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Agenda 1. R 2. 3. 4. 5. RSaturday, November 26, 11 8
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Agenda 1. R 2. 3. 4. 5. RSaturday, November 26, 11 9
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• • Ross Ihaka & Robert Gentleman (R & R) • Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman. R: A language for data analysis and graphics. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 5(3):299-314, 1996. • http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/twiki/pub/Main/Je reyHorner/JCGSR.pdf •Saturday, November 26, 11 10
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-Install / Update / Uninstall-Saturday, November 26, 11 17
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1. http://www.r-project.org/ 2. “download R” 3. JAPAN 4. OSSaturday, November 26, 11 18
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• Windows: : http://cran.md.tsukuba.ac.jp/bin/windows/base/ • Download R 2.14.0 for Windows • Mac OS X: http://cran.md.tsukuba.ac.jp/bin/macosx/ • R-2.14.0.pkg (latest version)Saturday, November 26, 11 19
141.
t > like <- c(6,10,6,10,7,8,7,9,10,4) > dislike <- c(3,5,6,4,4,8,4,5,4,7) > t.test(like,dislike,var.equal=TRUE)Saturday, November 26, 11 144
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t > t.test(like,dislike,var.equal=TRUE) Two Sample t-test data: like and dislike t = 3.3041, df = 18, p-value = 0.003946 alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0 # 95 percent confidence interval: # 0.9831754 4.4168246 sample estimates: mean of x mean of y 7.7 5.0Saturday, November 26, 11 145
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t ... “ t Welch t Welch t ” http://aoki2.si.gunma-u.ac.jp/lecture/Average/bunsan1.htmlSaturday, November 26, 11 146
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! ! ― Welch ― • http://oku.edu.mie-u.ac.jp/~okumura/blog/node/2262 • http://aoki2.si.gunma-u.ac.jp/lecture/BF/index.html • Donald W. Zimmerman, ``Some properties of preliminary tests of equality of variances in the two-sample location problem, The Journal of General Psychology,Vol.123, pp.217-231 (1996) • The unequal variance t-test is an underused alternative to Students t-test and the Mann- Whitney U test -- Ruxton 17 (4): 688 -- Behavioral Ecology • : Mann-Whitney U http://qdai.way- nifty.com/qjes/2005/02/mannwhitneyu.htmlSaturday, November 26, 11 148
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... > t.test(like,dislike,var.equal=FALSE) Welch Two Sample t-test data: like and dislike t = 3.3041, df = 16.795, p-value = 0.004249 alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0 95 percent confidence interval: 0.9743014 4.4256986 sample estimates: mean of x mean of y 7.7 5.0Saturday, November 26, 11 149
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t t ... •t t ... • Student t t • s^2 s t ... • %E3%82%B4%E3%82%BB%E3%83%83%E3%83%88 http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%82%A6%E3%82%A3%E3%83%AA%E3%82%A2%E3%83%A0%E3%83%BB • http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%87%AA%E7%94%B1%E5%BA%A6 • http://mat.isc.chubu.ac.jp/fpr/fpr1997/0119.html • http://www.pol.geophys.tohoku.ac.jp/~hanawa/ori/ori/054.htmlSaturday, November 26, 11 150
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