl;lfk; mikj;Jf;nfhs;sy;kPsha;Tr; nraw;ghl;bd; Kf;fpa mq;fkhf mikfpd;wJ.2.1 Ma;Tf;fhd Nfhl;ghl;Lr; rl;lfk;2.1.1 tpNrl fy;tpapd; Njhw;wk; tpNrlfy;tp njhlh;ghd rpe;jidahdJ cly; CdKw;wth;fspd; fy;tp kw;Wk;mjNdhL njhlh;ghd Nkk;ghL vd;gd njhlh;ghd rpe;jidia mbnahw;wpNaNjhw;wk; ngw;wpUg;gij ehk; fhz KbAk;. kdpjh;fs; gy;NtW tpjq;fspy; clY}dKWjy; vd;gJ Muk;gfhyk; Kjy;,d;Wtiu jtph;f;f Kbahjnjhd;whfNt ,Ue;J tUfpd;wJ. gz;ilf;fhyj;jpy;cly;CdKw;wth;fs; ehl;Lf;FehL gy;NtW tpjkhf Nehf;fg;gl;L> elj;jg;gl;Lte;jhh;fs;. vdpDk; mf;fhyj;jpy; xl;Lnkhj;jkhf ,th;fspd; epiy kpfTk;gupjhgj;Jf;Fupanjhd;whfNt fhzg;gl;lJ. vkJ ehl;ilg;nghWj;j kl;by; ,th;fs; gadw;wth;fshfTk; r%fj;jpd;RikfshfTk; vg;NghJk; kw;wth;fspd; jatpy; thoNtz;bagupjhgj;jpw;Fupath;fshfTk; Nehf;fg;gl;ldh;. Muk;gj;jpy; ,th;fsJfy;tpnjhlh;ghfNth tho;f;if njhlh;ghfNth vJTk; rpe;jpf;fg;gltpy;iy. kdpjehfupfj;jpd; tsh;r;rp fhuzkhf ,th;fs; midtiuAk; xd;Wjpul;b> Xuplj;jpy;my;yJ xU epWtdj;jpy; itj;J czT> cil> ciwAs;> ghJfhg;G Nghd;wtw;iwtoq;fpg; guhkupf;fNtz;Lk; vd;w rpe;jid Njhd;wpw;W.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   5  
  6. 6. ekJ ehl;ilg;nghWj;j kl;by; cly;CdKw;wth;fspd; fy;tp njhlh;ghdrpe;jid Mq;fpNyah; Ml;rpf;fhyj;jpNyNa Njhw;wk; ngw;wjidf; fhz KbfpwJ.nry;tp. Nkup rhg;kd; vd;gtNu ,r;rpe;jidf;Fr; nray;tbtk; nfhLj;j ngUikf;Fupangz;kzpahthh;. ,yq;ifapNy tpopg;Gydw;wth;fSf;Fk; nrtpg;Gydw;wth;fSf;FkhdKjyhtJ tpLjpg;ghlrhiy 1912k; Mz;L uj;kyhidapy; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. ekJjkpo;g; gpuNjrq;fisg; nghWj;jkl;by; ,jw;F kpfTk; gpw;gl;lfhyj;jpy; mjhtJ1956k; Mz;bNyNa ifjb vd;Dk; fpuhkj;jpy; nrtpg;Gydw;wth;fSf;Fk;tpopg;Gydw;NwhUf;Fkhd etPy;l; ghlrhiy Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,t;tpjkhf cly;CdKw;wth;fspd; fy;tp njhlh;ghd rpe;jid tsh;r;rpapd;xU tpupthfNt tpNrl fy;tpj;JiwahdJ tsh;r;rpngwyhapw;W.2.1.2 tpNrl fy;tpj;Jiwapd; tsh;r;rpg; gbepiyfs;1. 1914y; tpNrlghlrhiyfspy; fy;tp fw;gpf;Fk; Mrpupah;fspd; rk;gsj;jpy; 75 rj tPjj;ij muR nghWg;Ngw;Wf; nfhz;lJ.2. 1943y; fd;dq;fuh mwpf;if ntspte;jJ. ,t;twpf;ifapy; tpNrlfy;tp njhlh;ghd rpy Fwpg;Gf;fSk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. mjhtJ ghh;itaw;wth;fshYk; fw;fKbAk; vdTk; ,th;fSf;F gpnwapy;Kiwia gad;gLj;jNtz;Lk; vdTk; nrtpg;Gydw;wth;fSf;F cjl;Lthrpg;GKiw %yk; fw;gpf;fNtz;Lk; vdTk; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.3. 1961y; n[a#upa mwpf;if ntspte;jJ ,t;twpf;ifapy; g+uzkhd Nfl;ly; jpwdw;wth;fSf;Ff; Nfs;fUtpfs; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vdTk; jPtpukhd FiwghLila gps;isfs; xU ghlrhiyapYk; kpjkhd FiwghLila gps;isfs; NtnwhU ghlrhiyapYk; fy;tp fw;fyhk; vdTk; gpuNjrj;jpYs;s FiwghLila gps;isfspd; vz;zpf;iff;F Vw;g jdpj;jdpahd ghlrhiyfs; mikf;fg;gl;L gj;J khzth;fSf;F Xu; Mrpupah; vd;w tPjj;jpy; mkh;j;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   6  
  7. 7. 4. [Pd; nfd;Nkhh; mwpf;if – 1962 ,t;twpf;ifapy; tpopg;Gydw;Nwhhpd; fy;tp njhlh;ghfNt mjpfkhff; Fwpg;gplg;gl;L cs;sJ. mitahtd> tpopg;Gydw;w gps;isfisr; rhjhuz ghlrhiyfspy; ,izj;Jf; fy;tp fw;gpf;fyhk;. tpopg;Gydw;w gps;isfSf;fhd Ntiyj;jpl;lq;fis xd;wpizj;J mth;fSf;F cjt Ntz;Lk;. Mrpupah;fSf;F tpNrlgapw;rp toq;Fjy; Ntz;Lk;. mjpfhupfSf;F mwpt+l;Ljy; Ntz;Lk;. gps;isfSf;F cgfuzq;fs;> Gj;jfq;fs; toq;Fjy; Ntz;Lk;. ePz;l fhyj;jpw;F ,t;Ntiyj;jpl;lq;fisf;nfhz;L elj;Jjy; Ntz;Lk;. ,th;fs; njhlh;ghd Ma;Tfis Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.5. 1967k; Mz;by; tpj;jpNahjahg; gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; tpNrlfy;tp njhlh;ghd gl;lg;gpd;gbg;Gg; ghlnewp Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.6. 1968k; Mz;L tpopg;Gydw;w gjpNdO khzth;fs; rhjhuz ghlrhiyapy; fy;tpgapy tpNrl Ntiyj;jpl;lnkhd;W Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.7. 1969y; mikr;ruit mwpf;if ,y.255y; FiwghLs;s gps;isfSf;Fr; rhjhuz ghlrhiyapy; fy;tpgapw;Wk; jpl;lk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.8. 1970y; kfufk Mrpupah; gapw;rpf;fyhrhiyapy; tpopg;Gydw;w khzth;fspd; fy;tp njhlh;ghd xuhz;Lg;gapw;rpnewp Mrpupah;fSf;F mspf;fg;gl;lJ.9. 1971y; fy;tp mikr;rpy; tpNrl fy;tpg;gpupT muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.10. 1972y; xUKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l my;yJ xd;wpize;j fy;tpj;jpl;lk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. tpopg;Gydw;w gps;isfNs ,j;jpl;lj;jpd; %yk; mjpf gad; mile;jdh;.11. 1976y; csf;FiwghLila gps;isfSf;Ff; fw;gpg;gjw;fhd gl;ljhup Mrpupah;fSf;fhd tpNrl bg;GNshkh fw;ifnewp nfhOk;Gg; gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.12. 1979y; Nghnfhl gpNukul;z mwpf;if ntspte;jJ. ,jpy; tpNrlfy;tp njhlh;ghfTk; kPj;jpwDila khzth;fspd; fy;tp njhlh;ghfTk; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sNjhL tpNrlfy;tp vd;why; vd;d? vd;gJ gw;wpAk; tpNrlfy;tp rk;ge;jkhd ];jhgdq;fs; vt;thW jkJ flikfs;> nghWg;Gf;fis Mw;wNtz;Lk; vd;gJ gw;wpAk; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   7  
  8. 8. 13. 1981y; fy;tp nts;isawpf;if ntspte;jJ. ,jpy; tpNrlfy;tp gw;wpg; ngupjhff; Fwpg;gplhtpbDk;> tpNrlfy;tp njhlh;ghd mjpfhupfspd; flikfs; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.14. 1985y; kfufktpy; gpnwapy; mr;rfk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.15. 1988k; Mz;L Njrpa fy;tp epWtfj;jpy; tpNrlfy;tpf;nfdj; jdpahd Xh; myF Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.16. 1994k; Mz;L ];ngapd; ehl;bYs;s rykd;fhh; vd;Dkplj;jpy; eilngw;w tpNrlfy;tp njhlh;ghd Kf;fpakhd kfhehl;by; ,yq;ifAk; ifr;rhj;jpl;lJ. ,jd;gpufhuk; cl;gLj;jy; fy;tpKiwapid ,yq;ifAk; Vw;Wf;nfhz;lJ.17. 1997 Gjpa fy;tpr; rPh;jpUj;jk; nghJf;fy;tpr; rPh;jpUj;jk; - 1997 vd;Dk; jiyg;gpy; nghJf;fy;tpf;Fupa [dhjpgjpapd; Jupjnraw;FO ntspapl;l mwpf;ifg;Gj;jfj;jpd; 11tJ tplak; rpwg;Gg;fy;tp gw;wpajhFk;. ,q;F ‘tpNrlfy;tp’ vd;gJ ‘rpwg;Gf;fy;tp’ vd nkhopngah;f;fg;gl;Ls;sik ftdpf;fg;gl Ntz;bajhFk;. cly;> cs> r%fk; rhh;e;j FiwghLfspdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l gps;isfSf;F cjTk; mZFKiwfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;glNtz;Lnkdf; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ. 1997y; fhg;gpw;wpfk Njrpa fy;tpapay; fy;Y}upapy; %d;W Mz;Lfisf;nfhz;l tpNrlfy;tpf; fw;ifnewp (fw;gpj;jypy; Njrpa bg;GNshkh) Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.18. 2003k; Mz;L Njrpa fy;tp epWtfj;jpy; tpNrl fy;tp bg;GNshkh fw;ifnewp rpq;fs nkhop %yk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.19. 2004k; Mz;L aho;g;ghzk; Njrpa fy;tpapaw; fy;Y}upapy; Kjd;Kjyhfj; jkpo;nkhop %ykhd tpNrlfy;tp fw;ifnewp (fw;gpj;jypy; Njrpa bg;GNshkh) Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.20. 2005k; Mz;L jh;f;fhefh; Njrpa fy;tpapaw; fy;Y}upapy; jkpo;nkhop %ykhd tpNrlfy;tpf; fw;ifnewp Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,Nj Mz;by; Njrpa fy;tp epWtfj;jpy; jkpo;nkhop %ykhd tpNrlfy;tp bg;GNshkhf; fw;ifnewpAk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,t;thW ekJ ehl;bNy tpNrlfy;tpj; JiwahdJ gygupkhdtsh;r;rpg;gbfisf; fz;L tsh;r;rpaile;J tUfpd;wikiaf; fhz KbfpwJ.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   8  
  9. 9. 2.1.3 cl;gLj;jy; fy;tp tpNrl NjitAila gps;isfis> rhjhuz ghlrhiyfspy;> rhjhuztFg;giwfspy; itj;J fw;gpj;jy; cl;gLj;jy; fy;tp vdg;gLk;. tpNrlNjitAila gps;isfSk; ,k;kz;zpy; KOikaha; thog;gpwe;jth;fNs. me;jtifapy;> tho;tpd; xt;nthU mk;rj;jpYk; ,ize;J nfhs;tJ my;yJfye;Jnfhs;tJ mth;fspd; mbg;gil cupik MFk;. ,t;Tupikia epiyehl;Lk;cd;dj Nehf;FlNdNa cl;gLj;jy; fy;tpapd; jj;Jtq;fs; tpupfpd;wd. rfy gps;isfSf;Fk; $l;lhff; fw;Fk; cupikAz;L. gps;isfspd; FiwghLkw;Wk; fw;wy; ,lh;ghL fhuzkhf mth;fis tFg;giwapypUe;J ntspNaWk;tifapy; Fiwj;J kjpg;gplNth tifg;ggLj;jNth KbahJ. ghlrhiynry;Yk;gUtj;jpy; gps;isfis tifg;gLj;Jtjw;F mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l epahakhd fhuzk;vJTk; fpilahJ. mt;thwhd gps;isfs; gpwpnjhUtuplkpUe;J ghJfhg;G ngwTk;Ntz;Lk;. mj;NjhL mth;fSld; $b ,Uf;fTk; Ntz;Lk;. ,J Nghd;w rpe;jidfNs,t;Tl;gLj;jy; fy;tpj;jj;Jtj;jpw;F tYr; Nrh;j;J epw;fpd;wd. cl;gLj;jy; fy;tp njhlh;ghfg; gy;NtW mwpQh;fSk; gythwhfr;rpe;jpj;Js;sdh;. Me;j tifapy; mth;fs; ,J njhlh;ghf Kd;itj;Js;stiutpyf;fzq;fis Nehf;FtJ ,j;Jiw njhlh;ghd ekJ rpe;jidia NkYk;mfyg;gLj;jpf;nfhs;sj; Jiznra;Ak;. vdpDk; ,tw;iw Kbe;j Kbthdtiutpyf;fzq;fs; vd;Wk; ehk; nfhz;Ltpl KbahJ. rfy tifapYk; FiwghLfisf;nfhz;;l gps;isfisg; ghlrhiyr; rKjhaj;jpd; ngWkjp kpf;f kw;Wk;> mj;jpahtrpakhd xU r%fkhf khw;Wk; Nfhl;ghLfisf; nfhz;lJ. (Uditsky 1993) cl;gLj;jyhdJ nghJthd ghlrhiyapd; trjptha;g;Gf;fis Nkd;NkYk; tpupTgLj;Jfpd;wikahy; gy;tifikAila gps;isfis cl;gLj;Jk; tha;g;Gk; tpuptilAk;. (ClarkEtal 1995) rfy gps;isfsJk; fw;wiy cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;w nghJthd gzpia Mw;Wfpd;w gy;tifg;gl;l gpur;rpidfSf;Fk; jPh;TfhZfpd;w XuplNk cl;gLj;jy; ghlrhiyahFk;. (Rouse and Floriam 1996) cl;gLj;jy; vd;gJ rfy gps;isfSf;Fk; Jyq;fy; fhl;lj;jf;fthwhd ghlrhiy xOq;fikg;igf; fUj;jpw;nfhz;L Njitfis> trjpfis cUthf;fpf; nfhLf;Fk; xU nrad;KiwahFk;. (Sebba 1996) rfy gps;isfisAk; NtWghbd;wp Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; ,lNk cl;gLj;jy; ghlrhiy MFk;. (Thomas 1997)tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   9  
  10. 10. cl;gLj;jy; fy;tp vd;gJ ntWkNd xU jdpeguhNyh md;wpg; ghlrhiyahNyhkl;Lk; ntw;wpfukhfr; nraw;gLj;jp tpl KbahjJ. mJ r%fj;jpd; gyjug;gpdiuAk;cs;slf;fpa xU $l;L Kaw;rp MFk;. ,j;jug;gpdh; midtUk; ,ize;J ,iae;Jnraw;gLfpd;wNghJ kl;LNk ,t;Tl;gLj;jy; fy;tpapd; ntw;wpfis ehk; ngw KbAk;.,f; $l;LKaw;rpapNy gy;NtW tpjkhd thz;ikahsh;fspd; gq;Fk; kpfkpf,d;wpaikahjJ. mt;thz;ikahsh;fshf • kUj;Jth;fs; • clw;gapw;rpahsh;fs; • Ngr;Rg;gapw;rpahsh;fs; • njhopy; rhh;e;j rpfpr;irahsh;fs; • cstpayhsh;fs;Nghd;Nwhiuf; Fwpg;gplyhk;. ,th;fspd; gzpfs; tFg;giwapYk; tFg;giwf;FntspNaAk; ,lk;ngWk;.2.1.4 cl;gLj;jy; fy;tpapd; mbg;gilf;Nfhl;ghLfs; fy;tpf;nfhs;iffis tFj;J eilKiwg;gLj;Jk;NghJ CdKw;w gps;isfSf;Fk; ,isQh; AtjpfSf;Fk; tsh;e;Njhh;f;Fk; rk tha;g;ig toq;Fk; Nfhl;ghl;il ed;F ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. CdKw;w xUgps;is jdJ tPl;Lf;F mz;ikapYs;s xU ghlrhiyapy; Nrh;e;J fy;tp fw;gjw;F Ntz;ba toptiffisg; gpuNjr kw;Wk; Njrpa fy;tpf; nfhs;iffspy; epge;jidfshf cs;slf;f Ntz;Lk;. ghlrhiyr; #oypy; mlq;fpAs;s gy;tifg;gl;l mDgtq;fs;> tho;f;iff; Nfhyq;fs;> nkhopfs;> gz;ghl;Lg; gpd;dzpfs; Nghd;wdtw;wpy; mlq;fpAs;s mD$ykhd mk;rq;fis tpUj;jp nra;jy; kw;Wk; Nkk;gLj;Jjy; njhlh;ghfTk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;. rkkpd;ikfisj; Njhw;Wtpf;fj;jf;f rhjp> kj> Fy> rka> ,d> r%f> tpUg;G> Mw;wy;> Cdk; Nghd;w NtWghLfisf; fUj;jpw; nfhs;tij Kw;whfj; jtph;j;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,f;Nfhl;ghLfis mbg;gilahf;f nfhz;L> mtw;iw cupa tifapy; eilKiwg; gLj;Jtjw;fhd eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;tJ ghlrhiy r%fj;jpduJk; mur jug;gpduJk; nghWg;ghFk;.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   10  
  11. 11. ghlrhiyfspy; cl;gLj;jy; fy;tpia eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd gpNuuizfis Kd;itf;Fk;NghJ 1995y; N[hd;rd; vd;gth; Kd;itj;j gj;Jf; Nfhl;ghLfisAk; ftdj;jpw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. mitahtd> 1. ,dq;fhzy;> mq;fPfupj;jy;> njhFjpapy; cs;s rfyuJk; nghWg;ghFk;. ,t;ntz;zf;fUit xt;nthUtUk; ed;F tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. 2. Njrpa kl;lj;jpy; nraw;gly;. tpNrl NjitAila midtUk; Njrpakl;lj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; rfyUk; gad;ngwj;jf;fjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. 3. rfy JiwapYk; gy;NtW tifg;gl;l jilfis ePf;Fk; tifapy; trjpfs; Vw;gLj;jg; glNtz;Lk;. 4. gd;Kfg;gLj;jg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. 5. xd;wpizj;jy;:- tpNrl fy;tpj; NjitAila gps;isapd; rfy NjitfSk; epiwTnra;ag;gLk; tifapy; jilfsw;w (kpff;Fiwthd) #o;epiyapy; fy;tp ngwf;$batifapy; eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;. 6. nefpo;jfT (ghlikaj; jd;ikapypUe;J tpLgl;L> tho;f;ifika cs;slf;fj;Jld; khzth;ika mZFKiwiaf;) nfhz;ljhf ,Uj;jy;. 7. tpsq;fpf;nfhs;sy;. gps;isapd; ,sk; gUte;njhlf;fk; Njitg;gLk; rfy NjitfisAk; gw;wpa njspthd tpsf;fj;ijg; ngw;wpUj;jy;. 8. ,izg;ghf;fk;:- rfy kl;lq;fspYk; rpwg;ghf ,izg;ghf;fk; fhzg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. 9. thz;ikj;jd;ik:- ed;F gapw;rp ngw;W njhopy;rhh; mh;g;gzpg;Gld; nraw;gLNthuhy; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. 10. ajhh;j;jg+h;tkhdjhf ,Uj;jy;:- cl;gLj;jy; fy;tpr; nrad;KiwahdJ ehl;bd; r%f> nghUshjhu> njhopy;El;g> gz;ghl;L epiyikfSf;Fg; nghUj;jkhd tifapy; xOq;FgLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. tpQ;Qhdj;Jiwfs; gytw;wpy; Vw;gl;l Jupjkhd tsh;r;rp nkhopMa;Tj;Jiwapidg; ghjpf;fyhapw;W. nkhop Ma;T gz;ilf;fhyk; njhlf;fNkeilngw;W te;Js;sJ. Vida tpQ;Qhdj;Jiwfspy; ,lk;ngw;w Nfhl;ghLfs;nkhopapay; JiwapYk; Vw;glyhapw;W. jhtutpay;> tpyq;fpay; Nghd;w JiwfspNyjhtuk; my;yJ tpyq;fpidg; gFg;gha;T nra;J mtw;wpilNa fhzg;gl;l gz;Gfismy;yJ xOq;Ffis vLj;J tpsf;fpaJNghy nkhopapidAk; gFg;gha;T nra;Jtpsf;fpaJ. nkhopapNy Vw;gLk; khw;wq;fSf;F mbg;gilahf miktJ xypkhw;wNkvd;gij mtjhdpj;J mk; khw;w xOq;fpid xypepajpf; Nfhl;ghlhff; fhl;bdh;.capupay; JiwapNy ifahsg;gl;l fiyr; nrhw;fs; nkhopapay; JiwapYk;ifahsg;gl;ld. capupdq;fspd; Njhw;wk;> tsh;r;rp gw;wpa lhh;tpdpd;gupzhkf;nfhs;if ,aw;if nkhopfspd; Njhw;wk;> tsh;r;rp gw;wp mwpaTk;tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   11  
  12. 12. topfhl;baJ. capupdq;fSf;Fs;Ns mbg;gilj;njhlh;G nfhz;ltw;iwf;FLk;gq;fshfg; ghFghL nra;Ak; Nehf;fpid mbnahw;wp njhlh;Gw;w nkhopfisf;FLk;gq;fshf ,dq;fhZk; Kaw;rp nkhopapay; JiwapYk; cz;lhapw;W.,e;jtifapy; jpuhtpl nkhopf;FLk;gj;jpd; %j;jnkhopahfg; jkpo;nkhopfhzg;gLfpd;wJ. nkhop tsh;tJ gupzhktsh;r;rpahYk; fld;thq;fyhYk; vd;gh;tuyhw;Wnkhopapay; Nguhrpupah;. nkhop fhyj;jpw;Ff; fhyk; khw;wkile;J nfhz;Nl,Uf;fpd;wJ. xUnkhopapy; gy;NtW fhyq;fspy; mile;j khw;wj;ij fhyKiwg;gbMuhag; gy rhd;Wfs; Njitg;gLfpd;wd. jkpo;nkhopapDila tuyhw;iwmwpe;Jnfhs;s ,yf;fpaq;fs;> ,yf;fzq;fs;> fy;ntl;Lf;fs;>gpwnkhopf;fy;ntl;Lf;fs;> mfuhjpfs;> may;ehl;lhh; Fwpg;Gf;fs;> fpisnkhopfs;vd;gtw;iw mbg;gilr; rhd;Wfshff; nfhs;syhk;. jkpo;nkhopapd; tsh;r;rp epiyfis ed;F ,dq;fz;L mk;nkhopapd;xypaikg;G> nrhy;yikg;G> njhluikg;G Mfpadtw;Wf;nfy;yhk; ,yf;fzk; $Wk;Kaw;rpfis ,Ugjhk; E}w;whz;bd; eLg;gFjpapy; ,Ue;J etPd nkhopapayhsh;Nkw;nfhz;Ls;sdh;.nrhw;fspd; cWg;ghf mike;j xypad;fs; xt;nthd;Wf;Fk; tuptbtk; nfhLj;jNghJvOj;Jf;fs; Njhd;wpd. vOj;J vDk; jkpo;r;nrhy;Yf;F ‘vOjg;gLtJ’>‘tiuag;gLtJ’> ‘rpj;jpuk;jPl;lg;gLtJ’ vd;gNj mbg;gilg;nghUs;. jkpiog;nghWj;jtiuapy; ,yf;fzfhuh; Kg;gJ %y xypfis tFj;Jf;nfhz;ldh;. mit 12capUk; 18nka;fSkhfg; ghFgLj;jg;gl;ld. cs;spUe;J vOk; %r;R kplw;wpd;Kaw;rpAld; thapd; topahf ntspg;gLk;NghJ jilapd;wp ntspg;gbd; caph;xypfs;gpwf;Fk;. %r;R ntspg;gLk;NghJ thapNy jilg;gbd; nka;xypfs; gpwf;Fk;. capUk;nka;Akhfpa ,e;j xypfis mit gpwf;Fk; Kaw;rp gw;wpAk; ,lk; gw;wpAk;nkhopapayhsUk; ,yf;fzfhuUk; gythW ghFghL nra;th;. jkpo; vOj;Jf;fs; vy;yhk; jdpj;jdp NtWNtwhd xypfis cilait.,sik KjNy mtw;iwj; jpUj;jkhf xypj;Jg; gofpte;jhy; vOj;jpNy kaf;fk;Njhd;whJ. MapDk; rpy vOj;Jf;fisg; Ngr;R tof;fpNy jpUj;jkhf xypahikahy;vOJk;NghJ gyUf;F ,lh;ghL Vw;gLfpd;wJ. nghJthf khztUf;F kaf;fk;tpistpf;Fk; vOj;Jf;fisg; gpd;tUk; %d;W njhFjpf;Fs; mlf;fyhk;. ,tw;iwg;nghJthf xypNgjr; nrhw;fs; vd;gh;.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   12  
  13. 13. 1. zfu> efu> dfu xypfs; 2. yfu> sfu> ofu xypfs; 3. ufu> wfu xypfs;. Kjyhk; njhFjpapYs;s %d;W vOj;Jf;fSk; nky;ypdj;ijr; Nrh;e;jit.%r;R %f;FtopNa ntspg;glg; gpwg;git. ehEdp mz;zj;ij cWjyhw; gpwg;git.ehEdp mz;zj;ijj; njhLtjpYs;s NtWghL fhuzkhfNt ,it ntt;NtWjdpxypfshf mikfpd;wd. ,tw;Ws;> zfuk;> ehEdp cs;tise;J mbg;gFjpahy; mz;zj;ijj; njhl;ltopg; gpwg;gJ. efuk;> ehEdp Kd; mz;zj;ij (mjhtJ Nky;tha;g;gy;ypdJ mbia) cWtjhw; gpwg;gJ. dfuk;> ehEdp mz;zj;ij xw;Wtjhy; (kpfg; nghUe;Jtjhy;) gpwg;gJ. ,uz;lhk; njhFjpapYs;s %d;W vOj;Jf;fSk; ,ilapdj;ijr; Nrh;e;jit.,tw;Ws; y>s ,uz;Lk; %r;ir ehthw; gpupj;J ntspg;gLj;jg; gpwg;git. ofuk;ehtpd; gy rpWmirTfshw; gpwg;gJ. yfuk;> ehtpspk;G tPq;fp Kd; mz;zj;ij (Nky;tha;g; gy;ypdJ mbia) xw;Wtjhw; gpwg;gJ. sfuk;> ehtpspk;G tPq;fp mz;zj;ij tULtjhw; (jlTtjhw;) gpwg;gJ. ofuk;> ehEdp cs;tise;J mz;zj;ij tULtjhw; gpwg;gJ.yfuj;ij xypg;gij tpl sfuj;ij xypg;gjpy; ehthdJ cah;e;Jk; gpd;Ndhf;fpAk;nry;fpd;wJ. ofuk; jkpOf;Nf cupj;jhd rpwg;ghd vOj;jhFk;. %d;whk; njhFjpapYs;s ,uz;L vOj;Jf;fSs; wfuk; ty;ypdj;ijAk; ufuk;,ilapdj;ijAk; Nrh;e;jit. ,it ehtpd; rpW mirTfSld; %r;R ntspg;glg;gpwg;gd. ,tw;Ws;> ufuk;> ehEdp mz;zj;ij tULtjhw; gpwg;gJ. wfuk;> ehEdp mz;zj;ij xw;Wtjhy; (kpfg;nghUe;Jtjhy;) gpwg;gJ. wfuk; jkpo;nkhopf;Fr; rpwg;ghd xyp.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   13  
  14. 14. 2.1.5 jkpo;nkhopiaf; fw;gpf;ifapy; mjd; ghlNehf;fq;fshfg; gpd;tUtd mikfpd;wd. 1. jkpo;nkhopiaj; njhlh;ghlw; fUtpahf fhyj;jpw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd Kiwapy; tpidj;jpwDld; ifahSjy;. 2. ,yf;fpaq;fspD}lhf r%f> fyhrhu> tpOkpaq;fis mwpe;J mtw;iwg; NgZjy;. 3. Fiyfs;> mwptpay;> njhopy;El;gj;Jiwfs; vd;gtw;wpd; tsh;r;rpf;Nfw;g nkhopiar; nrk;ikahfg; gad;gLj;Jk; Mw;wiyg; ngWjy;. 4. Nkhopa+lhf khzth; jk; MSikia tsh;j;Jf; nfhs;Sjy;. 5. Njrpa xUikg;ghl;Lzh;it tsh;f;f nkhopiar; rhjfkhff; nfhs;sy;. ,t;tpaypy; ,yf;fpa kPsha;T gw;wp mjhtJ tpNrlfy;tpapd; Njhw;wk;tsh;r;rp gw;wpAk; cl;gLj;jy; fy;tp gw;wpAk; jkpo; nkhopapy; xypNgjr;nrhw;fspd;gpwg;Gg; gw;wpAk; Nehf;fg;gl;lJ. ,dp mLj;j ,aypy; Ma;T Kiwapay; gw;wpNehf;fg;gLk;.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   14  
  15. 15. Ma;T Kiwapay; Xu; Ma;tpy; kpf Kf;fpa gq;F tfpg;gJ juT Nrfupj;jy; MFk;. Nrfupf;Fk;juTfisg; nghWj;Nj Ma;T jpl;lkplg;gLk;. ,jw;F cz;ikahd> rupahd juTfs;Nrfupf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. juTfspd; juk;> ek;gfk;> jFjp> cWjpg;ghL vd;gdfz;lwpag;gl Ntz;Lk;. vdNt ,t;tpaypy; Ma;T Kiwapay;fs; gw;wp Nehf;fg;gLk;.3.1 Ma;T tbtikg;Gk; mjd; njuptpw;fhd epahag;ghLk; Ma;Tk; mwpTk; xU ehzaj;jpd; ,Ugf;fq;fs; Nghd;wit. mwptpd; tsh;r;rpvd;gJ Ma;Tfspd; tsh;r;rpahf ,Ue;J te;Js;sJ. fy;tpr; nrad;KiwfspNyvjph;Nehf;fg;gLk; gy;NtW ,lh;ghLfs; Ma;Tfspd; Jiznfhz;Nl jPh;f;fg;gl;Ls;sd. Ma;T vd;gJ nka;apidf; fz;lwpAk; njhlh;r;rpahd Njliy Kd;ndLf;fpd;wGyikg;gapw;rpahfpd;wJ. mwptpd; vy;iyfis Ma;Tfs; Kd;Ndhf;fp efh;j;jpatz;zk; cs;sd. Ma;T vd;fpd;w fy;tpr;nrad;KiwahdJ mwpe;jjpypUe;Jmwpahjij Nehf;fpr; nry;Yk; ,af;ftpirahFk;. Ma;tpd; Ngwhfg; Gjpafz;Lgpbg;Gf;fSk; Gj;jhf;fq;fSk; Kd;itf;fg;gLfpd;wd (n[auhrh>2000). Ma;tpd; gbKiwfshfg; gpur;rpidia ,zq;fhZjy;> gpur;rpidiatiuaiwnra;jy;> ,yf;fpa kPsha;T> Ma;tpd; Nehf;fq;fisj; jPh;khdpj;jy;>Ma;Tf;Fhpa Kiwapidj; jPh;khdpj;jy;> juTfisr;Nrfhpj;jy;> gFg;gha;Tnra;jy;>Ma;Tf;Fhpa nraw;wpl;lj;ijj; jahhpj;jy;> nraw;gLj;Jjy;> tpsf;fkspj;jy;>mwpf;ifg;gLj;jy;> ntspapLjy; vd;gd mikfpd;wd.gpur;rpid vd;gJvjph;Nehf;fg;gLk; epiyfSf;Fk; ,Uf;Fk; epiyikfSf;Fk; ,ilapYs;s,ilntspahFk;. Ma;Tg;gpur;ridfSf;fhd mbg;gil gw;wpAk; jPh;Tgw;wpAk;Gyf;fhl;rp nfhs;sitf;Fk; gpur;rpidfisr; rhh;e;j gz;gsTg; ngWkhdq;fisvz;zsTg;ngWkhdq;fshf khw;Wtjw;F cjTk; Gjpa Njly;fisAk;GjpajPh;khdq;fisAk; Nkw;nfhs;s cjTtjhy; mwptpd; Kd;duq;f epiyfisNkYk; Kd;dfh;j;j cjTk;.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   15  
  16. 16. xt;nthU MrpupaUk; jk; tFg;giwapy; vOk; gpur;rpidfSf;Fj; jPh;TfhZk;tifapy; vspikahd eilKiwg;gads;s Ma;Tfis nray;epiy Ma;T vd;gh;.ghlrhiyfspd; fy;tpapay; tpidj;jpwd;fis mjpfhpf;f khzth;fspd; fw;wy;gpur;rpidfisg; gFj;jhuha;e;J jPh;Tfhz nray;epiy Ma;Tfs; topfhl;Lfpd;wd.ghlrhiy fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; epiyikfspy; khw;wq;fis> tpUj;jpfis Vw;gLj;jpfw;wy; ngWNgWfis Kd;Ndw;Wtjw;Fk; ghlrhiyf;Fk; r%fj;jpw;Fkpilapy;xj;Jiog;igAk; gu];gu cjtpfisAk; tsh;g;gjw;Fk; nray;epiy Ma;Tfisg;gad;gLj;jy; rpwe;jnjd cyfshtpa uPjpapy; fy;tpapayhsh;fs; fUJfpd;wdh;. ,d;iwa ghlrhiyf; fy;tpKiwapy; Mrpupah;fNs Kf;fpakhd tsq;fs;Mthu;. Mrpupah;fs; fy;tpia toq;Ftjw;Fj; jk;ik Kw;whf mu;g;gzpj;JKOg;nghWg;Gld; nraw;gl mth;fSf;Ff; fy;tpapay; Ma;Tj;Jiwfspy; tha;g;Gf;fs;mspf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. MrpupaUila jpwikfs;> Ma;Tg;Gyk;> mh;g;gzpg;G>nghWg;Gf;fs; vd;gd ghlrhiyf; fy;tp mgptpUj;jpf;F %yfhuzq;fs; MFk;.xt;nthU MrpupaUk; mjpgUk; fy;tp njhlh;ghd Ma;Tg;gzpfspy; <LglNtz;Lk;. xUMa;Tf;fyhrhuj;ijf; fy;tpj;Jiwapy; Vw;gLj;jNtz;Lk;. ghlrhiyfs; vjph;Nehf;Fk;gy;NtW rthy;fisf; fy;tpapay; nray; epiy Ma;tpd; %yk; ntw;wpnfhs;sKbAk;. ,d;iwa fhyfl;lj;jpy; ghlrhiyfspy; Kd;ndg;NghJk; ,dq;fhzg;glhjgy gpur;rpidfs; gutyhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. cyfkakhjypd; gupzhkj;jpdhy;Vw;gl;Ls;s gy;NtW jhf;fq;fs; fy;tpapYk; ,ioNahb tUfpd;wd. ,e;epiyapy;khztiu cd;dj epiyf;F ,l;Lr;nry;tjw;fhfr; nraw;gLk; epWtdk; ghlrhiyvd;wtifapy; fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; nrad;KiwahdJ tpidj;jpwDld; tpisjpwDk;nfhz;ljhf mike;Jtplr; nray;epiy Ma;Tfs; toptFj;J epw;fpd;wd. nray; Ma;thdJ vg;NghJk; nray; rhh;e;jJ. Ma;itr;nra;gtNu nraypy;gq;Nfw;W gpur;rpidfisj; jPh;g;gjpYk; epiyfis Kd;Ndw;WtjpYk; <Lgl Ntz;Lk;.xU epiyik khw;wj;jpw;FupaJ vd ,dq;fhzg;gbd; me;epiyikf;fhdfhuzq;fisf; fz;lwpe;J rPuhf;fk; nra;a nray;epiy Ma;Nt cfe;jjhFk;. rpy Fwpg;gpl;l gpur;rpidf;Fupa vz;zf;fUf;fis Ma;Tnra;tjw;F rpyMa;T Kiwfs; Vida Ma;TKiwfis tplTk; $ba nghUj;jg;ghL nfhz;ljhf,Uf;fyhk;. Ma;TKiwnahd;iwj; njupTnra;Ak; NghJ Ma;T epfo;j;jg;gLk;#o;epiy> mr;#o; epiyapy; fpilf;ff;$ba tsq;fs;> mr;#oypy; cs;stpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   16  
  17. 17. tiuaiwfs; vd;gd fUj;jpy; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,t;tifapy; ,q;FMa;thdJ tpNrlfy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fisj; jpUj;jkhfvOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy; gw;wpa nray;epiy Ma;thf Ma;thsuhy; njupTnra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ.3.2 fw;wy; ,lf;Ftpak; nray;epiyMa;Tfs; Fwpg;gpl;l gpur;rpidia ikakhf itj;Jr; nraw;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,jd;NghJ gpur;rpidiaj; njspthf ,zq;fhzTk; juTfisg;gFg;gha;T nra;J khzth;fSf;Nfw;w fw;gpj;jy; Kiwapay;fisj; njupT nra;aTk;toptFf;fpd;wJ. ,r;nray;epiy Ma;tpy; rpwg;gk;rkhf Fwpf;fg;gl;l khzth;fisj;njupTnra;jy; fhzg; gLfpd;wJ. kw;Wk; Mrpupa khzt ,iltpid cwittYg;ngwr; nra;fpwJ. Mrpupaiu Ma;thsuhfTk; Ma;thsiu MrpupauhfTk;khw;wpaikf;Fk; rf;jp nray;epiy Ma;TfSf;F cz;L vdyhk;. ,t;tha;Tf;Fj; njupTnra;ag;gl;l ah/ a+dpad; fy;Y}upahdJ aho;khtl;lj;jpy; typ tlf;Fg; gpuNjrnrayh; gpuptpYs;sJld;aho;g;ghzf;Flhehl;bNyNa fy;tpapy; kl;Lkd;wp ,izghltpjhdr; nraw;ghLfspYk;Kd;dzpapy; epw;Fk; 1AB juj;jpyhd Gfo;g+j;j ghlrhiyahFk;. ,g;ghlrhiy1816k; Mz;Lfhyg;gFjpapy; mnkupf;f kpdupapduhy; ];jhgpf;fg;gl;l>njd;dhrpahtpNyNa fhyj;jhy; gioik tha;e;j ghlrhiyahFk;. ,Jnjd;dhrpahtpd; %j;j fytd; ghlrhiy vd;gJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f tplakhFk;. ,g;ghlrhiy gpwg;ngLj;j fhye;njhl;L ,d;Wtiu rpwe;j Gj;jp[Ptpfisr%fj;jpw;fhf gpurtpj;J tUfpd;wJ. cs;ehl;bYk; me;epakz;zpYk; rpwe;jNritiathuptoq;fpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; itj;jpaepGzh;fSk; tpz;ntspf;Fg; ngUikNrh;j;J epw;Fk; eh]htpd; tpQ;QhdpfSk; rl;lk;nty;Yk; rl;lj;juzpfSk; ,d;Dk;r%fj;ijNa jpUj;jpaikf;Fk; ty;yikgilj;j Mrhd;fisAk; gpurtpj;Jj; je;j,f;fy;Y}up md;id ePz;L epiy ngWths;. ,J jpz;zk;. ,j;jifa rpwg;Gf;fisf;nfhz;l ,g;ghlrhiy 1990 Mk; Mz;L cs;ehl;LAj;jk; fhuzkhfr; nrhe;j,lj;ij tpl;L ,lk;ngah;e;J trjpfis ,oe;jepiyapYk;fpilj;jtw;iwf;nfhz;L midj;Jr;nraw;ghLfspYk; tPWeil Nghl;lJ. gd;dpuz;LtUlq;fs; fle;jgpd;dh; 2002 Mk; Mz;bd; eLg;gFjpapy; nrhe;j,lkhfpanjy;ypg;giof;F te;JNrh;e;J ‘tPo;e;jhYk; vOe;jpLNthk;’ vd;w ,yf;Fld; mzptpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   17  
  18. 18. elj;Jk; jpwidf;nfhz;l mjpgUld; mh;g;gzpg;igNa tho;thff;fUjp epw;Fk; Mw;wy;kpF Mrhd;fisAk; nfhz;L gz;GkpF khzth;fSf;fhfj; Jbg;Gld; nraw;gl;LtUfpd;wJ. ,g;ghlrhiyahdJ juk;6 njhlf;fk; cah;juk; tiuahd tFg;Gf;fisf;nfhz;L ,Ug;gNjhL ,jd; Muk;gg;gpupthfj; je;ijnry;th njhlf;fepiyg;gs;spmike;jpUg;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. ,t;tha;tpw;F a+dpad; fy;Y}hpapd; fdp;l,ilepiy tpNrlfy;tp myF khzth;fs; njhpTnra;ag;gl;Ls;sdh;.3.3 juT Nrfhpg;G Kiwfs; Ma;nthd;wpw;Fj; juTfSk; jfty;fSk; kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdit. Nrfhpf;fg;gLk;juTfspypUe;Nj Ma;tpd; nraw;ghLfs; Kd;ndLf;fg;gLfpd;wd. Ma;tpy; juTfisr;Nrfupg;gjw;Fg; gy;NtW Kiwfs; ifahsg;gLfpd;wd. mit gpd;tUkhW> mtjhdpj;jy; Neh;fhzy; rupaPl;Lg;gl;bay;fs; tplajdpahs; Ma;T tpdhf;nfhj;J fzpg;gPLfs; rk;gtg;gjpNtLfs; xg;gilfs; nray;khjpupfs; mDgtVLfs; Gifg;glq;fs; Mtzq;fs; r%fmstPl;L Kiwfs; guPl;irfs; xU nray;epiy ma;tpy; Ma;thsh; juTfisr; Nrfupj;J Ma;it eilKiwg; gLj;Jifapy; mtjhdpj;jtw;iwj; jpUj;jkhf kjpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;. ,r;nray;epiy Ma;tpy; juTfisr; Nrfupg;gjw;fhf Ma;thsuhy; gpd;tUk; Kiwfs; gad;gLj;jg;gl;ld.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   18  
  19. 19. mtjhdpg;G fye;Jiuahly; tpdhf;nfhj;J guPl;irfs; Neu;fhzy;3.3.1 mtjhdpg;G ghlrhiy tFg;giwr;nraw;ghl;by; khzth;fs; njhlh;e;Jmtjhdpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. mth;fsJ tpUg;G> ntWg;G> Mh;tk;> Nrhfk;> kfpo;r;rp vd;Dk;epiyikfs; mtjhdpf;f gl;ld. NkYk; xypNgjr; nrhw;fisg; gad;gLj;jpf;fw;gpf;Fk;NghJ mth;fSf;F xyp Ngjr; nrhw;fs; gw;wpa Nghjpa tpsf;fkpd;ik xUgpur;rpidahf mtjhdpf;fg;gl;lJ.3.3.2 fye;Jiuahly; Kiw khzth;fSld; xypNgjr; nrhw;fs; njhlh;ghf Vw;gLk; gpur;rpidfs; gw;wpf;fye;Jiuahlg;gl;lJ. NkYk; Vida jkpo;nkhop fw;gpf;Fk; Mrpupah;fSlDk;fye;Jiuahlg;gl;lJ. ,jd;NghJ khzth;fSf;Fg; Nghjpa tpsf;fkpd;ikNagpur;rpidahf ,Ue;jik mwpag;gl;lJ.3.3.3 tpdhf;nfhj;J Kiw ,k;KiwahdJ jfty;fisj; jpul;bf;nfhs;tjw;Fupa vspikahd xUKiwahFk;. mj;Jld; Neu rpf;fdj;Jld; $ba xU KiwahFk;. ,k;KiwahdJMk; ,y;iy vd;w J}z;lw;NgWfisf; nfhz;ldthfTk; nghUj;jkhd njupTfs;njupTnra;af; $bajhfTk; mikf;fg;glyhk;. Mdhy; re;Njfj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;tpilfs; njupT nra;ag;gbd; mJ Ma;TKiwapy; ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;Jk;.,t;tha;tpy; Ma;thsuhy; 15 tpdhf;fisf;nfhz;l tpdhf;nfhj;J toq;fg;gl;Ljfty;fs; Nrfupf;fg;gl;ld.3.4 juTg; gFg;gha;TKiwfs; juTg;gFg;gha;T vd;gJ Nrfupf;fg;gl;l jfty;fspypUe;J gpur;rpidfis ,dk;fhz;gjw;F my;yJ ngwg;gl;l tpisTfs; vt;tifahdit vd;gijr; Rl;bf;fhl;lty;yJ. ,q;F juTg; gFg;gha;thf khzth;fSf;F Kw;Nrhjid xd;W toq;fg;gl;LGs;spfs; ngwg;gL;k;. mjpypUe;J ngwg;gl;l jfty;fSf;F Vw;g eltbf;iftpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   19  
  20. 20. Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;. gpd;dh; gpw;Nrhjid xd;W toq;fg;glL Gs;spfs; ngwg;gLk;.gpw;Nrhjid> Kw;NrhjidfspypUe;J ngwg;gl;l jfty;fspd; mbg;gilapy; TNrhjid elj;jg;gl;L juTg;gFg;gha;T Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;.3.5 juTfspd; juk; (ek;gfk;> jFjp> cWjpg;ghL) jug;gl;l juTfSk; jfty;fSk; cah; ek;gfk;> jFjp> cWjpg;ghl;ilf;nfhz;likAk; NghJ Ma;thdJ ntw;wpiaj;jUk;. ,t;tpaypNy Ma;Ttbtikg;Gk; mjd; njuptpw;fhd epahag;ghL gw;wpAk;fw;wy; ,lf;Ftpak; gw;wpAk; juTNrfupg;G Kiwfs; gw;wpAk; juT gFg;gha;TKiwfs; gw;wpAk; juTfspd; juk; gw;wpAk; Ma;T nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,dp mLj;j,aypy; juT mspf;ifAk; gFg;gha;Tk; gw;wpAk; Ma;T nra;ag;gl cs;sJ.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   20  
  21. 21. juT mspf;ifAk; gFg;gha;Tk; Ma;nthd;wpNy Nrfupj;j jfty;fis xOq;FgLj;jp> juTg;gFg;gha;itNkw;nfhs;Sk; NghJ jhd; Ma;tpw;fhd jpl;lkpliy Nkw;nfhs;s KbAk;. vdNt,t;tpaypy; juT mspf;ifAk; gFg;gha;Tk; gw;wp Nehf;FNthk;.4.1 Nrfupj;j jfty;fis xOq;FgLj;jp mspj;jy; tpNrlfy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr;nrhw;fisj; jpUj;jkhf vOJk;Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy; njhlh;ghd Ma;tpw;fhfj; njupTnra;j khzth;fs; gw;wpajuTfs; Nrfupf;fg;gl;ld. ,jw;Fg; gy juT Nrfupg;G Kiwfs; gad;gLj;jg;gl;ld. ,y khzth; capUld; ,Uj;jy; njhopy; FLk;gmq;fj;jth; jha; je;ij jha; je;ij vz;zpf;if 01. A √ √ - $yp 04 02. B √ X tPL - 05 03. C √ √ tPL 04 04. D X √ - $yp 06 05. E √ X tPL - 07 06. F X X - - 05 07. G X √ - $yp 08 08. H √ X tPL - 05 Nkw;fhl;ba juTfSf;Nfw;g ehd;F khzth;fSf;Fj; je;ij ,y;iy. je;ijgw;wp mth;fSld; fye;Jiuahba NghJ %d;W khzth;fspd; je;ijkhh;fs; ehl;by;,lk;ngw;w td;nray;fspd;NghJ ,we;jdh; vdTk; xU khztdpd; je;ij RfaPdk;fhuzkhf ,we;jhh; vdTk; njupa te;jJ. VidNahupy; %d;W khzth;fspd;je;ijkhh;fs; $ypNtiy nra;tjhfTk; mwpaKbe;jJ. je;ijaupd; epiyik ,t;thwpUf;f jhahNu FLk;gg;nghWg;igr; Rkf;fNtz;baepiy fhzg;gl;lJ. Ma;tpw;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;l khzthfspy; %d;W khzth;fSf;Fj;jha; ,y;iy. ehd;F khzth;fspd; jhahh; tPl;LNtiyf;Fr; nry;gth;fshff;tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   21  
  22. 22. fhzg;gl;ldh;. mth;fs; mjpfhiyapy; vOe;J Ntiyf;Fr; nrd;W ,uNt tPLjpUk;Gfpd;wth;fshfTk; fhzg;gl;ldh;. ,th;fspy; xU gps;isf;Fj; jha;> je;ij ,UtUNk capUld; ,y;iy.mg;gps;is kpfTk; f];lj;jpd; kj;jpapNyNa ghlrhiyf;F tUfpd;wikAk; njupate;jJ. njhopiyg; ghh;f;fpd;wNghJ %d;W khzth;fspd; je;ij $yp Ntiynra;tjhfTk; ehd;F khzth;fspd; jha; tPl;LNtiy nra;tjhfTk; mwpa Kbe;jJ.xU khztdpd; je;ij RfaPdk; fhuzkhf Ntiyf;Fr; nry;yKbahj epiyapy;cs;shh; vd;Wk; $wpdhh;fs;. ,t;thW je;ijAk; jhAk; Ntiyf;Fr; nry;tjdhy;khzth;fis mth;fs; ftdpg;gJ ,y;iy vd;gJ mth;fs; $wpa tplaq;fspypUe;Jmwpaf;$bajhf ,Ue;jJ. FLk;g mq;fj;jth; vz;zpf;ifiag; ghh;f;Fk; NghJ mJ ngUk;ghYk;$LjyhfNt fhzg;gl;lJ. Nkw;$wg;gl;l midj;Jj; jfty;fSk; khzth;fspd; jdpg;gl;l tpguq;fshFk;.,dp khzthpd; ghl rk;ge;jkhfr; Nrfupf;fg;gl;l jfty;fs; tUkhW>,y khzth; jkpo; xypNgjk; vjph;Nehf;Fk; fw;ftpUk;Gk; fw;gpj;jy; tpUg;gk; tpUk;ghikf;Ff; fhuzk; gpur;rpid Kiw rhjdg; gad;ghL Nghjpagapw;rp01 A Mk; mbg;gil mwptpd;ik ,d;ik FO Kiw Mk; ,g;gFjpapy;02 B Mk; mbg;gil mwptpd;ik tpUg;gkpd;ik FO Kiw  Mk; Mrpupaupd; fw;gpj;jy; Nghjpatpsf;fk;03 C Mk; tpsq;fhik ,d;ik FO Kiw  Mk; Nghjpagapw;rp04 D Mk; vdJ tpUg;gf;FiwT ,d;ik FO Kiw  ,y;iy Nghjpagapw;rp05 E Mk; vdJ tpUg;gf;FiwT ,d;ik FO Kiw  Mk; Nghjpatpsf;fk;06 F Mk; mbg;gil mwptpd;ik ,d;ik FO Kiw  Mk; Nghjpatpsf;fk;07 G Mk; mbg;gilmwptpd;ik ,d;ik FO Kiw  ,y;iy Nghjpagapw;rp08 H Mk; vdJ tpUg;gf;FiwT ,d;ik FO Kiw  Mk;tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   22  
  23. 23. 4.2 juTfisg; gFg;gha;T nra;jy; mtjhdpg;gpd; %yk; ngwg;gl;l gFg;gha;tpd;gb khzth;fs; fw;wypy; fhl;baMh;tk; FiwthfTk; fw;gpj;jy; epfOk;NghJ mtjhdpf;Fk; jd;ik FiwthfTk;Vida khzth;fSld; fijg;gJ> vOJtjw;F cgfuzk; nfhz;L tuhik> Mrpupah;nrhy;tijr; nrtpkLf;fhky; ,Ug;gJ Nghd;w gy jfty;fs; mwpag;gl;ld. fye;Jiuahly; %yk; ngwg;gl;l juTfisg; gFg;gha;T nra;jNghJ jkpopy;xypNgjr; nrhw;fis vOJjy;> thrpj;jy; njhlu;ghfg; gy gpur;rpidfisvjph;nfhs;tjhfTk; nghUshjhu epiy> tPl;by; fw;gjw;F trjpapd;ik>FLk;gg;gpzf;F fhuzkhf fy;tp fw;gjpy; tpuf;jpAld; fhzg;gLtjhf mwpag;gl;lJ. tpdhf;nfhj;J %yk; ngwg;gl;l jfty;fisg; gFg;gha;T nra;jNghJ ckf;FtpUg;gkhd ghlk; vJ? vd;w tpdhtpw;F vl;L khzthfSk; xd;W njhlf;fk; %d;Wtiuahd njupTfspy; xd;whf jkpo;g;ghlj;ijj; njupTnra;Js;sdh;. ,j;njupTfs;Ma;thsupdhy; nfhLf;fg;gl;lit. vdNt cstpay; uPjpahd tpilahfmike;jpUf;ff;$ba re;ju;g;gk; cz;L. my;yJ tho;f;iff;F mtrpakhd ghlk;vd epidj;jpUf;ff;$Lk;. my;yJ fiyj;jpl;lj;jpy; Kf;fpa ,lk; tfpg;gJ gw;wpkhzth;fshy; rpe;jpj;Jj; njupTnra;ag;gl;bUf;f KbAk;. jkpo;g;ghlj;ij tpUk;gpf;fw;fpd;wPuh? vd;w tpdhtpw;F Mk; vd;gNj vl;Lg;Nghpd;njupthf mike;Js;sJ. jkpopy; xypNgjr;nrhw;fs; vd;w gFjpia tpUk;ghikf;fhdfhuzq;fshf> mbg;gil mwptpd;ik Mrpupaupd; fw;gpj;jy; tpsq;fhik vdJ tpUg;gf;FiwTvd;gd toq;fg;gl;lNghJ mbg;gil mwptpd;ik vd ehd;F khzth;fSk; Mrpupaupd;fw;gpj;jy; tpsq;fhik vd xU khztDk; vdJ tpUg;gf;FiwT vd %d;Wkhzth;fSk; njupT nra;Js;sdh;.xypNgjr;nrhw;fisf; fw;Fk;NghJ khzth; vjph;Nehf;Fk; gpur;rpidfshf> Nghjpa gapw;rpapd;ik xJf;fg;gl;l Neuk; NghjhiktpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   23  
  24. 24. Nghjpa tpsf;fkpd;ik ,g;gFjpapy; tpUg;gkpd;ikvd;gd toq;fg;gl;lNghJ khzth; mspj;j tpilfs; tUkhW> Nghjpa gapw;rpapd;ikvd;w gpur;rpidia ehd;F khzth;fSk; Nghjpa tpsf;fkpd;ik vd;w gpur;rpidia%d;w khzth;fSk; ,g;gFjpapy; tpUg;gkpd;ik vd;w gpur;rpidia xU khztDk;njupTnra;Js;sdh;.xypNgjr;nrhw;fis ePh; fw;ftpUk;Gk; Kiw vJ? vd;w tpdhtpw;FnfhLf;fg;gl;lKiwfshtd> Mrpupah; nrhy;ypj;jur; nrtpkLj;jy; Mrpupaupd; topfhl;lYld; FOthfr; nraw;gly; Mrpupaupd; topfhl;lYld; jdpahfr; nraw;gly;vd;gd toq;fg;gl;lNghJ MW khzth;fs; Mrpupaupd; topfhl;lYld; FOthfr;nraw;gly; Kiwia tpUk;Gtjhff; Fwpg;gpl;ldh;. $Ljyhd khzth;,k;Kiwapid tpUk;gpaikf;Ff; fhuzq;fshfg; gpd;tUtd Fwpg;gplg;glyhk;. ,ay;ghd gpur;rpidfis khzth;fs; jk;kpilNa gq;fpl;Lf;nfhs;tjw;fhd Njitiag; g+h;j;jp nra;jy;. jh;f;f uPjpahd jkJ rpe;jidia tsh;f;f Mrpupaupd; topelj;jiy vjph;ghh;j;J epw;wy;. mDgtq;fs; thapyhf vz;zf;fUf;fis tpsq;f KbAk; vd;w csg;ghq;F. fUj;Jg;gupkhw;wq;fisf; fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghl;by; tpUk;gp Vw;Fk; kdg;ghq;F. jdpj;J ,Ue;J nrtpkLg;gjpYk; jdpahfr;nraw;gLtjpYk; cs;s Nrhh;T ePf;fg;gl;L Gj;Jzh;r;rpahd fw;wiy vjph;ghh;f;Fk; kdepiyapy; ,Uj;jy;. khzth; jkJ kfpo;r;rpahd fw;wYf;Fk; jk;ik topg;gLj;jp ,yf;if miltjw;Fk; ,k;Kiwiaj; njupTnra;jik njspT. Mrpupaupd; topfhl;lYld; jdpahfr; nraw;gly; vd;w Kiwia ,Ukhzth;fs; tpUk;Gtjhff; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sdh;. vdNt Mrpupa topfhl;liy tpUk;gpFOthfr;nraw;gly; vd;Dk; fw;gpj;jy; Kiwia tpUk;gpa khzth;fs;jdpikahfr;nraw;gly; vd;w Kiwia tpUk;ghikf;fhd fhuzq;fshfmikaf;$bait gpd;tUkhW>tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   24  
  25. 25. FOt+f;fk; jk; fUj;Jf;fisg; gpwUld; gfpu tpUk;gpaik njhlh;ghly; Njitia czh;e;jik kfpo;r;rpfukhd fw;wYf;F FONtiy vDk; kdg;ghq;F ,Uj;jy; Fiwthd tsq;fspd; cr;rg;gad;ghl;ilg; ngwNtz;Lk; vd;w kdg;ghq;F ,Ue;jik vd;gdthFk;.Kw;Nrhjidapd; gFg;gha;T khzth; A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H tpdh 01 √  √  X  √  X  X  X  √ tpdh 02 X  X  X  √  √  √  √  √ tpdh 03  √  X  X  √  X  X  √  √ tpdh 04  √  √  X  X  √  √  √  √ tpdh 05  √  √  X  √  √  X  X  √ tpdh 06  X  √  √  X  X  X  X  X tpdh 07  √  X  X  X  X  X  X  X tpdh 08  √  X  X  X  X  X  X  X tpdh 09  X  √  √  √  X  X  X  X tpdh 10  √  X  X  √  √  √  √  X tpdh 11  √  √  √  √  X  √  √  √ tpdh 12  X  X  √  X  X  X  X  X tpdh 13  √  √  X  X  X  X  X  X tpdh 14  X  X  √  X  √  √  X  √ tpdh 15  √  √  √  X  X  X  X  X tpdh 16  X  X  X  X  X  X  √  X tpdh 17  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X tpdh 18  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X tpdh 19  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  √ tpdh 20  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X rupfspd;vz;. 10  08  06  07  05  05  06  08 Ehw;WtPjk; 50  40  30  35  25  25  30  40 tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   25  
  26. 26. 60 Ehw;WtPjk; 50 40 Gs;spfs; 30 20 10 0 A B C D E F G H tiuG: Kw;Nrhjidg; Gs;spfspd; guk;gy;4.3 Ma;Tg;gpur;rpidiaj; njspthf kPs tiuaiw nra;jy;. Ma;Tg;gpur;rpidNa Ma;tpd; mbj;jskhfpd;wJ.fw;wy; fw;gpj;jypd; rpwg;ghdnraw;ghl;bw;Fj; jilahf ,Uf;Fk; gpur;rpidia ,dq;fz;l gpd;dNu nray;epiyMa;tpid Nkw;nfhs;s KbAk;. ,jw;Fr; Nrfupf;fg;gl;l juTfisg; gFg;gha;Tnra;a Ntz;Lk;. mjd; %yk; khzth;fsplk; fhzg;gl;l gpur;rpidfis Xustpw;F,dq;fhz KbAk;. ,g;gpur;rpidfis ,dq;fhzy; vd;gJ nray;epiy Ma;tpy;Kf;fpakhd tplakhf;f fhzg;gLfpwJ. vdNt Ma;nthd;wpy; Ma;Tg;gpur;rpidiaj; njspthf tiuaiw nra;tJ mtrpakhfpd;wJ. jkpopy; xypNgjr;nrhw;fisf; fw;gpf;Fk;NghJ khzth;fs; gy;NtWgpur;rpidfis vjph;Nehf;fpdhh;fs;. mjid ,dq;fz;L mth;fis Kd;Ndw;weltbf;if vLf;f Ntz;baJ Mrpupaupd; flikahFk;. ,jdbg;gilapy;Ma;Tg;gpur;rpidahdJ gpd;tUkhW tiuaWf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. “tpNrlfy;tpayF khzthpilNa xypNgjr;nrhw;fisj; jpUj;jkhf vOJk;Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;”tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   26  
  27. 27. 4.4 epiyikia vt;thW khw;wyhk; vd Ma;Tnra;ag;glf; $batpdhit cUthf;fy; nray;epiy Ma;nthd;wpy; njspthf Ma;Tg;gpur;rpidia ,dq;fz;l gpd;dh;>gpur;rpidfisj; jPh;g;gjw;F Ma;it xOq;fhfj; jpl;lkpl Ntz;Lk;. Kiwahdjpl;lkplNy Ma;Ttbtikg;ig xOq;fikf;Fk;. ,j;jpl;lkplyhdJ Fwpf;Nfhismiltjw;Fk;> nraw;ghLfis Nkw;nfhs;tjw;Fk;> Neutiuaiwfisj; jPh;khdpf;fTk;>Njitg;gLk; tsq;fis mwpaTk;> ,yf;Ffs; va;jg;gl;ldth? vd mwptjw;Fk;cjTfpd;wd. nray;epiy Ma;itj; jpl;lkplg; gpur;rpidfis ,dq;fz;LjuTfisr; Nrfupj;J mjidg; gFg;gha;T nra;J Ma;T tpdhf;fis vOg;Gjy;Ma;thsupd; flik MFk;. mitahtd> 1. ,t;tha;tpd; cs;slf;fk; ahJ? 2. milag;gl Ntz;ba Fwpf;Nfhs;fs; ahit? 3. vt;tsT fhyj;jpw;F ,r;nraw;ghL Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;? 4. vjph;ghh;f;fg;gLk; ngWNgWfs; vit? 5. eilKiwg;gLj;jypd; NghJ Kd;Ndw;wj;ij vt;thW fzpf;fyhk;? Nkw;Fwpj;jthW tpdhf;fis cUthf;Ftjd; %yk; Ma;itj;jpl;lkpl;L eilKiwg;gLj;jyhk;.4.5 njhlUk; nraYf;fhd fUJNfhis cUthf;fy; ve;j xU Ma;tpw;Fk; fUJNfhs; Kd;NjitahdjhFk;. ,q;F fUJNfhs;vdg;gLtJ xU gpur;rpidapidj; jPh;g;gjw;fhd my;yJ Njhw;wg;ghnlhd;iwtpsf;Ftjw;fhf Kd;itf;fg;gLfpd;w jw;fhypf tpsf;fkhFk;. ,f;fUJNfhs; gpd;tha;g;Gg;ghh;f;fg;gl;L cz;ikepiy ngwg;gLk;. ,f;fUJNfhs; jw;nray; KiwapNyhmy;yJ ed;F jpl;lkplg;gl;l KiwapNyh cUthf;fg;glyhk;. vdpDk; mikf;fg;gLk;fUJNfhs; ,ad;wtiu gupNrhjpf;ff;$bajhf ,Ug;gJld; rk;ge;jg;gl;lgpur;rpidf;Fj; jPh;Tfhz Ntz;bajhfTk; mika Ntz;Lk;. ,t;tifapy; Ma;tpw;Fl;gLj;jpa khzth;fspd; tpdhf;nfhj;J> mtjhdpg;G>fye;Jiuahly;> Kw;Nrhjid vd;gtw;wpd; %yk; juTfs; Nrfupf;fg;gl;L gFg;gha;Tnra;ag;gl;ljd; mbg;gilapy;tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   27  
  28. 28. “xypNgjr;nrhw;fisj; jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy xOq;FgLj;jg;gl;lgapw;rpfs; %yk; Nkk;gLj;jyhk;” vd;w fUJNfhisf; nfhz;L ,t;tha;Tnraw;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,t;tpaypy; Nrfupj;j jfty;fis xOq;FgLj;jp mspj;jy; gw;wpAk;juTg;gFg;gha;T gw;wpAk; Ma;Tg;gpur;rpidiaj; njspthf kPs tiuaiw nra;jy;gw;wpAk; epiyikia vt;thW khw;wyhk; vd Ma;Tnra;ag;glf;$ba tpdhitcUthf;fy; gw;wpAk; njhlUk; nraYf;fhd fUJNfhis cUthf;fy; gw;wpAk;Nehf;fg;gl;lJ. ,dp mLj;j ,aypy; nraYf;fhd jpl;lKk; mKyhf;fKk; gw;wpNehf;fg;gLk;.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   28  
  29. 29. nraYf;fhd jpl;lKk; mKyhf;fKk;xU nray; epiy Ma;tpNy jpl;lkpLjy; Kf;fpa gq;if tfpf;fpd;wJ. Ma;itnrt;tdNt jpl;lkpLk; NghJ jhd; mJ ntw;wpaspf;Fk;. vdNt ,t;tpaypy;nraYf;fhd jpl;lKk; mKyhf;fKk; gw;wp Nehf;fg;gLk;5.1 nraiy mKyhf;Ftjw;fhd jpl;lkply; juTfs; %yk; gFj;jhuhag;gl;l fhuzq;fisf; fUj;jpw;nfhz;L nraw;ghLfs;jpl;lkplg;gLfpd;w ,j;jpl;lkplyhdJ Nehf;fj;jpid epiwNtw;W KfkhfTk;vjph;fhyf;fy;tpiag; gads;sjhf khw;wTk; Kd;khjpupahfj; jpfo;fpd;wJ. ,t;tifapy; fw;gpj;jypy; fhzg;gl;l Mrpupah;ikaf;fy;tp KiwikiaAk;tpupTiu KiwiaAk; ePf;fp khzth; Rakhff;fw;Fk; Kiwahdkhzth;ikaf;fy;tpKiwiar; nraw;gLj;;jNtz;Lk;. ,d;iwa cyfpy; khzth;fs;ntWkNd Gj;jfg;g+r;rpfshfTk; Mrpupah; $Wtij kl;Lk; Nfl;gtuhfTk;,Uf;ff;$lhJ. fy;tpia mDgtj;jpd; thapyhfg; ngwNtz;Lk;. ,jidNa&N]hTk; typAWj;Jfpd;whh;. NkYk; khzth;fisf; FOr;nraw;ghl;by; $basT <LgLj;j Ntz;Lk;.Vnddpy; xU khztd; jdpahfr;nra;a Kbahj Ntiyiaf; FOthf ,ize;Jnra;Ak;NghJ ,yFthfr;nra;a Kw;gLfpd;whd;. mjidNa ehis mtd; jdpahfr;nra;a Kd;tUthd;. nkhopapayhsuhd tpnfh];fp FONtiyapd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij‘thz;iktpUj;jpf;fhd tyaj;jpy; <LgLj;jy;’ vd;w fUj;jpy; vLj;Jf;fhl;bAs;shh;. fw;wy; rpwg;ghf mikaNtz;Lkhapd; fw;gpj;jy; Jizr;rhjdq;fisf;$basT gad;gLj;JtJld; mtw;iw khzth; ifahs ,lkspg;gJ mtrpak;.khztuplk; fw;wypy; Mh;tj;jpid Vw;gLj;Jtjw;F nraw;ghLfs; ,lk;ngWk;NghJkhztUf;Fj; jFe;j ghuhl;Lk; Cf;Ftpg;Gk; toq;fNtz;Lk;. Njitf;Nfw;gfw;gpj;jy; Kiwia khw;wpaikj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. kh];Nyhtpd; Njitf;nfhs;ifiambg;gilahf;fnfhz;L khzth;fSf;Ff; fw;gpf;f Ntz;Lk;. khzth; fw;wypy;<LgLk;NghJ ghlmyF> fw;Fk;#oy;> ,ltrjp> fw;gpj;jy; cgfuzq;fs; vd;gtw;iwf;fUj;jpw;nfhz;L mjw;Nfw;g fw;gpj;jiy Nkw;nfhs;Sk;NghJ khztDf;Fj;tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   29  
  30. 30. ‘jd;dhYk; fw;f KbAk;’ vd;w kdg;ghq;F Vw;gLfpd;wJ. ,jw;F Nkyjpf Neuj;ijg;gad;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tJld; khzth; tutpid cWjp nra;a Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thwhd mk;rq;fis cs;slf;fpj; jpl;lkpl;Lr; nraw;gLj;Jtjd; %yk;,t;tha;tpd; Nehf;fj;jpid epiwT nra;ayhk;. ,t;tha;tpw;fhd jpl;lkply;gpd;tUkhW>nrad;Kiwj; jpl;lk; , ij khrp gq;Fdp y nraw;ghLfs; 3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  jirehh;g; gapw;rp √  √                  gpnwapy; vOj;Jg; gapw;rp 2  √  √                  ghh;j;J vOJjy; 3      √  √  √            Xypehlhtpy; Nfl;ly; 4          √  √          cr;rupg;Gf;F vOJjy; 5            √  √        nghUl;fisj;njhl;Lzh;e;J             √        6  vOJjy; 7  thf;fpakhf;fy;               √  √    8  gpnwapy; jl;lr;Rg;gapw;rp               √  √  √ 5.2 nraiy mKyhf;Fjy; • vOJtjw;fhd jirehh; gapw;rp mspj;jy; ,t;tha;tpidr; nraw;gLj;Jjypd; Kjw;gbahf vOJtjw;fhd jirehh; gapw;rp Kf;fpak; ngWfpd;wJ. gps;isapd; iffSf;Fk; Fwpg;ghf> mjd;iftpuy;fSf;Fk; Nghjpa nghUj;jkhd gapw;rpfs; mspj;J topg;gLj;jg;gl;ldh;. ,jw;nfd Ma;thsuhy; gps;isfSf;F toq;fg;gl;l gapw;rpfshtd>tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   30  
  31. 31. ntt;NtW tpjkhd fhfpjq;fisg; gy;NtW tbtq;fspy; kbj;jy;> fpopj;jy;> rpWrpW tbtq;fis Mf;Fjy;. Fioj;jy;> gpirjy;> gpopjy; Nghd;w nraw;ghLfs;. (fspkz;> kh tiffs; gad;gLj;jg;gl;ld.) Gy;NtW nghUl;fisj; njhl;Lzh;e;J ,dq;fhzy;> nghWf;Fjy;> mLf;Fjy;> tifg;gLj;jy; Nghd;w nraw;ghLfs;. gy;NtW Ehy;> fapW tiffisr; Rw;Wjy;> fl;Ljy;> mtpo;j;jy;> gpd;Djy;. js;Sjy;> ,Oj;jy;> jl;Ljy;> mbj;jy;> Rz;Ljy; Nghd;w nraw;ghLfs;. • gpnwapy; gapw;rp gpnwapy; vd;gJ MW Gs;spfis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l Xh; vOj;J tbtkhFk;. gpnwapy; vOJgyifapd; eLNt fhfpjj;ij itj;J> vOJfUtpahy; Fw;Wtjd; %yk; gpnwapy; vOj;Jf;fis cUthf;f KbAk;. ,t;ntOJ gyifapYs;s xt;nthU nrt;tf tbtKk; $Lfs; vd miof;fg;gLk;. ,f;$Lfs; xt;nthd;wpDs;Sk; MW Gs;spfis ehk; Fw;w KbAk;. tyg;gf;f Nky; %iyapy; KjyhtJ Fw;Wk; mjd;fPo; ,uz;lhtJ Fw;Wk; mjw;Fk; fPo; mjhtJ tyJgf;f fPo; %iyapy; %d;whtJ Fw;Wk; ,lJgf;f Nky; %iyapy; ehd;fhtJ Fw;Wk; mjw;Ff;fPo; Ie;jhtJ Fw;Wk; mjw;Fk;fPo; mjhtJ ,lJ gf;ff;fPo; %iyapy; MwhtJ Fw;Wk; fhzg;gLk;. ,t;tplj;jpy; gpnwapy; vOj;jhdJ tykpUe;J ,lkhf vOjg;gl;L> gpd; mf;fhfpjj;ij kWGwkhfj; jpUg;gp thrpf;Fk;NghJ ,lkpUe;J tykhf thrpf;fg;gLk;. vdNt ,lkpUe;J tykhf thrpf;Fk;NghJ ,lJGwkhf NkNy KjyhtJ Fw;Wk; mjw;Ff; fPo; ,uz;lhtJ Fw;Wk; mjw;Fk; fPo; %d;whtJ Fw;Wk; KjyhtJ Fw;wpd; tyJGwkhf ehd;fhtJ Fw;Wk; ,uz;lhtJ Fw;wpd; tyJGwkhf Ie;jhtJ Fw;Wk; %d;whtJ Fw;wpd; tyJGwkhf MwhtJ Fw;Wk; mike;jpUf;Fk;. ,jw;Nfw;g khzth;fSf;F MW Fw;Wg; gapw;rpAk; ehd;F Fw;Wg; gapw;rpAk; toq;fg;gl;lJ. • ghh;j;J vOJjy; jkpopy; cs;s xypNgjr;nrhw;fshd yfu> sfu> ofur; nrhw;fisAk; dfu> zfur; nrhw;fisAk; ufu> wfur; nrhw;fisAk; gpnwapy; vOj;jpy; vOjp khzth;fsplk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. mk;khzth;fs; mjidj; jltp thrpj;J tpsq;fp mjidg; ghh;j;J mNjNghy; vOj Ntz;Lk; vdtpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   31  
  32. 32. Ma;thsuhy; mwpTWj;jg;gl;ldh;. ,t;thW khzth; jltp thrpj;J mNjNghy; vOJtjdhy; ve;nje;j ,lj;jpy; vd;ndd;d xypNgjr;nrhw;fs; tUk; vd;gij mwpe;J nfhz;ldh;. Mj;Jld; mtw;wpf;Fupa gpnwapy; vOj;J tbtq;fisAk; mwpe;Jnfhz;ldh;. • Xypg;gjpT ehlhtpy; Nfl;ly; jkpopy;; cs;s xypNgjr;nrhw;fs; xypehlhtpy; xypg;gjpT nra;ag;gl;l gpd; khzth;fis mtjhdpf;FkhW $wp xypehlh xypf;ftplg;gl;lJ. ,jd;NghJ khzth;fs; mikjpahf ,Ue;J mjidr; nrtpkLj;jdh;. ,jd;NghJ xt;nthU xypNgjr; nrhy;ypw;Fkhd xyp tpj;jpahrj;ij khzth;fs; mwpe;Jnfhz;ldh;. mj;Jld; mr;nrhw;fSf;fhd rupahd cr;rupg;G KiwiaAk; kpfj; njspthf mwpe;J nfhz;ldh;. • nghUl;fisj; njhl;Lzh;e;J vOJjy; xypNgjr; nrhw;fisf; nfhz;l nghUl;fs; rpy khztUf;F toq;fg;gl;ld. mtw;iw khzth;fs; jkJ iffspdhy; njhl;Lzh;e;Jk; %f;fpdhy; Efh;e;Jk; fhjpdhy; Nfl;Lk; cupa nghUspd; ngaiu mwpe;Jnfhz;ldh;. mjd;gpd; mg;nghUl;fspd; ngah;fis gpnwapy; vOj;jpy; vOjpf; fhl;bdh;. thiog;gok;> ,iy> kpsF> fuz;b> Nriy> Nfhy;> Ehy;,io> Mzp> jpid> fdp> kuk;> fpsp> ghy;> myupf;fha;> tpshk;gok; Nghd;wNt khzth;fsplk; toq;fg;gl;l nghUl;fs; MFk;. • cr;rupg;Gf;F vOJjy; my;yJ nrhy;tnjOJjy;. Ma;thsuhy; $wg;gLk; xypNgjr;nrhw;fis khzth;fs; Nfl;L> fpufpj;J vOJkhW topg;gLj;jg;gl;ldh;. khzth;fs; Nfl;L fpufpj;J vOJtjw;fhf xNunrhy; kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; cr;rupf;fg;gl;lJ. ,t;thW khzth;fs; vOjp Kbe;jTld; mtw;iw thrpf;FkhW Nfl;fg;gl;lJ. khzth;fs; thrpf;Fk;NghJ jhk; tpl;l rpygpiofisj; jhNk jpUj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;Fr; re;jh;g;gk; toq;fg;gl;lJ. Vnddpy; gpnwapy; vOJgyifapy; vOJk;NghJ tUk; vOj;Jg;gpiofis mwpaKbahJ. vOjpa fhfpjj;ij vLj;J jltp thrpf;Fk;NghJ jhd; vOj;Jg;gpiofis mwpa KbAk;.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   32  
  33. 33. • gpnwapy; jl;lr;Rg;nghwpapy; vOjg;gof;Fjy; Ma;thsuhy; Ma;tpw;Fl;gLj;jpa khzth;fs; fdp;l ,ilepiy khzth;fs; vd;gjhy; mth;fs; gpnwapy; jl;lr;Rg;nghwpapy; vOjg;goftpy;iy. MdhYk; gpnwapypy; vOJk; NghNj vOj;Jg;gpiofisj; jpUj;Jtjw;F cfe;jjhf gpnwapy; jl;lr;Rg;nghwp fhzg;gLtjdhy; mjid ,k;khzth;fSf;Fg; gof;fNtz;ba Njit fhzg;gl;lJ. ,jidg; gofpagpd; khzth;fs; jhk; gpnwapypy; vOjpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;NghNj mjidj; jltp thrpj;J vOj;Jg;gpiofisj; jpUj;j KbfpwJ. Njitapy;yhjtw;iw mopj;J ePf;f KbfpwJ. tpl;l ,lj;jpypUe;J njhlu KbfpwJ. • xypNgjr;nrhw;fis itj;J thf;fpak; mikj;jy;. xypNgjr;nrhw;fis itj;J fUj;Js;s thf;fpak; mikf;f ,k;khzth;fs; topg;gLj;jg;gl;ldh;. ,jd;%yk; xypNgjr; nrhw;fisAk; mtw;wpw;Fupa fUj;Jf;fisAk; khzth;fs; mwpe;J nfhs;s Kbe;jJ. ,r;nraw;ghl;bd; NghJ nrhw;fs; vOjpa ml;ilfis toq;fp thf;fpaq;fshf;fp vOJtpf;fg;gl;lJ. NkYk; njhl;Lzuf;$ba xypNgjr;nrhw;fisf; nfhz;l nghUl;fisf; fhl;b mjw;F thf;fpak; vOjr;nra;a topg;gLj;jg;gl;ldh;.,t;thwhd gapw;rpr;nraw;ghLfspy; khzth;fSf;F xypNgjr;nrhw;fs; njhlh;ghfg;gpd;tUk; gapw;rp tiffs; cjhuzk; fhl;b tpsf;fg;gl;ld.1. ghh;j;J vOJjy;. moF – tdg;G mio - $g;gpL miu - ghjp Cz; - czT fpyp - gak; Fsp - ePuhL $w - nrhy;y edp – kpFjptpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   33  
  34. 34. 2. xypg;gjpT ehlhtpy; Nfl;ly;. myk; - fyg;ig Mop – fly;> rf;fuk;> Nkhjpuk; mok; - gzk; Msp – MSgtd;> rpq;fk;> ahsp mud; - rptd; mup – mW> jpUkhy;> rpq;fk;> tz;L mwp – czh; ,iw– Cw;W> mZ> murd;> flTs; Md; - gR fhdk; - ,irg;ghl;L> fhL Gid – myq;fup fzp – kjp> vz;Z> fzpg;Nghd;3. nghUj;jkhd vOj;ijf;nfhz;L nrhw;fisg; g+h;j;jpnra;J vOj topg;gLj;jy;. 1) Myk_k; (u> w) 2) njh_f;fhl;rp (is> iy) 3) c_zy; (d;> z;) 4) C_fha; (W> U) 5) F_e;ij (y> o)4. nghUj;jkhd nrhy;iy itj;J ,ilntsp epug;g topg;gLj;jy;. 1) fhfk; _______ epwk;. (fUg;G> fWg;G) 2) ehis _______ tpoh. (fiy> fis) 3) fpsp _______ jpd;Dk;. (gyk;> gok;) 4) g+f;fs; ______ tPrpd. (kdk;> kzk;) 5) ehd; ________ kPd; rhg;gpl;Nld;. (thio> this)5. njhlh;GgLj;jp voj topg;gLj;jy;. 1) Xyp Rw;wk; 2) mdy; Ntjk; 3) cwT rj;jk; 4) jiy neUg;G 5) kiw rpuRtpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   34  
  35. 35. 6. gpd;tUk; nrhw;fis itj;J thf;fpak; mikf;f topg;gLj;jy;. 1) tpop 2) mWF 3) %is 4) Jiz 5) Njhod;7. gpd;tUk; tpdhf;fSf;Fr; RUf;fkhd tpil voj topg;gLj;jy;. 1) kapy;fspd; $l;lj;ijf; Fwpf;Fk; kuGg;ngah; ahJ? 2) ML fj;Jk; vd;gJNghy Me;ij vd;d nra;Ak;? 3) kzkhd ngz;fs; fOj;jpy; mzpAk; Mguzk; vJ? 4) ez;bd; Mz; ,dk; vt;thW miof;fg;gLk;? 5) Kf;fdpfSk; vit?,t;thwhd nraw;ghLfisr; nraw;gLj;jpajd; %yk; khzth;fspy; Neubahfmtjhdpf;ff; $ba mstpw;Fj; Jyq;fy; epfo;e;jJ. khzth;fs;,r;nraw;ghLfspy; $Ljyhd Mh;tk; fhl;bdh;. ,t;tpaypy; nraiy mKyhf;Ftjw;fhd jpl;lkply; gw;wpAk; nraiymKyhf;Fjy; gw;wpAk; Nehf;fg;gl;lJ. ,dp mLj;j ,aypy; epiwTiuAk;tpjh;g;GiufSk; gw;wp Nehf;fg;gLk;.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   35  
  36. 36. epiwTiuAk; tpjg;GiufSk; Xh; Ma;tpw;F kjpg;gPL Kf;fpakhdjhFk;. mNjNghy; mt;tha;T gw;wpaepiwTiuAk; tpjg;GiuAk; mtrpakhFk;. kjpg;gPLfspd; mbg;gilapNyNa Ma;tpd;Nehf;;fk; epiwNtw;wg;gl;ljh? ,y;iyah? vd mwpaKbfpwJ. vdNt ,t;tpaypy;nraypd; Gyg;ghLfspd; kjpg;gPL gw;wpAk; epiwTiu gw;wpAk; tpjg;Giu gw;wpAk;Nehf;FNthk;.6.1 nraypd; Gyg;ghLfspd; kjpg;gPLtpNrl fy;tpayfpy; fdp;l,ilepiyg; gpuptpYs;s vl;L khzth;fs;,dq;fhzg;gl;L ,t;tha;tpw;F cl;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wdh;. ,th;fSf;F Kw;Nrhjidxd;W itf;fg;gl;L mth;fsJ gpur;rpidfs; ,dq;fhzg;gl;ld. mjw;Nfw;gmth;fSf;Fupa Ntiyj;jpl;lk; xd;W tFf;fg;gl;L mJ eilKiwg; gLj;jg;gl;lJ.Ma;tpd; Kbtpy; khzth;fspd; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij mwpe;J nfhs;tjw;fhfg; gpw;Nrhjidxd;Wk; elhj;jg;gl;lJ. ,t;tpU NrhjidfspYk; fpilj;j Gs;spfs; tUkhW. khzth; A B C D E F G Htpdh 01 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √tpdh 02 √ √ X √ X X X √tpdh 03 √ √ √ X √ √ √ √tpdh 04 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √tpdh 05 √ √ √ √ √ X √ √tpdh 06 √ √ √ √ √ X X √tpdh 07 X √ X √ X X x Xtpdh 08 √ X √ √ X √ √ √tpdh 09 √ √ √ X X X √ √Tpdh 10 √ √ √ √ √ X X √tpdh 11 √ x √ √ √ √ X √tpdh 12 √ √ √ x √ √ √ Xtpdh 13 X √ X √ X √ √ √tpdh 14 √ √ √ X √ X √ √tpdh 15 √ √ √ √ √ x √ √tpdh 16 √ X √ √ √ x x √tpdh 17 √ √ √ √ √ X X Xtpdh 18 X x X X X X x √tpdh 19 X √ X X X X X Xtpdh 20 √ X X √ X X X Xrupfspd; 16 15 14 14 12 07 10 15vz;zpf;ifEhw;WtPjk; 80 75 70 70 60 35 50 75tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   36  
  37. 37. 6.2 Gyg;ghLfspd; njhFg;Gk; mspf;ifAk;gpw;Nrhjidg; gFg;gha;T gpw;Nrhjidg; gFg;gha;T Ehw;WtPjk; 90 80 70 60 Gs;spfs; 50 40 30 20 10 0 A B C D E F G H khztHKw;Nrhjid gpw;Nrhjidg; Gs;spfspd; xg;gPL,y khzth;fs; Kw;Nrhjidg;Gs;sp gpw;Nrhjidg;Gs;sp01. A 50 8002. B 40 7503. C 30 7004. D 35 7005. E 25 6006. F 25 3507. G 30 5008. H 40 75tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   37  
  38. 38. Kw; K Nrhji gpw;Nrhjid Gs;s id dg; spfspd; xg;gPL Kw;Nrhji Gs;sp idg; gpw;Nrhjidg;Gs;sp 90 80 70 60 Gs;spfs; Gsspfs 50 40 30 20 10 0 A B C D E F G H khz ztHfs;Kw;N Nrhjid gp Nrhjid Gs;spfS Fupa tiuglk; gpw; dg; Sf; tKw;N Nrhjid> g Nrhjid Gs;spfs xg;gL gpw; dg; spd; PKw;N Nrhjid> gpw;Nrhji idg; Gs;sp spfspd; mbg;gilapy m fdp;l y; tpNrlf tpayF fy;,il lepiyg;gpupT khzth;fspy; xy ypNgjr; nr fisj; jpUj;jkh rhw; hf vOJk; jpwdpy;Kd;Ndw;wk; Vw;gl;Ls;sj jh? vd m mwptjd; %yk; nray;epiy M tpd; nt wpiaj; % Ma; tw;jPh;kh hdpj;Jf; n nfhs;syhk; k. ,jid mwptjw; d wF t – Nr rhjid gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. j JNfhshdJ 5%fUJ J nghUz;ik kl;lj;jpy; Nrhjpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. Kw;Nrhji idg; gpw;Nrhji idg; 2khz fs; zth; Gs;sp ( 1) (X Gs;sp (X2) X D= 2 – X1 =X A  50 80 30 0 0 B  40 75 35 05 25 C  30 70 40 10 100 D  35 70 35 05 25 E  25 60 35 05 25 F  25 35 10 -20 400 G  30 50 20 -10 100 H  40 75 35 05 25 nkh jk; hj; 240 700tpNrl fy;tpayF khz ztupilNa xyp ypNgjr; nrhw;fi jpUj;jkhf vOJk; is v Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   38  
  39. 39. ∑,q;F D  =       =      = 30       #dpaf; fUJNfhs; H0 : KOj;njhFjpf;Fkhd =0khw;Wf; fUJNfhs; H1 : KOj;njhFjpf;Fkhd  ≠ 0nghUz;ikkl;lk; a = 0.05   ∑ 2 epak tpyfy;    1   700   7         =   10                    Dapd; epaktO = √ = √ = . = 3.5 t fzpf;fg;gl;l ngWkhdk; t cal     =                =      .     = 8.57 tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   39  
  40. 40. t ml;ltizg; ngWkhdj;jpw;fhf>Rahjpdg;gb (df) = 8-1 = 7nghUz;ik kl;lk; (α) = 0.05 ttable     = 2.37 / t cal  > ttable      fzpf;fg;gl;l ngWkhdkhdJ ml;ltizg; ngWkhdj;jpYk; $LjyhFk;;. ,q;Nffhzg;gLk; NtWghlhdJ nghUz;ikahdjhFk;. vdNt #dpaf;fUJNfhs; H0epuhfhpf;fg;gl;L khw;Wf;fUj;Jf;Nfhs; H1  Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg; gLfpd;wJ. MfNt nrayha;tpd; %yk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l eltbf;iffspdhy;tpNrlfy;tpayF khzth;fs; xypNgjr; nrhw;fisj; jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wy;Nkk;gLj;jypy; 5rjtPj nghUz;ikapy; khw;wk; Vw;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gJcWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.6.3 tpjg;Giufs; ,r;nray;epiy Ma;tpy; ,Ukhzth;fs; rw;Wg; gpd;jq;fpa epiyapNyNafhzg;gLfpd;wdh;. ,th;fspy; xU khztDf;Fj; jha;> je;ij ,UtUNk capUld;,y;iy. 5 rNfhjuh;fs; cs;sdh;. ,th;fs; cwtpdh;fshNyNa guhkupf;fg;gLfpd;wdh;.kw;iwa khztDf;Fj; jha; ,y;iy. 8 rNfhjuh;fs; cs;sdh;. ,th;fSf;Fj;je;ijapd; ftdpg;Gk; FiwT. ,t;tpUtUf;Fk; FLk;gr;#oy; fw;f cfe;jjhff;fhzg;gltpy;iy. NkYk; ,th;fs; XusT fw;wy; ,ayhik cilNahuhfTk;fhzg;gLfpd;wdh;. vdNt ,th;fSf;F NkYk; gy;NtW tpjkhd gapw;rpfs;toq;fg;gl;L gpd;D}l;ly; nra;ag;gl;lJ. khztupd; xypNgjr;nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wy; Nkk;gLk;NghJmth;fspd; fw;wy; nraw;ghLfis mJ ,yFgLj;Jk;. khzth;fsf;F mLj;J tUk;juq;fspy; milTkl;lk; cah;e;J nry;Yk;. mj;NjhL Vida ghl Mrpupah;fSf;Fk;tFg;giwf;fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; ,yFgLj;jg;gLk;.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   40  
  41. 41. ,j;jifa nray;epiy Ma;thdJ vjph;tUk; fhyq;fspy; Ma;thsUf;Ff;fw;gpj;jypy; njhopy; thz;ik tpUj;jpia mjpfupf;Fk;. mj;Jld; VidagapYdh;fl;Fk; ,J topfhl;ly; mwpf;ifahf mikayhk;. tFg;giwf; fw;wy;fw;gpj;jy; eltbf;iffspd;NghJ gpur;rpid jPh;j;jy; cghakhfTk; mikayhk;. etPd fy;tpr;rPh;jpUj;jj;jpw;fika khzth;fs; mDgtj;Jld; $Ljyhfj;Njbf;fw;gjw;F ,lkspf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mrpupah; ghltplaj;jpidf; fUj;jpw; nfhz;Lghlj;ijj; jpl;lkpl Ntz;Lk;. vy;yh tplaq;fisAk; khzth;fSf;Ff; fw;gpf;ff;$lhJ. mth;fisj; jhkhfNt rpytplaq;fisj; Njb mwptjw;Fr; re;jh;g;gq;fisVw;gLj;jpf; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jd; %yk; khzth;fspd; rpe;jpf;Fk; Mw;wiyNkk;gLj;jyhk;. khzth;fSila fy;tpia Cf;Ftpg;gjw;F ntFkjp Kf;fpafUtpahfmikfpd;wJ. khzth;fs; rupahd Kiwapy; Jyq;Fk;NghJ ntFkjpfs; toq;fg;gLk;re;jh;g;gj;jpy; khzth; fy;tp Kd;Ndw;wk; milAk;. ntFkjp vDk;NghJ mjidg;ghuhl;lhfNth> ifjl;ly;ClhfNth> gupRg;nghUl;fshfNth clDf;Fld; toq;Ftjd;%yk; fw;wypy; khzth;fis Cf;fj;Jld; nraw;gLj;j KbAk;. fw;wypd;tpirahfj; njhopw;gLtJ Cf;fy;. vdNt khztiu Cf;Ftpg;gjw;FkhztupilNa rpWrpW Nghl;bfs; elhj;jp mth;fSf;Fj; jFe;j ntFkjpfs;mspg;gjd; Clhf NkYk; fw;wYf;fhd #o;epiyia cUthf;f KbAk;. khztdJ fw;wy; ,lh;ghl;il ePf;Fk; Kfkhf Mrpupah; jdJNkyjpfNeuj;ij khzth;fSf;Fg; gads;s tifapy; gpuNahfpf;Fk; kdg;ghq;Fnfhz;ltuhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. khztUld; md;ghfTk; gz;ghfTk; goFk;,ay;Gs;stuhfTk; fw;gpj;jy; tplaj;jpYs;s rfytpjkhd tpsf;fq;fisAk; EZfpMuha;e;J Kd;dhaj;jk; nra;J> nraw;ghLfspd; NghJ gpd;dpw;Fk; khzth;fis,dq;fz;L mth;fisj; jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; mZfpg; gpur;rpidfis Muha;e;Jfw;gpj;jy; El;gKiwfisg; gad;gLj;jpg; gupfhuf;fw;gpj;jiy Nkw;nfhs;syhk;. fw;gpj;jypd; NghJ etPd Jizr;rhjdq;fsig; gad;glj;jy;>GjpaEl;gKiwfisf; ifahSjy;> khzth; tpUg;Gf;F ,lkspj;jy;> gbKiwtsh;r;rpapy; fw;gpj;jiy Nkw;nfhs;Sjy; Nghd;w nraw;ghLfis Mrpupah;Nkw;nfhs;tjd; %yk; khzth;fsJ fw;Fk; Mh;tj;ijj; J}z;lyhk;.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   41  
  42. 42. NkYk; ,k;khzth;fSf;Fg; ghlg;Gj;jfq;fis gpnwapy; vOj;jpy;mbj;Jf;nfhLf;f eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; mth;fSf;Ff;fw;gjpy; Vw;gLk; gy gpur;rpidfSf;Fj; jPh;T fpilf;Fk;. mj;Jld; NgRk; fzdpg;gapw;rpAk; fl;lhakhf toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. NgRk; fzdpia ,k;khzth;fs;jhkhfNt ifahsj;jf;f tifapy; mth;fSf;Fg; gapw;rpaspf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,d;iwa khzth;fs; ehisa cyfpd; jiyth;fs; Mthh;. vdNtmth;fis Kd;Ndw;Wtjpy; Mrpupaupd; gq;F Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;. vdNtMrpupah;fs; ,t;tifahd nray;epiy Ma;Tfis Nkw;nfhs;tjd; %yk;khzth;fis Kd;Ndw;wyhk;.6.4 epiwTiu vkJ jha;nkhopf;fy;tpapy; nkhopj;jpwd; tpUj;jp Kf;fpa ,lj;ijtfpf;fpd;wJ. xt;nthU kdpjDk; jdJ rpe;jidiaf; fw;gid%yk;ntspg;gLj;jTk; tuptbtpy; mikf;fTk; vOj;Jj;jpwd; Kf;fpaKilajhff;fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,e;jtifapy; khzth;fs; xypNgjr;nrhw;fisj; jpUj;jkhf vOJk;jpwid tpUj;jp nra;jy; mtrpakhdjhFk;. ,t;tha;thdJ khzth;fs; midj;Jg; ghlq;fspYk; jpwikahfr;nraw;glj;jf;f tifapy; mth;fsJ fy;tpj;juj;jpid cah;j;j xU Cd;WNfhyhfmikfpd;wJ.tpNrl fy;tpayF khztupilNa xypNgjr; nrhw;fis jpUj;jkhf vOJk; Mw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jy;   42  

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