Med 505 Seminar on Online TechnologiesPresentation Transcript
MED 505 Seminar I Lecture by Serdar Katipoğlu The lecture is concerned with how ideas are produced, stored and disseminated. The history of ideas technologies will be evaluated in the case of Hypertext.Reproductive technology such as books and e-resources will be discussed within their historical development. Finally, theories of information society will be investigated to understand today’s society. M.A. Program in Media and Communication Systems Istanbul Bilgi University Santral Campus 21 October 2009
Hypertext The New World of HYPERTEXT
Beyond the printed page Let us begin with the most concrete aspect of texts, the printing on the page. Jacques Derrida freed himself from the constraints of traditional printing. To illustrate this here is the first page of Glas 3 , a work published in 1974 that places in parallel comments from Hegel’s ‘Phenomenology of Spirit’ and some of Jean Genet’s literary writings. We are not considering here the text of this beautiful work, which blends speculative philosophy and literature. That alone would merit an extended and learned discussion. We will only examine its physical layout. First of all the square shape of the book breaks with convention. In addition, the size is clearly unusual. Then, the first page of the text Title:On the Supposed Neo-structuralism of Hypertext. Authors:Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel Source:Diogenes (Blackwell Publishing Limited); 2002, Vol. 49 Issue 4, p8, 12p, EBSCO http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=7122994
As we May Think by Vannevar Bush Atlantic Montly July 1945 Consider a future device for individual use, which is a sort of mechanized private file and library. It needs a name, and, to coin one at random, "memex" will do. A memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory. It consists of a desk, and while it can presumably be operated from a distance, it is primarily the piece of furniture at which he works. On the top are slanting translucent screens, on which material can be projected for convenient reading. There is a keyboard, and sets of buttons and levers. Otherwise it looks like an ordinary desk.
The owner of the memex , let us say, is interested in the origin and properties of the bow and arrow. Specifically he is studying why the short Turkish bow was apparently superior to the English long bow in the skirmishes of the Crusades. He has dozens of possibly pertinent books and articles in his memex . First he runs through an encyclopedia, finds an interesting but sketchy article, leaves it projected. Next, in a history, he finds another pertinent item, and ties the two together. Thus he goes, building a trail of many items. Occasionally he inserts a comment of his own, either linking it into the main trail or joining it by a side trail to a particular item. When it becomes evident that the elastic properties of available materials had a great deal to do with the bow, he branches off on a side trail which takes him through textbooks on elasticity and tables of physical constants. He inserts a page of longhand analysis of his own. Thus he builds a trail of his interest through the maze of materials available to him.
And his trails do not fade. Several years later, his talk with a friend turns to the queer ways in which a people resist innovations, even of vital interest. He has an example, in the fact that the outraged Europeans still failed to adopt the Turkish bow. In fact he has a trail on it. A touch brings up the code book. Tapping a few keys projects the head of the trail. A lever runs through it at will, stopping at interesting items, going off on side excursions. It is an interesting trail, pertinent to the discussion. So he sets a reproducer in action, photographs the whole trail out, and passes it to his friend for insertion in his own memex , there to be linked into the more general trail.
Most of the memex contents are purchased on microfilm ready for insertion. Books of all sorts, pictures, current periodicals, newspapers, are thus obtained and dropped into place. Business correspondence takes the same path. And there is provision for direct entry. On the top of the memex is a transparent platen. On this are placed longhand notes, photographs, memoranda, all sorts of things. When one is in place, the depression of a lever causes it to be photographed onto the next blank space in a section of the memex film, dry photography being employed. MEM ory EX tentions = Memex
Defining "Lexia" In S/Z , Roland Barthes (1970) used the term “ lexia " to denote "units of reading" which would facilitate the analysis of the "plural text", for "if we want to remain attentive to the plural of a text . . . we must renounce structuring this text in large masses, as was done by classical rhetoric and by secondary-school explication: no construction of the text: everything signifies ceaselessly and several times, but without being delegated to a great final ensemble, to an ultimate structure" (p. 11-12). Hypertext theorists such as George Landow have been quick to appropriate this term and use it to denote a hypertext "text chunk"--ideally the amount of text and/or image which will fit on one screen. I have appropriated the term " lexia " and use it to refer to each separate document within a hypertext from which (and to which) associative links are made. http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/1.2/features/eyman/lexia.html
Hypertext Hypertext... Changes our sense of Authorship Authorial property Creativity (or originality) Moving away from the constrictions of Page-bound technology Technology of cultural memory World Wide Web “ Textual units” or “lexias” Literary works
Hypertext Non-sequential writing Ordinary writing is sequential for two reasons Speech-making have to be sequential Books are not convenient to read except in a sequence But the structures of ideas are not sequential Hypertext is a term coined in the 1960s by Ted Nelson Human readable information / multimedia linked together in an unconstrained way
Philosophy Theodor Holm Nelson Let me introduce the word "hypertext"***~ to mean a body of written or pictorial material interconnected in such a complex way that it could not conveniently be presented or represented on paper. paper. It may contain sunmmaries, or maps of its contents and their interrelations; it may contain annotations, additions and footnotes from scholars who have examined it. AUG. 24/11:00-12:30/GOLD ROOM SESSION 4: Complex Information Processing 4.2: A File Structure for The Complex, The Changing and the Indeterminate T. H. Nelson Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. http:// portal . acm .org/ citation . cfm ? id =806036
Xanadu The second visionary, Theodor Holm Nelson , began his career by studying philosophy. He describes how he suffered a great deal in writing his first essay entitled ‘Truth, Man and Choice’ as he found it difficult to organise his ideas into a sequential order. After his initial contact with computers in 1960, he imagined a tool to help with conceptualisation. According to him, the whole problem was that a complicated idea did not lend itself easily to being reduced to linear form, suitable to being explained sequentially. It often appears to us as a tangled ball of wool that can be seen differently, depending on your point of view. What was needed then was a tool, which would record the links between the different facets of an idea, without obliging us to express them in a strictly linear manner. Nelson invented the neologism ‘structangle’ to refer to the confused structure that the computer would be able to help us to clarify and use. In 1960, he promised himself that he would write his next book with the help of this tool. He thought that by 1962 it would all be ready. Twenty years later the programme had not been completed. In the following years this idea spawned the Xanadu project, which, to my knowledge, despite many assertions as to its completeness, is still unfinished.
Hypertext, hypermedia and the history of the text Written text is ... based on physical medium Clay Papyrus / Paper Tablet, scroll or book The text was married to a physical media, readers and writers The text was linear, bounded and fixed Hypertext as the use of the computer to transcend the linear , bounded and fixed qualities of the traditional written text
Unlike the static form of the book Hypertext can be composed and read, non-sequentially... It is composed of blocks of text or what Ronald Barthes terms lexia And the electronic links that join them
Internal hypertextual Tables of contents Page numbers Chapters Footnotes Indexes External hypertextual Supplied by librarians and bibliographers Ideas and text Library call number Object of the study Volume
How does hypertext work Primitive system Each volume simply added on at the end of the shelf Bilgi, geliş sırasına göre rafa yerleştirilir. Volume order Modern system Logical order System places related books together (same subject) On the same shelf A kind of hypertextual linking
Online library catalog Description about books and articles Mental model of hypertext Scholarly article Footnote Leaves the main text to read that note The reader can follow the link another text Move outside the article itself True hypertext must be able to define textual units, and link them in various ways, within an overall textbase or, to use another term now gaining currency “ docuverse” Ted Nelson’s idea of a wide “docuverse” literally by allowing between nodes in different databases
From hypertext to hypermedia Hypermedia extend hypertext by re-integrating our visual auditory faculties into textual exprience, Linking Graphic images Sound Video to verbal science Naturel progression From the printed word to hypertext to hypermedia From painting to photography to silent movies and to movies with color and sound
Hypertext and author Collaborative work: Hypertext demands new models of reading, writing, teaching, and learning New understanding of collaborative learning and collaborative work Collaboration suggests two or more scientists, songwriters, or side by side On the same work In the same place In the same time Not cooperate 1- Would type a sentence, at which point the other world approve, qualify or rewrite it, and then we would proceed to the next sentence 2- One worker produces a draft that another person then later edits by modifying and adding 3-Individual workers divide up the overall taxt
4- Fourth collaboration: Networked hypertext systems combines aspects of the three describes Two principles of fourth collaboration A- Any document electronically linked to another document collaborate with it B- Any document electronically linked... on the networked system (potential exists) Collaboration with all other documents But the rules of culture Intellectual property and authorship, do not encourage such recognition
Reconfiguring the text Within a network of electronic links A document no longer exists by itself Writer loses certain control over his text Text brakes down to fragment The lexia or block of text and these reading units take on a life of their own No linear Hyper text joins blocks of text by electronic links Garphics Maps Diagrams Visual Reader...
SPARC is an alliance of universities, research libraries, and organizations built as a constructive response to market dysfunctions in the scholarly communication system. These dysfunctions have reduced dissemination of scholarship and crippled libraries. SPARC serves as a catalyst for action, helping to create systems that expand information dissemination and use in a networked digital environment while responding to the needs of scholars and academe. http://www.arl.org/sparc/core/index.asp?page=a0
Crossref CrossRef is the citation linking backbone -- a collaborative reference linking service that allows the user to click on a citation and be taken directly to the target content. Online publishing is raising the bar for resource discovery. The scientific and scholarly community now demands navigational ease at the desktop. More than ever, publishers, librarians, and information aggregators are expected to provide seamless integration of current and archived content across publishers. http:// www.crossref.org /
Information Society Bell’s Post-industrial Society, Castells’ Network Society
Information Society Bell’s Post-industrial Society, Castells’ Network Society Social and cultural transformation or social change new technology for social change Political, economic, social and cultural factors for social change Quantitative measures of social change Increasing volumes of information and larger information sector ICT Qualitative measures of social change the meaning or significance of such transformations
Utopian A new era of greater freedom and fulfillment Access to more information Pessimistic Continuation of long-standing inequalities Two best known theorists of the information society Daniel Bell and Manuel Castell
Bell’s Post-industrial Society Daniel Bell Post-industrial society Information society Western economies had de-industrialized Declining percentage of the workforce working
Daniel Bell refers in 1974 to coming revolution: Computer has a central role Pre-industrial society / muscle power Industrial society / coal, shipbuilding Post-industrial society / service society / information society Servants, banking and transport are service sectors in the 19th century But different in information society Education, health, system analysis, processing information, IT, telecommunication [asansördeki aynalar]
Daniel Bell’s argument : Post-industrial society is characterized by the centrality of Scientific knowledge Scientific knowledge directing social change But never before in the history In the 19th century Telephone and electricity working by trial-and-error rather than focusing on scientific... [Electric Bulb ?] Information economy categories 1-Knowledge (doctors, lawyers) 2-entertainment (TV music indus.) 3- economic transactions (banking or insurance) 4-infrastructure (telecommunications) Information and knowledge are the crucial variables of the Post-industrial economy Hugh Mackay / Investigating the Information Society, 2001 p. 22-25
Information: storage retrieval and processing of data Essential resource in society Service sector and service work Webster : A good deal of service work not in consuming but in assisting in its production Transport, finance, insurance with manufacturing economy Knowledge has replaced labour and capital as the source of added value Information and knowledge are the crucial variables in post-industrial society
Neden yeni amblem köşeli değil de kıvrımlı? Bu kıvrımın anlamı ne? Müşteri beklentilerine göre şekil değiştirebilmeyi mi anlatıyor? Neden Arçelik artık büyük harfle yazılmıyor? Sanayici büyük Arçelik yerini müşterisiyle küçük harfle konuşan bir Arçelik'e mi bırakıyor? http:// www.arcelik.com.tr/manifesto.shtml
Çünkü bu Arçelik'in yeni ses tonu. Arçelik değişiyor. Fabrika ağırlığıyla duran, büyük harfli, sert, sanayici Arçelik logosu da yerini yenisine bırakıyor. Yeni Arçelik'in yeni amblemi, müşteri beklentilerine göre şekil alabilme gücünü, esnekliğini ve kararlılığını gösteriyor. Dönüşümün ve yeni bir sayfanın simgesi. Bu kıvrımda, gülen müşteri ve şekil alan çelik gizli. Yeni Arçelik logosu küçük harfli, geleceğe doğru eğimli. Yeni Arçelik, 70'lerin sanayi markasından yeni milenyumun müşteri odaklı teknoloji ve hizmet markasına dönüşüyor, müşterisiyle küçük harfle konuşuyor. Sade ve sakin. Teknolojik ama yumuşak.
Arçelik reklamlarındaki robot da nereden çıktı? Yoksa insanlığın ortak hayali olan "her işi gören robot" da Arçelik'in planları arasında mı? Neden olmasın! Arçelik, Türkiye'nin en büyük Araştırma-Geliştirme laboratuvarına sahip. AR-GE'ye bugüne kadar yaptığı 100 milyon dolarlık yatırımla, dünyaya teknoloji satan bir dünya şirketi olabilmenin haklı gururunu taşıyor. Arçelik'in toplam 600 kişilik mühendis gücünün dörtte biri Arçelik Araştırma ve Teknoloji m erkezi'nde çalışıyor.
T echnological Determinism T echnology shapes society Research shows that the direction and rate of scientific work is shaped clearly by social priorities The example he uses is the New York developer and road builder from the 1930s to the 1970s, Robert Moses, designed a road system to access Jones Beach which would in effect e xclude poorer, black people from using the b each
Many of the overpasses are extraordinarily low Automobile-owning whites Poor people and blacks used public transit Automobile over the development of mass transit, will continue to shape that city Social forces have shaped our technology Bosphorus Bridge
Castell’s Network Society Manuel Castell is the leading theorist of the network society Network society represents a new sort of capitalism Castells sees growing inequality and polarization with the demise of labour-intensive industries and their replacement with production flexibility Organizations shift from bureaucracies to become network enterprises Focusing on managing and responding to information flows Network society, the dominant social structure in the information age
New forms of time and space Biological time and clock time He argues social groups work with timeless time Communication technologies eliminate space on a given network Breakdown of shared collective identities of class, nation, and religion New social movements around identity Political power from nation state to media and other producers of culture
His networks composed of interconnected nodes Global corporations and banks Managerial class with cosmopolitan lifestyle Extensive air travel exotic restaurants Geographical distance is irrelevant to connection and communication The networks of flows Interconnected, global, capitalist network using technology and information main source in society For Castells technological innovation represents a fundamental change* Technology is something of a driving force