Dewey’s Basic Philosophy• Dewey was a great educationist, because he was a great philosopher.• Philosophy - it is the theory education in its most general phases.• Philosophy needs to define what education is, moreover, any “ideal that is a genuine help in carrying on activity must rest upon a prior knowledge of concrete actual occurrences”
MIND• Evolution of mind and intelligence takes place naturally• Daily activities are involved in solving various practical and social problems of life.• Mind as an instrument includes 3 aspects, i.e., thinking, feeling, and willing• Ideas are developed by the individual in the process of controlling the objects of the environment for avoiding, pain and obtaining satisfaction
KNOWLEDGE• Dewey does not believe that knowledge precedes action. It is only as a result of action that knowledge is inferred• He believes that the knowledge accumulated till now is due to the activities of the individuals in their struggle for existence.• Dewey thinks that the natural play of these tendencies should be considered as the starting point of the educational process of the child.• People believe that knowledge has independent existence, does not depend on action. Dewey does not agree with this.
PROCESS OF THINKING• Dewey holds that thinking does not take place in vaccum i.e., Pure contemplation cannot be its basis. Nor does it originated from mass of sensations.• In the process of thinking, one undergoes series of experimentations in order to needed solution of the problem• This method is the base of project method, problem method and the activity programme.
Dewey mentions 5 logical steps in the process of thinking:-• The feeling of a doubt, hesitation, difficulty, or problem.• Taking the whole situation in view by analyzing the various elements, and then locating the heart of the problem.• Arising of the suggestion and following the same to find out the possible solutions.• The bearings of each solution are developed and subjection the most possible solution to experimentation.• To observe and experiment further in order to accept or reject the solution
Dewey’s Concept of Curriculum• No fixed curriculum• Centred around child’s activities• Integrated curriculum Play period from 4-8yr of age Period of spontaneous attention from 8-12 Period of reflective attention from 12 onwards
Deweys Method of Teaching• He is of the opinion that direct experience is the basis of all method. Knowledge takes place from concrete and meaningful situations.• He is of the opinion that direct experience is the basis of all method• The project or problem method which Dewey advocated, the childs interests and purposes are the most important things
• Dewey laid down the following five steps as essential. The pupil should have a genuine situation of experiences. A genuine problem should arise from this situation and should stimulate the thinking of the child. The child should obtain information or make observation needed to deal with the problems. The suggested solution(s) should occur to him. He should have an opportunity to test his ideas by application.
Deweys contribution to EducationalThought and Practice• In the development of modern education practices.• The child is no longer regarded as a passive subject meant for the imposition of external information but is considered an active living being.• to introduce a more human touch in the processes of education• The supreme contribution of Dewey to a philosophy of education is the theory of scientific democratic humanism• The supreme contribution of Dewey to a philosophy of education is the theory of scientific democratic humanism
Dewey’s contribution to modern education:• Original thinker:• Practical educational philosophy:• His progressive outlook to education• His views about aims, curriculum etc.
Dewey has influenced educational practices in thefollowing ways• Good educational requirements: The initiative should be with children Children should be allowed to build certain attitudes Learning that is necessary for activity only should be allowed Such learning should be properly guided• Curriculum should be flexible, based on experience: subjects should be organized according to utility and curriculum should be determined according to instinctive urges and native endowment.• Teacher’s role is to be a friend, philosopher and guide to the child. He is only to arrange the situations and opportunities, which may enable them to learn
• Methods should involve the following steps: Activity Problem Data Hypothesis Testing The project method is emphaisised• Regarding discipline, only social discipline is stressed. Main purpose is to cultivate pupils social attitudes, habits and ideas of co- operative conduct through the conjoint activities of the school.
Dewey’s Criticism• Realists: He wants to understand it .He does not mean to transform it as the pragmatist (or Dewey) wants to do. The realists want to understand the nature’s law so that he may be adjusted to the existing scheme of things.• Dewey thinks that philosophy should concern itself with social conflicts arising from the interaction of industry, science and democracy.