During the early years of settlement, England ignored its colonies. Under the Navigation Acts, the colonists could trade only with England. Colonists resented England’s control of the colonies because they were used to being left alone. Sketch of Baltimore Harbor, 1752
The first meeting of the Virginia Assembly Colony founders knew they must guarantee rights and good government if they were going to attract colonists. Virginia colonists created the House of Burgesses which was the first representative assembly in the Americas. By 1750 each of the 13 colonies had an elected assembly.
North American land claims, 1753 Britain and France were intense rivals in the struggle for North America. In the 1750s the center of colonial conflict was the Ohio River Valley. British officer George Washington was sent to build a fort on the river but was defeated by the French before he could. Native Americans became French allies because it appeared the French would win the war.
Taking of Quebec by English forces during the French and Indian War The French and Indian war went badly for the British colonies until Captain James Wolfe took Quebec in 1759. The British finally won three years later.
North American land claims, 1763 Great Britain became the most powerful nation in the world. The enlarged empire meant conflicts with Native Americans in the Ohio River Valley. To avoid problems, Britain issued the Proclamation of 1763 which did not allow colonists to cross the Appalachian Mountains. Colonist were infuriated because they did not like being told where they could and could not go.
King George III In order to enforce the Proclamation of 1763 and keep peace with Native Americans, a permanent British army was stationed in America. British officials expected colonists to help pay for their defense. The colonists did not like the presence of the army, nor having to pay for the troops’ support.
British Policies Summary Give Me Liberty and how they correspond to the “new” school policies
The French and Indian War Explanation Britain needed money to finance war with France. Reaction/ Result Britain imposed taxes on the colonists to pay for the war. school financial concerns
Proclamation of 1763 Explanation Britain wanted to avoid conflict with Native Americans, so Colonists were forbidden to cross Appalachian Mountains. British Army stationed in the colonies Reaction/ Result Colonists were angered because of British presence and being told what to do Student-free zones
Sugar Act Explanation Tax on sugar and molasses Reaction/ Result Did not affect many, but the idea of taxes a growing issue brown bag tax
Stamp Act Explanation Tax on legal documents, newspapers, wills, and basically every piece of paper used Reaction/ Result Stamp Act Congress formed to organize boycott Eventually repealed official stamped papers for grades
Writs of Assistance Explanation Customs officers could search ships at will Reaction/ Result Few colonists affected, but merchants felt this was an invasion of privacy search belongings
Townshend Acts Explanation Tax on various household items such as paper, glass, lead, silk, and tea Reaction/ Result Colonists boycott through the non-importation agreement Eventually repealed lunch price increased
Quartering Act Explanation Colonists had to provide food, housing, blankets, candles, etc. for the British soldiers Reaction/ Result This was hated, but little could be done teacher home visits
Intolerable Acts Explanation Colonists could not hold town meetings Port of Boston closed Customs officials tried in Britain Reaction/ Result First Continental Congress meets Individual colonies began to unify no discussion of policies
“ No taxation without representation!” Explanation Colonists had no representatives to speak for them in Parliament Reaction/ Result Colonists resented not having a say in their own affairs Became a rallying cry do not call with a complaint
Other Acts and Events
The Boston Massacre Explanation A rioting mob confronted British soldiers at the Boston Customs House Tensions rose and shots were fired into the crowd, killing five colonists Reaction/ Result Sam Adams used the opportunity to whip up anti-British feeling by calling the event a massacre Two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter, six were found not guilty
Tea Act Explanation Tea merchants in the colonies were cut out of the tea trade because the British East India Company lowered their tea prices. The company monopolized, or controlled, tea sales in the colonies. Reaction/ Result Boston Tea Party British East India Company
Boston Tea Party Explanation On December 16, 1773, the Sons of Liberty dumped 90,000 pounds of tea into Boston Harbor. Reaction/ Result Intolerable Acts
Chronology of Events French and Indian War- 1754-1763 Proclamation of 1763- 1763 Sugar Act- 1764 Stamp Act- 1765 Quartering Act- 1765
Chronology of Events Writs of Assistance- 1767 Townshend Acts- 1767 Boston Massacre- 1770 Tea Act/ Boston Tea Party- 1773 Intolerable Acts- 1774