Philosophy of education


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Philosophy of education

  1. 1. Amanda Tame Education 526 December 11, 2009
  2. 2. The evolving math classroom  EMPIRICISM – The traditional classroom  PRAGMATISM – Recognizing the ever- changing world we live in  PROGRESSIVISM – Teach to the whole child  CONSTRUCTIVISM – Students involved in their learning
  3. 3. EMPIRICISM – teacher role  Teacher transmits knowledge to student  Learning is a one-way experience from teacher to student  Teacher holds authoritarian role  Teacher does the majority of the talking  Lecture format  Textbook based
  4. 4. EMPIRICISM – student role  Child born as blank slate  Learning happens to the student – mind is imprinted with new knowledge  Learning is based on correct answers  Students take notes  Don’t ask questions  Information is memorized
  5. 5. EMPIRICISM – My experience  This was the way my math classes were carried out  Lecture style  Little teacher – student interaction  Notes then individual class work  No group work or projects  This was the way I ran my math classes!  We do what we know…
  6. 6. EMPIRICISM – Why not?  A skill base is achieved through practice and repetition  Students may know how to do something without knowing why it works or why it is important  Passive acquisition of knowledge does not lead to being able to know when or how to apply the knowledge  Problem solving and reasoning skills are not developed
  7. 7. PRAGMATISM – change happens  We live in an ever- changing world and so our approaches should evolve and change as well  Goal of education is student growth  Education is not merely a technical venture  Education should be humanized  Students should learn why in addition to how Biesta & Burbules (2003)
  8. 8. PRAGMATISM – change happens  Offered a new way to think about how students acquire knowledge  students are not passive  This is a philosophy of action and interaction  the student is inherently involved with their environment  Students learn by interacting with what they are learning and with each other Biesta & Burbules (2003)
  9. 9. PRAGMATISM – My experience  This year has been a year of significant change and growth for me:  New high school building  New curriculum  New math delivery program  Complex Instruction  New math department chairs  I have had to embrace the change and learn how to meet the needs of my students in a new way
  10. 10. PRAGMATISM – My experience  I needed to move out of my comfort zone and embrace a new way of teaching  Move beyond the traditional methods I had adopted from my teachers  Our math department realized and accepted that what we were doing was not working and that we were not being the most effective teachers we could be  We wanted to find a new teaching method that was:  Interactive  Pushed students to learn math deeply  Had students work together in groups  Encourage creative thinking and problem solving  Embraced all ways of thinking  We discovered Complex Instruction!  We applied and received a grant to support this endeavor  All teachers did a week long training last summer  We have coaches that observe us monthly  Each content area meets weekly to plan tasks and share experiences
  11. 11. COMPLEX INSTRUCTION  The 7 practices of Complex Instruction:  Multidimensionality  Roles  Assigning Competence  Teaching Responsibility  High Expectations  Effort over Ability  Learning Practices Boaler (2006)
  12. 12. PROGRESSIVISM - child focused  Student’s understanding is the most important thing  Students must be able to assess their own learning as well as that of their peers  Encourage  Responsibility for self and others  Problem solving  Critical thinking  Learning should have value for the student  Students should be able to interact with their environment Olson (2003)
  13. 13. PROGRESSIVISM – in the classroom  Cross-curricular integration  Teacher is facilitator  Many types of materials are employed  Including manipulatives  Individual as well as group work  Students can move around the room and interact with other students  Time is more flexible – pacing is determined by student understanding  Assessment is done more at the individual level rather than group comparisons Labaree (2004)
  14. 14. PROGRESSIVISM – My experience THINGS I HAVE EMBRACED THINGS I STRUGGLE WITH  Student’s understanding is very important  Move beyond rote learning  Teacher as facilitator  I am not the only expert in the room!  Encourage responsibility for self and others  Don’t encourage dependence  Individual as well as group work  I feel like I’m finding the balance  Assessment at group and individual levels  Time is more flexible  We have already paused and revisited concepts not fully understood  Cross-curricular integration  Collaborate with other depts.  Students assess their own learning  How to do this?  Use many types of materials (including manipulatives)  Lack of resources, creativity?  Student can move around the room and interact with others  Chaos??
  15. 15. CONSTRUCTIVISM – student involvement  Learning happens when the student interacts with their environment  Wrong answers are a vehicle to deeper understanding because they trigger deeper reflection  Students need to be intentional about their learning  When students challenge each other in groups more learning happens  Complex reasoning is an indicator of successful learning
  16. 16. CONSTRUCTIVISM – students’ experiences  Interdisciplinary exploration  Collaboration amongst students  Reflection  Self-examination  Experiential learning Abdal-Haqq (1998)  Presented with:  Materials that captures one’s interest  Conceptual clusters – Big ideas  Questions are posed  Complex situations or problems are tackled  Activities are student centered:  Ask their own questions  Follow through on their own experiments  Make their own conclusions Hanley (1994)
  17. 17. CONSTRUCTIVISM – the role of the teacher  Teacher as a resource  Everyone in the room can contribute  Teacher is not the only expert  Challenge students  Question previously held beliefs  Let students’ needs help drive the lesson  Allow think time  Student understanding should help guide pacing  Encourage questioning  Ask open-ended questions  Support student autonomy  Relinquish classroom control  Use many forms of materials  Manipulatives  Games  Activities  Honor the discover y process  Many vehicles to get to understanding  Ask for clear communication  If students can explain their thinking well they have deeply learned Hanley (1994)
  18. 18. CONSTRUCTIVISM – My experience THINGS I HAVE EMBRACED THINGS I STRUGGLE WITH  Complex situations and problems are presented to students  Group work  CI tasks  Teacher as a resource  I am not the one with all of the answers  Asking open-ended questions  Scaffold learning  Let students’ needs drive the pacing  Re-teach when necessary  Honor the discovery process  Allow for messiness while learning  Interdisciplinary exploration  Integrate different content areas  Student reflection  How do I do this??  Challenge students by questioning their previously held beliefs  Ask the right questions  Relinquish classroom control  Still working on this  Many forms of materials  Time, money, creativity
  19. 19. I’M NOT THERE…YET!
  20. 20. References Abdal-Haqq, I. (1998). Constructivism in Teacher Education: Considerations for Those Who Would Link Practice to Theory. ERIC Digest. ERIC Identifier: ED426986. Retrieved on December 11, 2009 from Biesta, G. J. J. & Burbules, N. C. (2003). Pragmatism and Educational Research. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. Retrieved on December 8, 2009 from m+education&ots=DbtrpGe7dA&sig=JSQEyP3GFqYt3bIZUK7weM16iVE#v=onepage&q=pragmati sm%20education&f=false Boaler, J. (2006) “Opening our ideas”: how a detracked mathematics approach promoted respect, responsibility, and high achievement, Theory into Practice, 45(1), 1-11. Hanley, S. (1994). On Constructivism. Maryland Collaborative for Teacher Preparation . Retrieved on December 11, 2009 from Projects/MCTP/Essays/Constructivism.txt Labaree, D. F. (2004). The Trouble with Ed Schools. USA: Yale University Press. Retrieved on December 8, 2009 from =&ei=lcsiS5rqKZqIlQSL9cDNCw&cd=1#v=onepage&q=progressivism%20education&f=false Olson, D. R. (2003). Psychological theory and educational reform: how school remakes mind and society. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved on December 8, 2009 from +educational+reform:+how+school+remakes+mind+and+society.&lr=&ei=5s4iS5DRFZv- lATX5o3JCw&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false