Mc 6


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Mc 6

  1. 1. PRESENTATIONSIntroduction Definition: Is a live mode of sharing information with a select audience A oral activity using visual electronic aids to discuss new ideas and information with a specific audience in an impressive and convincing manner.Elements of Presentation Presenter Audience Specific content with a definite objective to be achieved Involves prior preparation and planningKinds of PresentationBasically three kinds of presentations:1. Monologue presentations – Speaker speaks without interruption and answers questions at the end2. Guided discussions- The speaker presents the questions or issues that both the parties have agreed in advance andacts as facilitator to help the audience with the expert knowledge3. Sales presentations – Is made to convince the audience for buying the products or services or accepting the new ideaFactors Affecting PresentationsFollowing factors affect the effectiveness of the presentation: • Audience Analysis • Communication environment • Personal appearance • Use of Visuals
  2. 2. • Opening and Closing of presentation • Organization of presentation: • Standard patterns of organizing a presentation- • Chronological • Problem- causes – solution • Excluding alternatives • Pro-Con • 1-2-3 • Language and words • Quality of Voice • Body Language • Answering QuestionsGiving Effective Presentation Every Successful presentation requires: Strategy Structure Support SpeechStrategy The strategy of presentation involves: Deciding the purpose of presentation Deciding the possible results expected from the audience Knowing and analyzing the audience, their economic and social status, their demographic characteristics, their cultural background and their personal preferences Deciding time, location, and manner they are to ne influencedStructure
  3. 3. An individual is expected to organize his ideas properly First you need to tell the audience what is going to be told Then you tell the topic Finally you summarize what has been told Mainly consists of Introduction, Body and ConclusionFor structuring the presentation, the speaker should… Gather material in the light of the theme of the presentation from various sources Organize the facts and insights into the main points and sub points in the body of the presentation. Care should be taken that Presentation is not too lengthy Points should be presented in logical sequence Decide how to capture listeners attention. May be by Asking question Telling a story Making a startling statement Quoting some authority Plan the conclusion in advance Decide what has to be said at the end to appeal for actionSupport Supporting material is vital for making the presentation effective. It clarifies the speaker’s ideas, makes the presentation more illuminating as well as interesting Leaves relatively permanent impact on the mind of the listeners These support materials are as follows: Whiteboards Handouts
  4. 4. Flip charts Overhead projectors 35 mm slider LCD projectors Video tapesSpeech The last part of the presentation is delivering speech which can be : Manuscript that involves reading word for word from a prepared matter Memorized that involves reciting word for word from memory Extemporaneous which is planned with broad ideas but not written or memorized Impromptu which is unexpected , sudden and on the spot Good delivery of presentation involves or speech involves caring about number of factors which include visual, verbal and vocal Visual Elements: Dress effectively to look smart Be confident and authoritative in your look Establish and maintain eye contact Avoid looking at notes Stand upright do not try to close the presentation in hurry Move out confidently after presentation Vocal elements: Use exact word and pronunciation Keep sentences short Use active voice Address listeners directly
  5. 5. Avoid emphasizing Vocal elements: Speak enthusiastically Speak loudly to be heard Be more alert and aware of your voice Do’s and donts Don’ts:- Speak too low in a feeble voice that cannot be heard Shout which makes you sound angry and jarring Do’s:- Maintain eye contact Be simple and clear Put interesting questions Invite volunteers to role play Stand close to the audience in a way that you are fully visible to them Make presentation well researchedPoints to remember Identify your purpose Analyze your audience Identify the need Collate your information Design your communication Time your presentation Decide on the visual aids to be used Study the location
  6. 6. NEGOTIATIONSNegotiation isa process of bargaining in which two parties each of whom have something that other wants, try to reach an agreement on mutually accepted termsNegotiation is a process of bargainingin which two parties each of whom have something that other wants,try to reach anagreement on mutually accepted termsNatureNature of negotiation depends on two points:both the parties should be equally interested in the agreed resultresult should be reached only through discussion onlyNeed for negotiatingTwo situations can be discussed:Formal Situations:- a preannounced meeting of the two parties agenda already fixed no of persons involved known time given to prepare and fix roles for each partyInformal Situations:- Unannounced and casual meetings Involves just 2 persons Gives no time Friendly approach and opinion seeking for the decision already madeFACTORS AFFECTING NEGOTIATIONPlace :- Place of meeting influences the level of confidence. E.g. your own office Information and material needed during course of negotiation to be obtained
  7. 7. Can extend social courtesies as token of good will.Time :- Choice of time for holding discussions should be fixed according to mutual convenience Time allotted should be sufficient for different stages of negotiation Time for preparation should also be carefully fixed Negotiations should be carried out timelySubjective factors:-Final outcome of negotiation is determined by subjective factors of influence and persuasionlike: Personal relationship – fear, future considerations, mutual obligation, practical wisdom, status difference Persuasion - style, you attitude, Talking and listening, probing and questioning, avoiding confrontational tone, compromising, summarizing , reaching an agreementSTAGES OF NEGOTIATING PROCESSThe stages of an effective discussion are:-Preparing and planning :-Access the relative strength of the two partiesSet the negotiation objectivesBe realistic about the objectivesThe negotiating phase:-Starts with defining the issues (scope of negotiation)Both parties put forward their initial propositions and define their initial positionsThe propositions tested through argumentsThen move to a possible solution which may be the possible outcomeTerms are made for acceptanceAgreement spelt out and concluded
  8. 8. Implementation:-Agreement should in such a way that it should be implemented upon the agreed outcomeNegotiation is considered failed if not implementedAgreements should be confirmed in writingAn implementation programme should have been mentioned in the agreementEvery person involved in the discussion as well as every concerned person informed about theimplications and action that follows.Negotiation StyleWhat is your style? Avoider Compromiser Accommodator Competitor Problem SolverNegotiation StrategiesPreparation Identify the true issues in the negotiation Assess how important each issue is to you Know what you must have Know what you don’t need Estimate how important each is to the other side Set your expectationsNegotiation StrategiesDistributive and integrative aspects Single issue negotiation is only distributive Car purchase
  9. 9. Identify the bargaining zone Dealer Customer Customer today has better informationNegotiation Strategies Integrative aspects Identify shared goals Identify where tradeoffs existMulti-issue negotiations have both aspectsNegotiation StrategiesStrategies for finding trade offs Build trust and share information Ask many questions Be patient - ask questions; verify assumptions Be a good listener – do not be afraid of silence Always ask for “explanation” when there are differences – try to get at the root issues Give away some information Make multiple offers simultaneouslyNegotiation StrategiesStrategies for finding trade offs Use differences in expectations Use differences in risk preferences Use differences in time preferences
  10. 10. Consider adding issues Negotiation Strategies (continued) Process Be flexible – keep the goal in mind Have high goals Progress from general to specific Address non-financial issues first Address financial terms later Negotiating Strategies Fairness and emotion Negotiation is not just economics Remember ultimatum bargaining - fairness Price increase with demand – snowstorm Effect of emotion on negotiator performance Conclusion• Negotiation is an art learned over a lifetime by constant application and practice• Everyone is a student