1. literature search and referencing styles


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1. literature search and referencing styles

  1. 1. Literature Search & Referencing Style Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 1
  2. 2. Review of Literature
  3. 3. Purpose / Needs: 1. Review theory 2. Problem statement 3. To improve self knowledge 4. To Know methodology. 5. To assess need of problem 6. To support on tools, methods, findings, data collection 7. To review what was done in past 8. To generate Idea R S MEHTA, MSND 3
  4. 4. Sources Books  Periodicals  Graduate studies  Databases  Indexes  Abstracts  Other 
  5. 5.      Means: Books, Journals, Internet, CD ROM, Medline How Much: Very exhaustive, all parts covered Date: 5-10 years good, but current also Steps: A thorough review should include primary and secondary sources R S MEHTA, MSND 5
  6. 6. Four Correct order steps of Literature Review: 1. 2. 3. 4. Using the library Identifying relevant sources Locating research sources Summarizing the research literature
  7. 7. 1. PRIMARY SOURCES, Containing original research findings, are preferred and should be used whenever possible. Primary Sources: 1. 2. 3. Dissertations/Thesis/Research Reports Original Research Articles published in Journals Abstract/Exact replication of study. R S MEHTA, MSND 7
  8. 8. 2. SECONDARY SOURCES: cns of research findings, are helpful in providing bibliographical information Secondary Sources: 1. 2. 3. 4. Integrated review of research Text books. Summary of theoretical and empirical sources Published review of literature articles.
  9. 9. Use of the Internet (web searching) and it’s technologies 9
  10. 10. www.tnaionline.org ( TNAI Journal) www.hellis.org (NHRC Journal) www.kumj.com.np www.whosea.org HINARI= www.healthinternetwork.org Blackwell Publishing= www.blackwell-synergy.com Oxford University press= www3.oup.co.uk/jnls Directory of free online Journal= www.doaj.org 10
  11. 11. Referencing Style
  12. 12. Referencing Style  The Vancouver system – used in medical and scientific journal  The Harvard system  Chicago manual of style  American Psychological Association (APA)- Psychology, education and other social sciences  American Medical Association (AMA) – Medicine & biological sciences  Modern Language Association (MLA)- literature & arts Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 12
  13. 13. Referencing Style contd.. Why do we need reference?  To give credit to the ideas/works of other authors.  To allow others (readers) to find the original sources easily (cited reference) To make the work informative. (Quality)  To get recognition & authentication of the work.   To address the issue of plagiarism Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 13
  14. 14. Referencing Style contd.. Plagiarism Examples:    the verbatim copying of others work without acknowledgement. the close paraphrasing of others work by simply changing a few words of altering the order of presentation. the unacknowledged quotation of phrases. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 14
  15. 15. Referencing Style contd.. Elements in the reference list 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Author Title of document Date ( year of publication) place of publication Edition Periodicity (volume/ issue/ part number) Series Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 15
  16. 16. Referencing Style contd.. Sources of Information 7. Book Journal Newspaper / magazine Conference paper/proceedings Annual report Institutional / Government publication Electronic sources- Website, CD-ROM, Databases 8. Theses/ Reports/ unpublished works 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 16
  17. 17. Referencing Style contd.. Format of book in various system APA: Surname, initial. (year). Title. Edition. Place: Publisher. Vancouver: surname initials. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; year. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 17
  18. 18. Referencing Style contd.. Format of journal in various system APA: surname, initial. (year). Title of article. Title of journal in italics, volume number (issue/part), pages. Vancouver: surname initials. Title of article. Title of journal in abbreviated date/year;volume(issue):pages. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 18
  19. 19. The Vancouver system Reference List- Book Format: surname initial. Title. Edition. Place: Publisher; year. P. page number. (series title; volume number). Example: (one to six author) 1. Mehta RS, Mandal GN. Nursing concept: fundamental of nursing. Kathmandu: Makalu Books and Stationers; 2005. For chapter (in editorial works) 2. Yadav BK. In: Mehta RS, Mandal GN, editors. Nursing concept: fundamental of nursing. Kathmandu: Makalu Books and Stationers; 2005. p. 125 - 35. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 19
  20. 20. The Vancouver system contd.. B. Reference List- Book More than six author 3. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, et al., editors. Harrison,s principles of internal medicine. 17th ed. New york: McGraw Hill, Medical; 2008. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 20
  21. 21. The Vancouver system contd.. Journal Format: surname Initials, surname Initials. Title of article. Title of Journal. [abbreviated] year/dateYear Month date;Volume Number(Issue number):page numbers. Example: 1. Pass RF, Zhang C, Evans A, Simpson T, Andrews W, Huang M, et al. Vaccine prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection. N Engl J Med 2009 Mar 19;360(12):1191-99. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 21
  22. 22. The Vancouver system contd.. Electronic Journal (online journal) Format: surname Initials. Title of article. Abbreviated Title of Journal [serial online]. Year of publication Month day [cited Year Month Day]; Volume Number(Issue number):[about number of pages or screens]. Available from: URL: Example: Aylin P, Bottle A, Jarman B, Elliott, P. Paediatric cardiac surgical mortality in England after Bristol: descriptive analysis of hospital episode statistics 1991-2002. BMJ [serial on the Internet]. 2004 Oct 9;[cited 2004 October 15]; 329:[about 10 screens]. Available from: URL: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/329/7470/825 Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 22
  23. 23. The Vancouver system contd.. Website Format: Author/Editor/Organisation's name . Title of the page [homepage on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher's name; [updated yr month day; cited yr month day]. Available from: Example: HeartCentreOnline [homepage on the Internet]. Boca Raton, FL: HeartCentreOnline, Inc.; c2000-2004 [updated 2004 May 23; cited 2004 Oct 15]. Available from: http://www.heartcenteronline.com/ Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 23
  24. 24. Example of reference list written in Vancouver style: Reference list 1. Dybvig DD, Dybvig M. Det tenkende mennesket. Filosofi- og vitenskapshistorie med vitenskapsteori. 2nd edition. Trondheim: Tapir akademisk forlag; 2003. 2. Bick, J. 101 Thing You Need to Know about Internet Law [electronic book]. New York: Three Rivers Press; 2000 [cited 30 March, 2004]. Avalible at: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ntnu/. 3. Beizer JL, Timiras, ML. Pharmacology and drug management in the elderly. 2nd edition. In: Timirad PS, ed. Physiological basis of aging and geriatrics. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1994. pp. 279-284. 4. Fermann, G, redaktør. International politics of climate change: key issues and critical actors. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press; 1997. 5. Kwan I, Mapstone J. Visibility aids for pedestrians and cyclists: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2004;36(3):305-312. 6. Nørvåg K. Space-Efficient Support for Temporal Text Indexing in a Document Archive Context. In: Koch T, Sølvberg I, red. Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries. Proceedings 7th European Conference, ECDL; 2003 17.-22. august; Trondheim, Norway. Berlin: Springer; 2003. pp. 511-522. 7. Ringen S. La ikke Erna Solberg rasere det lokale folkestyre . Aftenposten. 2004, 25 March; p. 10. 8. Grosh A, Graff J. A strike at Europe’s heart. Time magazine. 2004, 22 March; pp. 2228. 9. Mathisen C. Effekter av UV-stråling på embryonalutvikling, vekst og morfologi hos Daphnia magna [hovedoppgave]. Oslo: Biologisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo; 2003. Please note that the reference list always begins at a new page. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 24
  25. 25. Thank you for Listening Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 25