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UNIT III
What is a Presentation, Essential characteristics of a
good presentation, Preparing a presentation,
Delivering the presentation, Handling questions and
debates, Delivering different types of speeches
What is a Presentation
– A presentation can also be used as a broad term that encompasses other
‘speaking engagements’ such as making a speech at a wedding, or getting a
point across in a video conference.
– To be effective, step-by-step preparation and the method and means of
presenting the information should be carefully considered.
– A presentation requires you to get a message across to the listeners and will
often contain a 'persuasive' element. It may, for example, be a talk about the
positive work of your organisation, what you could offer an employer, or why
you should receive additional funding for a project.
The Key Elements of a
Presentation
– Context
– Ask yourself the following questions to develop a full understanding of the context of
the presentation.
– When and where will you deliver your presentation?
– There is a world of difference between a small room with natural light and an informal
setting, and a huge lecture room, lit with stage lights. The two require quite different
presentations, and different techniques.
– Will it be in a setting you are familiar with, or somewhere new?
– If somewhere new, it would be worth trying to visit it in advance, or at least arriving early,
to familiarise yourself with the room.
The Key Elements of a
Presentation
– Will the presentation be within a formal or less formal setting?
– A work setting will, more or less by definition, be more formal, but there are also
various degrees of formality within that.
– Will the presentation be to a small group or a large crowd?
– Are you already familiar with the audience?
– With a new audience, you will have to build rapport quickly and effectively, to get
them on your side.
The Key Elements of a
Presentation
– What equipment and technology will be available to you, and what will you be
expected to use?
– In particular, you will need to ask about microphones and whether you will be
expected to stand in one place, or move around.
– What is the audience expecting to learn from you and your presentation?
– Check how you will be ‘billed’ to give you clues as to what information needs to
be included in your presentation.
The Key Elements of a
Presentation
–Presenter
– The role of the presenter is to communicate with the audience and control the
presentation.
– Remember, though, that this may also include handing over the control to your
audience, especially if you want some kind of interaction.
The Key Elements of a
Presentation
– Audience
– The audience receives the presenter’s message(s).
– However, this reception will be filtered through and affected by such things as
the listener’s own experience, knowledge and personal sense of values.
The Key Elements of a
Presentation
– Message
– The message or messages are delivered by the presenter to the audience.
– The message is delivered not just by the spoken word (verbal communication) but
can be augmented by techniques such as voice projection, body language, gestures,
eye contact (non-verbal communication), and visual aids.
– The message will also be affected by the audience’s expectations. For example, if
you have been billed as speaking on one particular topic, and you choose to speak
on another, the audience is unlikely to take your message on board even if you
present very well. They will judge your presentation a failure, because you have not
met their expectations.
The Key Elements of a
Presentation
– Reaction
– The audience’s reaction and therefore the success of the presentation will
largely depend upon whether you, as presenter, effectively communicated
your message, and whether it met their expectations.
– As a presenter, you don’t control the audience’s expectations. What you can do
is find out what they have been told about you by the conference organisers,
and what they are expecting to hear. Only if you know that can you be confident
of delivering something that will meet expectations.
The Key Elements of a
Presentation
– Method
– How will the presentation be delivered?
– Presentations are usually delivered direct to an audience. However, there may
be occasions where they are delivered from a distance over the Internet using
video conferencing systems, such as Skype.
– It is also important to remember that if your talk is recorded and posted on the
internet, then people may be able to access it for several years. This will mean
that your contemporaneous references should be kept to a minimum.
The Key Elements of a
Presentation
– Impediments
– Many factors can influence the effectiveness of how your message is
communicated to the audience.
– For example background noise or other distractions, an overly warm or cool
room, or the time of day and state of audience alertness can all influence your
audience’s level of concentration.
– As presenter, you have to be prepared to cope with any such problems and try
to keep your audience focused on your message.
Steps in Preparing a Presentation
– Step 1: Analyze your audience
– The first step in preparing a presentation is to learn more about the audience to
whom you'll be speaking. It's a good idea to obtain some information on the
backgrounds, values, and interests of your audience so that you understand
what the audience members might expect from your presentation.
– Step 2: Select a topic
– Next, if possible select a topic that is of interest to the audience and to you. It
will be much easier to deliver a presentation that the audience finds relevant,
and more enjoyable to research a topic that is of interest to you.
–
Steps in Preparing a
Presentation
– Step 3: Define the objective of the presentation
– Once you have selected a topic, write the objective of the presentation in a
single concise statement. The objective needs to specify exactly what you want
your audience to learn from your presentation. Base the objective and the level
of the content on the amount of time you have for the presentation and the
background knowledge of the audience. Use this statement to help keep you
focused as you research and develop the presentation.
Steps in Preparing a
Presentation
– Step 4: Prepare the body of the presentation
– After defining the objective of your presentation, determine how much information you can present in the
amount of time allowed. Also, use your knowledge about the audience to prepare a presentation with the right
level of detail. You don't want to plan a presentation that is too basic or too advanced.
– The body of the presentation is where you present your ideas. To present your ideas convincingly, you will need
to illustrate and support them. Strategies to help you do this include the following:
– Present data and facts
– Read quotes from experts
– Relate personal experiences
– Provide vivid descriptions
– And remember, as you plan the body of your presentation it's important to provide variety. Listeners may
quickly become bored by lots of facts or they may tire of hearing story after story.
Steps in Preparing a
Presentation
– Step 5: Prepare the introduction and conclusion
– Once you've prepared the body of the presentation, decide how you will begin and
end the talk. Make sure the introduction captures the attention of your audience
and the conclusion summarizes and reiterates your important points. In other
words, "Tell them what you're going to tell them. Tell them. Then, tell them what
you told them."
– During the opening of your presentation, it's important to attract the audience's
attention and build their interest. If you don't, listeners will turn their attention
elsewhere and you'll have a difficult time getting it back. Strategies that you can use
include the following:
– Make the introduction relevant to the listeners' goals, values, and needs
– Ask questions to stimulate thinking
– Share a personal experience
Steps in Preparing a
Presentation
– Begin with a joke or humorous story
– Project a cartoon or colorful visual
– Make a stimulating or inspirational statement
– Give a unique demonstration
– During the opening you want to clearly present your topic and the purpose of your
presentation. Clearly articulating the topic and purpose will help the listeners focus
on and easily follow your main ideas.
– During the conclusion of your presentation, reinforce the main ideas you
communicated. Remember that listeners won't remember your entire presentation,
only the main ideas. By reinforcing and reviewing the main ideas, you help the
audience remember them.
–
Steps in Preparing a
Presentation
– Step 6: Practice delivering the presentation
– Most people spend hours preparing a presentation but very little time practicing it.
When you practice your presentation, you can reduce the number of times you
utter words and phrases like, "um," "well," and "you know." These habits can easily
diminish a speaker's credibility. You can also fine-tune your content to be sure you
make your most important points in the time alloted.
– In addition to planning the content of your presentation, you need to give advanced
thought to how you want to deliver it. Do you want to commit your presentation to
memory, use cards to guide you, or read from a script? Or, you might want to use a
combination of methods. To help you decide, read the advantages and
disadvantages of the four delivery methods described below.
Steps in Preparing a
Presentation
– Speaking from Memory
– Speaking from Notes
– Speaking from Text
Delivering the Presentation
– How you say things may often appear to be more important than what you say.
Have you listened to charismatic speakers who gain and maintain the attention
of the audience? Have you also encountered speakers who quickly put an
audience to sleep? Experienced presenters learn to communicate effectively by
using voice, gestures, and visual aids while trying to establishing a comfortable
environment for the audience.
Voice
– Using your voice effectively can have a great impact on your delivery. The best speaking voice
is conversational, natural, and enthusiastic. Use the following guidelines to develop an
effective speaking voice:
– Alter the pitch (high and low) of your voice to prevent yourself from sounding monotone.
Don't alter the pitch too much, however, because this may make you sound unnatural.
– Speak loudly enough to be heard by everyone in the room, but vary the volume of your voice
to maintain interest and emphasize key points.
– Stress certain words as another way to add emphasis. Typically when you stress a word, the
pitch and the volume increase.
– Alter the rate at which you speak to maintain interest and add emphasis. Speak faster to show
excitement and/or build suspense. Speak slower to show the importance of an idea. Pause
after important ideas to allow the audience time to grasp them.
Gestures
– Speakers often communicate with their audience either intentionally or unintentionally using
gestures and other physical behaviors. Use the guidelines below to help use gestures to your
benefit:
– Maintain eye contact with members of the audience to keep their attention level high. Eye
contact signals that you care about the audience and you are attuned to their needs. Also use
eye contact to detect confusion or boredom so that you can then modify your approach.
– Use positive facial expressions such as smiles, expressive eyes, and looks of empathy and
encouragement to communicate feelings and emotions.
– Stand naturally with your feet spread slightly apart and arms relaxed at your sides.
– Minimize gestures like pacing back and forth, rocking back and forth, playing with coins in your
pocket, wringing your hands, and other types of fidgeting. These gestures not only signal that
you are nervous, but they are distracting to the listener as well.
– Use quick and energetic movements of your hands and arms to add expression to your talk.
Maintain the attention of the audience by making your movements unpredictable.
Visual Aids in Presentation
– Visual aids can help you emphasize main ideas, illustrate a concept, or stimulate the
interest of your listeners. Examples of visual aids include posters, overheads, flip
charts, photographs, computer-generated slides, and three-dimensional effects.
– Use visual aids to emphasize important points and add interest to your presentation
— don't put every word of your entire presentation on them.
– Select the appropriate visual aid for the environment. It may be possible to pass
visuals around to a small audience but in large groups you'll need to project them.
– Give the visuals a consistent appearance including color and spacing. Start the text
at the same place on each visual.
– Try to observe the seven by seven rule: on an overhead slide have no more than
seven lines and seven words per line. Similar rules would also pertain to flip charts,
PowerPoint and other computer generated slides, and posters.
Visual Aids in Presentation
– Use a simple typeface or font. Don't use more than two different typefaces, if
possible.
– Make sure the text is large enough for people in the back of the room to read.
Letters on a flipchart should be at least 3 inches in height. For a projected
overhead or slide, fonts between 20 and 48 points are customary.
– Don't show visuals that conflict with what you're saying — this includes
displaying them once you've moved beyond their content.
– Don't read the text that's on the visual, but do paraphrase and add to it.
Establishing a Comfortable
Environment
– While you won't always have control over the environment when you do a
presentation, there may be ways you can modify the environment so that it is both
comfortable for you and the audience members. The guidelines that follow are
intended to help you become aware of environmental factors that can affect the
delivery of your presentation.
– Make sure the lighting is adequate.
– Locate the temperature controls and regulate the temperature if necessary. If it is
too warm or too cold, audience members will focus on their discomfort rather than
on your presentation.
– Conduct a test of any audiovisual equipment to ensure it's in working order. Have a
backup plan in place just in case — whatever can go wrong, will go wrong at the
worst possible time.
– Clean off any white boards or chalk boards that might distract the audience.
Establishing a Comfortable
Environment
– Make adjustments to the setup of the room to ensure everyone in the audience will
be able to see you. Make sure that everyone can see the visuals you plan to use.
– If possible, practice your talk in the setting where you are scheduled to speak. This
will not only help you determine what other factors you might have to overcome,
but also make you feel more comfortable. If practicing in the room isn't possible, try
to visit it prior to your presentation so you know what to expect.
– When possible, greet members of the audience as they come into the room. Not
only will this make them feel welcome and at ease, but it may also help reduce your
nervousness.
– Try to eliminate barriers between you and the audience. These kinds of barriers
include lecterns, tables, or audiovisual equipment. Physical barriers communicate
that you're trying to maintain your distance from the audience.

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Presentation

  • 1. UNIT III What is a Presentation, Essential characteristics of a good presentation, Preparing a presentation, Delivering the presentation, Handling questions and debates, Delivering different types of speeches
  • 2. What is a Presentation – A presentation can also be used as a broad term that encompasses other ‘speaking engagements’ such as making a speech at a wedding, or getting a point across in a video conference. – To be effective, step-by-step preparation and the method and means of presenting the information should be carefully considered. – A presentation requires you to get a message across to the listeners and will often contain a 'persuasive' element. It may, for example, be a talk about the positive work of your organisation, what you could offer an employer, or why you should receive additional funding for a project.
  • 3. The Key Elements of a Presentation – Context – Ask yourself the following questions to develop a full understanding of the context of the presentation. – When and where will you deliver your presentation? – There is a world of difference between a small room with natural light and an informal setting, and a huge lecture room, lit with stage lights. The two require quite different presentations, and different techniques. – Will it be in a setting you are familiar with, or somewhere new? – If somewhere new, it would be worth trying to visit it in advance, or at least arriving early, to familiarise yourself with the room.
  • 4. The Key Elements of a Presentation – Will the presentation be within a formal or less formal setting? – A work setting will, more or less by definition, be more formal, but there are also various degrees of formality within that. – Will the presentation be to a small group or a large crowd? – Are you already familiar with the audience? – With a new audience, you will have to build rapport quickly and effectively, to get them on your side.
  • 5. The Key Elements of a Presentation – What equipment and technology will be available to you, and what will you be expected to use? – In particular, you will need to ask about microphones and whether you will be expected to stand in one place, or move around. – What is the audience expecting to learn from you and your presentation? – Check how you will be ‘billed’ to give you clues as to what information needs to be included in your presentation.
  • 6. The Key Elements of a Presentation –Presenter – The role of the presenter is to communicate with the audience and control the presentation. – Remember, though, that this may also include handing over the control to your audience, especially if you want some kind of interaction.
  • 7. The Key Elements of a Presentation – Audience – The audience receives the presenter’s message(s). – However, this reception will be filtered through and affected by such things as the listener’s own experience, knowledge and personal sense of values.
  • 8. The Key Elements of a Presentation – Message – The message or messages are delivered by the presenter to the audience. – The message is delivered not just by the spoken word (verbal communication) but can be augmented by techniques such as voice projection, body language, gestures, eye contact (non-verbal communication), and visual aids. – The message will also be affected by the audience’s expectations. For example, if you have been billed as speaking on one particular topic, and you choose to speak on another, the audience is unlikely to take your message on board even if you present very well. They will judge your presentation a failure, because you have not met their expectations.
  • 9. The Key Elements of a Presentation – Reaction – The audience’s reaction and therefore the success of the presentation will largely depend upon whether you, as presenter, effectively communicated your message, and whether it met their expectations. – As a presenter, you don’t control the audience’s expectations. What you can do is find out what they have been told about you by the conference organisers, and what they are expecting to hear. Only if you know that can you be confident of delivering something that will meet expectations.
  • 10. The Key Elements of a Presentation – Method – How will the presentation be delivered? – Presentations are usually delivered direct to an audience. However, there may be occasions where they are delivered from a distance over the Internet using video conferencing systems, such as Skype. – It is also important to remember that if your talk is recorded and posted on the internet, then people may be able to access it for several years. This will mean that your contemporaneous references should be kept to a minimum.
  • 11. The Key Elements of a Presentation – Impediments – Many factors can influence the effectiveness of how your message is communicated to the audience. – For example background noise or other distractions, an overly warm or cool room, or the time of day and state of audience alertness can all influence your audience’s level of concentration. – As presenter, you have to be prepared to cope with any such problems and try to keep your audience focused on your message.
  • 12. Steps in Preparing a Presentation – Step 1: Analyze your audience – The first step in preparing a presentation is to learn more about the audience to whom you'll be speaking. It's a good idea to obtain some information on the backgrounds, values, and interests of your audience so that you understand what the audience members might expect from your presentation. – Step 2: Select a topic – Next, if possible select a topic that is of interest to the audience and to you. It will be much easier to deliver a presentation that the audience finds relevant, and more enjoyable to research a topic that is of interest to you. –
  • 13. Steps in Preparing a Presentation – Step 3: Define the objective of the presentation – Once you have selected a topic, write the objective of the presentation in a single concise statement. The objective needs to specify exactly what you want your audience to learn from your presentation. Base the objective and the level of the content on the amount of time you have for the presentation and the background knowledge of the audience. Use this statement to help keep you focused as you research and develop the presentation.
  • 14. Steps in Preparing a Presentation – Step 4: Prepare the body of the presentation – After defining the objective of your presentation, determine how much information you can present in the amount of time allowed. Also, use your knowledge about the audience to prepare a presentation with the right level of detail. You don't want to plan a presentation that is too basic or too advanced. – The body of the presentation is where you present your ideas. To present your ideas convincingly, you will need to illustrate and support them. Strategies to help you do this include the following: – Present data and facts – Read quotes from experts – Relate personal experiences – Provide vivid descriptions – And remember, as you plan the body of your presentation it's important to provide variety. Listeners may quickly become bored by lots of facts or they may tire of hearing story after story.
  • 15. Steps in Preparing a Presentation – Step 5: Prepare the introduction and conclusion – Once you've prepared the body of the presentation, decide how you will begin and end the talk. Make sure the introduction captures the attention of your audience and the conclusion summarizes and reiterates your important points. In other words, "Tell them what you're going to tell them. Tell them. Then, tell them what you told them." – During the opening of your presentation, it's important to attract the audience's attention and build their interest. If you don't, listeners will turn their attention elsewhere and you'll have a difficult time getting it back. Strategies that you can use include the following: – Make the introduction relevant to the listeners' goals, values, and needs – Ask questions to stimulate thinking – Share a personal experience
  • 16. Steps in Preparing a Presentation – Begin with a joke or humorous story – Project a cartoon or colorful visual – Make a stimulating or inspirational statement – Give a unique demonstration – During the opening you want to clearly present your topic and the purpose of your presentation. Clearly articulating the topic and purpose will help the listeners focus on and easily follow your main ideas. – During the conclusion of your presentation, reinforce the main ideas you communicated. Remember that listeners won't remember your entire presentation, only the main ideas. By reinforcing and reviewing the main ideas, you help the audience remember them. –
  • 17. Steps in Preparing a Presentation – Step 6: Practice delivering the presentation – Most people spend hours preparing a presentation but very little time practicing it. When you practice your presentation, you can reduce the number of times you utter words and phrases like, "um," "well," and "you know." These habits can easily diminish a speaker's credibility. You can also fine-tune your content to be sure you make your most important points in the time alloted. – In addition to planning the content of your presentation, you need to give advanced thought to how you want to deliver it. Do you want to commit your presentation to memory, use cards to guide you, or read from a script? Or, you might want to use a combination of methods. To help you decide, read the advantages and disadvantages of the four delivery methods described below.
  • 18. Steps in Preparing a Presentation – Speaking from Memory – Speaking from Notes – Speaking from Text
  • 19. Delivering the Presentation – How you say things may often appear to be more important than what you say. Have you listened to charismatic speakers who gain and maintain the attention of the audience? Have you also encountered speakers who quickly put an audience to sleep? Experienced presenters learn to communicate effectively by using voice, gestures, and visual aids while trying to establishing a comfortable environment for the audience.
  • 20. Voice – Using your voice effectively can have a great impact on your delivery. The best speaking voice is conversational, natural, and enthusiastic. Use the following guidelines to develop an effective speaking voice: – Alter the pitch (high and low) of your voice to prevent yourself from sounding monotone. Don't alter the pitch too much, however, because this may make you sound unnatural. – Speak loudly enough to be heard by everyone in the room, but vary the volume of your voice to maintain interest and emphasize key points. – Stress certain words as another way to add emphasis. Typically when you stress a word, the pitch and the volume increase. – Alter the rate at which you speak to maintain interest and add emphasis. Speak faster to show excitement and/or build suspense. Speak slower to show the importance of an idea. Pause after important ideas to allow the audience time to grasp them.
  • 21. Gestures – Speakers often communicate with their audience either intentionally or unintentionally using gestures and other physical behaviors. Use the guidelines below to help use gestures to your benefit: – Maintain eye contact with members of the audience to keep their attention level high. Eye contact signals that you care about the audience and you are attuned to their needs. Also use eye contact to detect confusion or boredom so that you can then modify your approach. – Use positive facial expressions such as smiles, expressive eyes, and looks of empathy and encouragement to communicate feelings and emotions. – Stand naturally with your feet spread slightly apart and arms relaxed at your sides. – Minimize gestures like pacing back and forth, rocking back and forth, playing with coins in your pocket, wringing your hands, and other types of fidgeting. These gestures not only signal that you are nervous, but they are distracting to the listener as well. – Use quick and energetic movements of your hands and arms to add expression to your talk. Maintain the attention of the audience by making your movements unpredictable.
  • 22. Visual Aids in Presentation – Visual aids can help you emphasize main ideas, illustrate a concept, or stimulate the interest of your listeners. Examples of visual aids include posters, overheads, flip charts, photographs, computer-generated slides, and three-dimensional effects. – Use visual aids to emphasize important points and add interest to your presentation — don't put every word of your entire presentation on them. – Select the appropriate visual aid for the environment. It may be possible to pass visuals around to a small audience but in large groups you'll need to project them. – Give the visuals a consistent appearance including color and spacing. Start the text at the same place on each visual. – Try to observe the seven by seven rule: on an overhead slide have no more than seven lines and seven words per line. Similar rules would also pertain to flip charts, PowerPoint and other computer generated slides, and posters.
  • 23. Visual Aids in Presentation – Use a simple typeface or font. Don't use more than two different typefaces, if possible. – Make sure the text is large enough for people in the back of the room to read. Letters on a flipchart should be at least 3 inches in height. For a projected overhead or slide, fonts between 20 and 48 points are customary. – Don't show visuals that conflict with what you're saying — this includes displaying them once you've moved beyond their content. – Don't read the text that's on the visual, but do paraphrase and add to it.
  • 24. Establishing a Comfortable Environment – While you won't always have control over the environment when you do a presentation, there may be ways you can modify the environment so that it is both comfortable for you and the audience members. The guidelines that follow are intended to help you become aware of environmental factors that can affect the delivery of your presentation. – Make sure the lighting is adequate. – Locate the temperature controls and regulate the temperature if necessary. If it is too warm or too cold, audience members will focus on their discomfort rather than on your presentation. – Conduct a test of any audiovisual equipment to ensure it's in working order. Have a backup plan in place just in case — whatever can go wrong, will go wrong at the worst possible time. – Clean off any white boards or chalk boards that might distract the audience.
  • 25. Establishing a Comfortable Environment – Make adjustments to the setup of the room to ensure everyone in the audience will be able to see you. Make sure that everyone can see the visuals you plan to use. – If possible, practice your talk in the setting where you are scheduled to speak. This will not only help you determine what other factors you might have to overcome, but also make you feel more comfortable. If practicing in the room isn't possible, try to visit it prior to your presentation so you know what to expect. – When possible, greet members of the audience as they come into the room. Not only will this make them feel welcome and at ease, but it may also help reduce your nervousness. – Try to eliminate barriers between you and the audience. These kinds of barriers include lecterns, tables, or audiovisual equipment. Physical barriers communicate that you're trying to maintain your distance from the audience.