- A speech intended to be done without any preparation at all.
- Also known as on the spot speaking.
Examples: Recitation, Question and Answer Portion on a
Pageant, Debate, when being interviewed
- A type of speech delivery which involves preparation of speaker notes
prior to delivery, associated with conversational style of delivery.
Examples: Lecturing, Hosting
- A speech that the speaker has mastered in his mind and heart. The
speaker is normally in total control of the wording because he/she had
planned before hand.
Examples: Valedictory Speech, Speech Choir, Toast
Speech, Roast Speech
- A speech written out word by word and then read out to an audience.
Examples: SONA, Parliamentary speech
o Informative Speech
- Written to present fascinating and useful information to increase the
knowledge of your audience.
Seven Characteristics of Informative Speech
objects, people, events, processes, complex ideas/concepts or issues to the
Instruct or educate the listeners
Must be accurate
o Persuasive Speech
- A presentation that aims to change others by prompting them to
think, feel, or act differently.
AIM = CHANGE PEOPLE YOU SPEAK WITH
Six Characteristics of Persuasive Speech
Know your cause.
Get audience attention.
Make your talk clear.
Tell how the speech will interest them.
Present logical material.
o Ceremonial Speech
- A speech of blame or praise, thanksgiving or celebration and
mourning or condemnation. It usually requires one to give a fitting tribute.
Five Characteristics of Ceremonial Speech
Must be short and eloquent
Should adapt to the occasion and the person, place, event you are
Focus more on conveying your emotions, respect, and sincerity than
providing a great deal of information about the honouree.
Unify your audience around emotions and sentiments you commonly
share for the commemorated.
Do not understate or exaggerate your emotions or praise for the
o Entertainment Speech
- A speech that is given at a wide range of different ceremonies and situations
that are funny, amusing, and tell a story of some kind that will entertain the audience
that it is intended for.
Should reflect the audience
o Inspirational Speech
- A speech written to persuade, or convince the listeners, that they can
succeed or to achieve their goals.
Three Characteristics of Inspirational Speech
Must be optimistic
- A pattern for an informative speech that orders the main points as
they occur in physical space.
- The use of natural or traditional divisions within a subject as a
way of structuring an informative speech.
- A pattern for an informative speech that shows how one condition
generates, or is generated by, another.
-A pattern for an informative speech that relates an unfamiliar
subject to something the audience already knows or understands.
• Speech to Convince
- Designed to cause the audience to internalize and believe
a viewpoint that they did not previously hold.
• Speech to Stimulate
- Designed to get an audience to believe more
enthusiastically in a view.
• Speech to Actuate
- Designed to cause the audience to do something, to take
• Power of Emotion
• What your
about you and
what they learn
about your position
may influence your
ability to persuade
• Three Dimensions:
• Power of logical
• Consideration of the
emotions of the
people in the
• Power of Narratives
• Rational, factual
basis that supports
• Anatomy of an
Claim, Data, Warra
Proposition of Value
- A persuasive speech that espouses the worth of an idea,
person, or object.
- The speaker’s goal is to prove the worth of an evaluative
Proposition of Policy
- A persuasive speech which proposes a course of action.
-The speaker, usually, is arguing that something should or
should not be done.
- Proposition of policy is easily recognizable with their use
of “ought to”, “should”, “have to” and/or “must”.
Proposition of Fact
-A persuasive speech with the goal of settling what is
or is not so.
-Suggests the existence of something.
- Proves or disapproves something
- You need to convince you audience that your
evaluation is based on widely accepted standards.
Types of Speeches
- Etymology: “Valedictory” & “Valedictorian” comes
from the Latin word valedicere, which means or
pertain to a formal farewell.
- An oration which conveys farewell delivered by a
valedictorian during graduation.
- Its aim is to inspire the audience or the graduates
and to thank everyone responsible for their
Should come from the heart
Keep it short as possible and be
mindful of the time consumed
Practice before your actual speech
Organize the content
Relate your speech/ stories to your
Keep eye-contact with your
Be confident and smile
×Do not read your speech
× Do not keep a dull
× Do not crack unnecessary
× Don’t be negative
× Refrain form saying
“sorry” whenever you
missed out something
- A speech done when accepting a prize, award or an honor to express
the gratitude of the receiver.
Say “thank you” in the beginning
of the speech
Talk about the organization or
Be brief and spontaneous
Make it short and memorable
× Read your speech
× Don’t force tears
× Don’t talk about yourself
- A ritual speech done during a wedding to express honor or goodwill
while holding a glass of wine.
Keep it short
Maintain the appropriate level
Keep it personal
Introduce yourself to the crowd
× Do not share embarrassing
× Do not tell too many inside
- A speech told to poke fun at the honoree/ celebrant. It is usually done
during birthday parties, retirement parties, farewell parties and
other occasions where someone with sense of humor is being honored.
× Don’t be too negative
× Refrain form saying jokes
that are too personal
Avoid inside jokes
- Also known as parliamentary speech enjoyed by a member of a legislature.
Exercise freedom of speech
Defend your part
× Play safe
- Given to ask for cooperation, assistance or help.
Impart words of wisdom
Should be from the heart
Should be delivered
× Do not change from one tone to
× Do not entreat
- Also known as homily, is a speech in praise of a person/s or
thing/s who has recently passed away given at a funeral or
memorial service. It is also used to praise a living person which
could be done during birthdays, retirement etc.
Tell/ write a lot of details about the
× Do not/ avoid using common
life of the person who passed away
sentences found in most
Stretch out the truth and the good
deeds done by the person
× Avoid stretching out the notso-pleasant things done by the
- The act of emceeing or interviewing on a radio or a television program.
Make your audience
× Never keep a dull moment
× Do not make guests
something they’re not
- Disseminating news over a broadcast medium, namely radio or
Tell the truth and be
Check your jargon and
Speak in sound bites
Visualize your stories
× Don’t just talk about
what’s wrong, emphasize
how it could be better.
× Never “wing it”
- The act of delivering an educational lecture/s.
Capture listener's attention
Give your listeners
opportunity to review and
apply what they’ve learned
Use concrete, simple
Coney your enthusiasm for
Keep your audiences engaged
× Don’t talk into your notes
× Don’t be boring
× Don’t overload your listeners
-The act of discussing which involves an opposing points. Act of formal
Say a greeting at the
beginning of your speech
Applaud each speaker
When using cue cards, handle
them with confidence and
avoid reading it
Present your case with
facts, figures and stories
Shake the hands of your
opponents after the debate
Be humble in victory and
× Do not make it personal
× Do not provide misleading
× Do not use mannerisms that
× Do not use inappropriate
× Never interrupt other
speakers when they are