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Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web Roberto García [email_address] Universitat de Lleida, S...
Where did you say you come from? Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul>...
Introduction <ul><li>Digital media: easy production and copy </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Rights Management (DRM) </li></ul><...
Introduction <ul><li>Internet: easy distribution </li></ul><ul><li>DRM interoperability </li></ul>REL Enabling interoperab...
Introduction <ul><li>Need for a standard REL  (Rights Expression Language) </li></ul><ul><li>Some efforts: </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>XML-based RELs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited expressivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No interoperability mechanis...
Introduction <ul><li>DRM Watch:  “2005 Year in Review: DRM Standards”  1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… consumer complaints  hav...
Introduction <ul><li>DRM standardisation difficulties  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet/Web open and heterogeneous </li></ul...
Introduction <ul><li>Why semantics are needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Common scenario :  web search and language ambiguity </li...
Introduction <ul><li>Computers “see”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Smart University ...
Introduction <ul><li>XML allows some degree of automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Interface: set of specific  tags  and...
Introduction <ul><li>With XML computers “see”: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>< music > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>< a...
Introduction <ul><li>Interoperability problem </li></ul><ul><li>Global agreement required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just forma...
Introduction <ul><li>If the previous tool is presented a piece of data based on a new schema: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< song...
Introduction <ul><li>That tool “sees”: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><  > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><  > ...
Introduction <ul><li>Semantic Web proposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web + Knowledge Representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Introduction <ul><li>RDF provides graph model: </li></ul><ul><li>Graph can model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trees (XML) </li><...
Introduction <ul><li>RDFSchema : OOP-like primitives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>class, property...
Introduction <ul><li>Web Ontology Language (OWL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primitiv...
Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conc...
Objectives <ul><li>Semantic Web approach to DRM: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Representation tools </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Objectives <ul><li>Ontology development based on  Methontology : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conc...
Specification <ul><li>Copyright domain analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Generic Ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WIPO 1  worldwide...
Specification Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
Specification <ul><li>Applicable to the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Controlled P2P metadata diffusion scenario”  </li></ul></u...
Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conc...
Conceptualisation <ul><li>Complex domain,  build model in three steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation  Model </li></ul></u...
Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Victor Hugo’s...
Conceptualisation <ul><li>Work   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Mozart's The Magic Flute”.  ISWC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manifesta...
Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Rights Model
<ul><li>End-users do not hold rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special permissions: ...
<ul><li>Actions, the building blocks </li></ul>Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Sem...
<ul><li>Actions governed by Economic Rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction Right :  copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D...
Conceptualisation <ul><li>End-user actions,  to  use  a… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manifestation:  buy   </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Altogether: model copyright value chains  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. “serials adapted from literary works” </li></...
<ul><li>Actions for users’ special permissions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotation Right :  quote , limited extent  copy , us...
<ul><li>Case roles  (linguistics):  relate actions to involved entities </li></ul>Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable...
<ul><li>License building primitives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Event Patterns : to state what is obliged, permitted or prohibi...
<ul><li>License building primitives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree : model permissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>theme ...
<ul><li>License building primitives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consequence : model obligations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>License building primitives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>condition : model a priori conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Rules, examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First sale exhaustion: ∀ s:Sell, ∀ i:Instance  theme(s,i) -> ¬ ∃ s’:Sell  t...
Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conc...
Implementation <ul><li>One conceptual model,  many   implementations </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web implementation  with O...
Implementation <ul><li>Rights  and  License Patterns   implemented as  Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright, Reproducti...
Implementation <ul><li>License Pattern Class built from constraints on kind of actions, agents, time points, locations, et...
Implementation <ul><li>Copy  pattern restricted to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digital object ( theme ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Implementation <ul><li>Description Logic notation for the commercial copy pattern: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern  ≡     Co...
Implementation <ul><li>Patterns permitted by Agree actions and prohibited by Disagree ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm: <...
Implementation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Copy all copy ac...
Implementation <ul><li>OWL-DL reasoners services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfiability : consistency, license verification...
Implementation <ul><li>OWL-DL limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No explicit variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficul...
Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conc...
Evaluation <ul><li>Map MPEG-21 and ODRL ontologies  to Copyright Ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on XML Semantics Reu...
Evaluation <ul><li>ODRL 1.1 (OMA V1.0 DRM REL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML Schemas:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expressi...
Evaluation <ul><li>Build SemDRMS Semantic Digital Rights Management System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled P2P metadata d...
Evaluation <ul><li>Digital Media Project (DMP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Rights and Usages   informal descriptions...
Evaluation <ul><li>Quote scenario </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right exception model: </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and r...
Evaluation <ul><li>Concrete quote action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tim wants to quote 10 seconds of a work by John </li></ul>...
Evaluation <ul><li>Checking: </li></ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Sem...
Evaluation <ul><li>Private Copy scenario </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right exception model: </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperabl...
Evaluation <ul><li>Concrete private copy action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter wants to produce a personal copy of “My best ...
Evaluation <ul><li>Checking: </li></ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Sema...
Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conc...
Conclusions <ul><li>Concentrate on semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology , more expressivity </li></ul><ul><li>Include  cop...
Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conc...
Future Work <ul><li>Full  SemDRMS  based on  OWL-DL Copyright Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Complete  Mappings  to Copyright ...
More details: http://rhizomik.net/ontologies/copyrightonto   http://rhizomik.net/semdrms   http://rhizomik.net/~roberto/th...
Smart   University DRM, from research to implementations  Annex A Implementation Details How to deal with licenses using  ...
Implementation <ul><li>Pattern  ⊑  Copy  </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern  ≡   ∀ pointInTime.≥ 2006-01-01, ≤ 2006-06-30   ⊓ ∃ age...
Implementation <ul><li>Problem : Open World Assumption (OWA) </li></ul><ul><li>OWA sensible constructs: </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Implementation <ul><li>Metalevel negation  to overcome OWA </li></ul><ul><li>Agree OWA insensible constructs </li></ul><ul...
Implementation <ul><li>Pattern’  ⊑  Copy  </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern’  ≡   ∀ pointInTime.≥ 2006-01-01, ≤ 2006-06-30   ⊓ ∃ a...
Implementation Scenario [ a Copy; agent :granted; origin :peerA; theme  :fragment02 ; recipient :peerB ] [ a Copy; agent :...
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Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web

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This presentation, which was carried out at the DRM track of SmartUniversity'07, presents a Semantic Web approach to Digital Rights Management. This approach is based on a Copyright Ontology, implemented using OWL and DL reasoning.

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  1. 1. Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web Roberto García [email_address] Universitat de Lleida, Spain September 20, 2007 Sophia Antipolis, France
  2. 2. Where did you say you come from? Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  3. 3. Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Digital media: easy production and copy </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Rights Management (DRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Media DRM, iTunes FairPlay, RealNetworks Helix, Sony MagicGate… </li></ul>DRM copy play … Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Internet: easy distribution </li></ul><ul><li>DRM interoperability </li></ul>REL Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 DRM DRM DRM
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Need for a standard REL (Rights Expression Language) </li></ul><ul><li>Some efforts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML-based RELs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal syntax XML Schema for standard grammar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informal semantics Rights Data Dictionaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons simple predefined licenses </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  7. 7. <ul><li>XML-based RELs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited expressivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No interoperability mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal semantics, re-implement for each tool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predefined and closed set of licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-commercial purposes </li></ul></ul>Introduction Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  8. 8. Introduction <ul><li>DRM Watch: “2005 Year in Review: DRM Standards” 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… consumer complaints have moved beyond overly restrictive DRMs to lack of interoperability among them…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… we see no production implementations …” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… ContentGuards asserts its patents apply to any REL implementation in DRM…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic Frontier Foundation 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… fail to accommodate… copyright regimes.” </li></ul></ul>1 http://www.drmwatch.com 2 http://www.eff.org Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  9. 9. Introduction <ul><li>DRM standardisation difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet/Web open and heterogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright complex domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High level of abstraction (not bits or pixels) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on the roots, formalise SEMANTICS </li></ul>ODRL “ Duplicate ” Reproduction Right Copy MPEG-21 “ Adapt ” CC “ Reproduction ” Copyright Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  10. 10. Introduction <ul><li>Why semantics are needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Common scenario : web search and language ambiguity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers get confused because… …though we “see”: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; Smart University &quot; (3rd edition) is an educational program dedicated to advanced technologies of Smart Card, e-ID, . .. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMART (Sisterhood Mobilized for AIDS/HIV Research and Treatment) was founded in 1998... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMART University welcomes all women infected or affected by HIV/AIDS who... </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Semantic Web
  11. 11. Introduction <ul><li>Computers “see”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Smart University    </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMART University  </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Semantic Web
  12. 12. Introduction <ul><li>XML allows some degree of automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Interface: set of specific tags and grammar ( DTD , XMLSchem a) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>< music > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>< album format=“ mp3 ”> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>< author type=“ group ”>Faithless</ author > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>< title >Insomnia</ title > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li></ album > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li></ music > </li></ul></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Semantic Web
  13. 13. Introduction <ul><li>With XML computers “see”: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>< music > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>< album format=“ mp3 ”> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>< author type=“ group ”>  </ author > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>< title >  </ title > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li></ album > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li></ music > </li></ul></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Semantic Web
  14. 14. Introduction <ul><li>Interoperability problem </li></ul><ul><li>Global agreement required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just formal syntax, no semantic interoperability tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< music > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< album format=“ mp3 ”> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< author tipo=“ group ”> ...</ author > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< title >...</ title > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li></ album > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li></ music > </li></ul></ul>< song > < group >...</ group > < title >...</ title > < album >...</ album > <file>...</file> ... </ song > ? Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Semantic Web
  15. 15. Introduction <ul><li>If the previous tool is presented a piece of data based on a new schema: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< song > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< group >Garbage</ group > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< title >Version 2.0</ title > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< album >Version 2.0</ album > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><file>...</file> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li></ song > </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Semantic Web
  16. 16. Introduction <ul><li>That tool “sees”: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><  > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><  >  </  > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><  >    </  > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><  >    </  > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><  >...</  > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li></  > </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Code interoperability rules case by case </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Semantic Web
  17. 17. Introduction <ul><li>Semantic Web proposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web + Knowledge Representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web wide formal semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDF : semantic net, graph model </li></ul><ul><li>RDF Schema : classes, inheritance,… </li></ul><ul><li>Web Ontology Language (OWL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OWL-DL : scalable (decidable and tractable) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web Rules </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Semantic Web
  18. 18. Introduction <ul><li>RDF provides graph model: </li></ul><ul><li>Graph can model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trees (XML) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tables (DBs) </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Semantic Web
  19. 19. Introduction <ul><li>RDFSchema : OOP-like primitives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>class, property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subclass, subproperty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>domain, range </li></ul></ul>Song Class Audio Class subClassOf http:// music .org / song1 type title Property attribute Property subPropertyOf Literal Class “ ...” title type domain range RDFSchema RDF type Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Semantic Web
  20. 20. Introduction <ul><li>Web Ontology Language (OWL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primitives for semantic interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalent classes and properties equivalentClass , equivalentProperty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disjoint classes disjointWith </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inverse, transitive, symmetric properties inverseOf , TransitiveProperty , SymmetricProperty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardinality maxCardinality , minCardinality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unique value properties FunctionalProperty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identificative properties InverseFunctionalProperty </li></ul></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Semantic Web
  21. 21. Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  22. 22. Objectives <ul><li>Semantic Web approach to DRM: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Representation tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Wide applicability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formalise semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate interoperability and implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcome REL patent ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support full value chain </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  23. 23. Objectives <ul><li>Ontology development based on Methontology : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptualisation (and formalisation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XML Semantics Reuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit from existing XML Schema based RELs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formalise implicit semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML Schema to Web Ontology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML data to semantic data (RDF) </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  24. 24. Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  25. 25. Specification <ul><li>Copyright domain analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Generic Ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WIPO 1 worldwide harmonisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literary, artistic and scientific works (not ideas) </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe derived, but always original </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 1 World Intellectual Property Organisation Copyright Treaty, 1996
  26. 26. Specification Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  27. 27. Specification <ul><li>Applicable to the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Controlled P2P metadata diffusion scenario” </li></ul></ul>Peer A Peer B <rdf:RDF> <rdf:RDF> <rdf:RDF> <rdf:RDF> Make Available Right <rdf:RDF> Reproduction Right Scenario Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  28. 28. Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation, Rights and Action Model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  29. 29. Conceptualisation <ul><li>Complex domain, build model in three steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Model </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  30. 30. Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables Creation Model
  31. 31. Conceptualisation <ul><li>Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Mozart's The Magic Flute”. ISWC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manifestation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The printed scores”. ISBN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A scenic play”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A sound recording”. ISRC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ An Internet stream”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A CD”. UPC </li></ul></ul><ul><li> has Derivation ┙ </li></ul><ul><li> has Manifestation ┙ </li></ul><ul><li> has Performance ┙ </li></ul><ul><li> ha sFixation ┙ </li></ul><ul><li> ha sCommunication ┙ </li></ul><ul><li> ha sInstance ┙ </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Creation Model
  32. 32. Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Rights Model
  33. 33. <ul><li>End-users do not hold rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special permissions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quotation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Official Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private Copy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parody </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary Reproduction </li></ul></ul></ul>Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Rights Model
  34. 34. <ul><li>Actions, the building blocks </li></ul>Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Action Model
  35. 35. <ul><li>Actions governed by Economic Rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction Right : copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution Right : distribute; sell, rent, lend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Performance Right : perform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixation Right : record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Right : communicate; retransmit, broadcast, make available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation Right : transform; adapt, translate </li></ul></ul>Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Action Model
  36. 36. Conceptualisation <ul><li>End-user actions, to use a… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manifestation: buy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instance: buy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance: attend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication: access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>broadcast: tune </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>something made available: access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>picture, sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>book, CD, DVD </li></ul><ul><li>projection, recital, exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>TV channel, radio station </li></ul><ul><li>web page, stream </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Action Model
  37. 37. <ul><li>Altogether: model copyright value chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. “serials adapted from literary works” </li></ul></ul>Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Action Model
  38. 38. <ul><li>Actions for users’ special permissions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotation Right : quote , limited extent copy , usually requiring an attribute action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private Copy Right : copy producing a reproduction for private consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education Right : educational act , any copy , communicate or perform with educational or research purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary Reproduction Right : a copy that produces a temporal reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Action Model
  39. 39. <ul><li>Case roles (linguistics): relate actions to involved entities </li></ul>Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Action Model
  40. 40. <ul><li>License building primitives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Event Patterns : to state what is obliged, permitted or prohibited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built from actions and case roles </li></ul></ul></ul>Conceptualisation Scenario All copy events performed by agent “ granted ” who copies “ content01 ” from “ PeerA ” to two peers from the set “ PeerB, PeerC, PeerD ” at any time point six months after “ 2007-06-01 ” Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Action Model
  41. 41. <ul><li>License building primitives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree : model permissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>theme points to the permitted event pattern </li></ul></ul></ul>Conceptualisation Scenario Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Action Model
  42. 42. <ul><li>License building primitives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consequence : model obligations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Points to the obliged event pattern </li></ul></ul></ul>Conceptualisation Scenario Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Action Model
  43. 43. <ul><li>License building primitives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>condition : model a priori conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Points to the condition event pattern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagree : model prohibitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>theme points to the prohibited event pattern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other concepts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer: model interchanges, commercial or not. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul>Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Action Model
  44. 44. <ul><li>Rules, examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First sale exhaustion: ∀ s:Sell, ∀ i:Instance theme(s,i) -> ¬ ∃ s’:Sell theme(s’,i) ∧ s≠s’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign author rights on Manifest: </li></ul></ul>Conceptualisation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Action Model
  45. 45. Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  46. 46. Implementation <ul><li>One conceptual model, many implementations </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web implementation with OWL </li></ul><ul><li>OWL-DL variant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enables tractable and decidable reasoning for use-license checking, scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additionally, Semantic Web rules </li></ul>OWL Full OWL DL OWL Lite + expressivity - complexity Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  47. 47. Implementation <ul><li>Rights and License Patterns implemented as Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright, Reproduction Right, Copy, CopyPattern,... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses implemented as Instances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>u </li></ul></ul><ul><li>if u ∈ Copy Pattern then license pattern authorises u </li></ul>Reproduction Right Copy Copyright Copy Pattern u ? Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  48. 48. Implementation <ul><li>License Pattern Class built from constraints on kind of actions, agents, time points, locations, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>OWL Building Blocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classes for actions (e.g. Copy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical operators (AND, OR, NOT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OWL Restrictions , constraints on case roles (e.g. agent all values from PublisherSubscribers) </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  49. 49. Implementation <ul><li>Copy pattern restricted to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digital object ( theme ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>group of users ( agent ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-commercial ( aim ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>depending on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time range ( pointInTime ) </li></ul></ul>Scenario Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  50. 50. Implementation <ul><li>Description Logic notation for the commercial copy pattern: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern ≡ Copy ⊓ ∀ pointInTime .≥ 2007-01-01,≤ 2007-06-30 ⊓ ∀ agen t.PublisherSubscribers ⊓ (≥ 1 agent ) ⊓ ∃ theme .{urn:doi.10.1032/…} ⊓ (≤ 1 theme ) </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  51. 51. Implementation <ul><li>Patterns permitted by Agree actions and prohibited by Disagree ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If disagreed  not allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If agreed and not disagreed  allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not agreed  not allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disagree precedence allows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More complex patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid DL reasoners limitations (details Annex A) </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  52. 52. Implementation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Copy all copy actions Pattern 2 Pattern 2’ Allowed Pattern 1 Agree Disagree Agree
  53. 53. Implementation <ul><li>OWL-DL reasoners services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfiability : consistency, license verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsumption : compute subclasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>License interactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>License search </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instance Checking : class an individual belongs to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check uses against licenses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debugging , justifications for conclusions </li></ul></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Pattern A Pattern B Pattern Use
  54. 54. Implementation <ul><li>OWL-DL limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No explicit variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to model rules (if … then …) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-ins (math, comparisons, date/time ops,...) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates OWL </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  55. 55. Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  56. 56. Evaluation <ul><li>Map MPEG-21 and ODRL ontologies to Copyright Ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on XML Semantics Reuse Methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>XML Schemas  OWL Ontologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>XML instances  RDF metadata </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>MPEG-21, ISO/IEC 21000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part 5 – REL, XML Schemas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core  RELOnto-R </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Extensions  RELOnto-SX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia Extensions  RELOnto-MX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part 6 – RDD, informal ontology  RDDOnto </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  57. 57. Evaluation <ul><li>ODRL 1.1 (OMA V1.0 DRM REL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML Schemas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expression Language  ODRLOnto-EX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data Dictionary  ODRLOnto-DD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check Copyright Ontology coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply semantic tools existing RELs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Validate MPEG-21 RDD standard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implement Data Dictionary inheritance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>License checking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  58. 58. Evaluation <ul><li>Build SemDRMS Semantic Digital Rights Management System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled P2P metadata diffusion </li></ul></ul>Peer A SemDRM copy make available Licenses Store DL Reasoner Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  59. 59. Evaluation <ul><li>Digital Media Project (DMP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Rights and Usages informal descriptions, difficult to incorporate into DRM systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private Copy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time Shift </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyright Ontology: profit from copyright model and capture rights exceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No enforcing mechanisms, accountability </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  60. 60. Evaluation <ul><li>Quote scenario </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right exception model: </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  61. 61. Evaluation <ul><li>Concrete quote action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tim wants to quote 10 seconds of a work by John </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  62. 62. Evaluation <ul><li>Checking: </li></ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  63. 63. Evaluation <ul><li>Private Copy scenario </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right exception model: </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  64. 64. Evaluation <ul><li>Concrete private copy action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter wants to produce a personal copy of “My best quote of the year” </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  65. 65. Evaluation <ul><li>Checking: </li></ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  66. 66. Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  67. 67. Conclusions <ul><li>Concentrate on semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology , more expressivity </li></ul><ul><li>Include copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate implementation and interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse DL reasoners for license checking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RELs ontologies, XML Semantics Reuse </li></ul></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  68. 68. Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  69. 69. Future Work <ul><li>Full SemDRMS based on OWL-DL Copyright Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Mappings to Copyright Ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG-21 REL Ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ODRL Ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security and trust through RDF signatures </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  70. 70. More details: http://rhizomik.net/ontologies/copyrightonto http://rhizomik.net/semdrms http://rhizomik.net/~roberto/thesis Smart University DRM, from research to implementations Thank you for your attention Roberto García [email_address] Universitat de Lleida, Spain
  71. 71. Smart University DRM, from research to implementations Annex A Implementation Details How to deal with licenses using Description Logic reasoners
  72. 72. Implementation <ul><li>Pattern ⊑ Copy </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern ≡ ∀ pointInTime.≥ 2006-01-01, ≤ 2006-06-30 ⊓ ∃ agent.{granted} ⊓ ∃ origin.{peerA} ⊓ ∃ theme.{fragment01} ⊓ (≤ 2 recipient) ⊓ ∀ recipient.{peerB, peerC, peerD} </li></ul>Scenario Agree Problem Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  73. 73. Implementation <ul><li>Problem : Open World Assumption (OWA) </li></ul><ul><li>OWA sensible constructs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>m ax Cardinality (≤ n): new facts can make cardinality ≥ n </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allValuesFrom ( ∀ R.C): new facts where R.(¬C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OWA insensible constructs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>m in Cardinality (≥ n): once ≥ n, new facts cannot make cardinality ≤ n </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>someValuesFrom ( ∃ R.C): once R.C, new facts cannot make ¬( ∃ R.C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>0 1 3 2 maxCardinality 2 (n ≤ 2) minCardinality 3 (n ≥ 3) New facts “ OPEN WORLD” Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  74. 74. Implementation <ul><li>Metalevel negation to overcome OWA </li></ul><ul><li>Agree OWA insensible constructs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>∃ , ≥,… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disagree “negated” OWL sensible constructs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>∀ R.C  ∃ R.¬C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>≤ n  ≥ n+1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allowed(u)  Agree.theme(u) ⊓ ¬Disagree.theme(u) </li></ul>Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  75. 75. Implementation <ul><li>Pattern’ ⊑ Copy </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern’ ≡ ∀ pointInTime.≥ 2006-01-01, ≤ 2006-06-30 ⊓ ∃ agent.{granted} ⊓ ∃ origin.{peerA} ⊓ ∃ theme.{fragment0001} </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern’’ ≡ Pattern’ ⊓ ( ( ≥ 3 recipient) ⊔ ∃ recipient.( ¬ {peerC, peerD, peerB}) ) </li></ul>Scenario Agree Disagree Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
  76. 76. Implementation Scenario [ a Copy; agent :granted; origin :peerA; theme :fragment02 ; recipient :peerB ] [ a Copy; agent :granted; origin :peerA; theme :fragment01; recipient :peerC, :peerD ] [ a Copy; agent :granted; origin :peerA; theme :fragment01; recipient :peerB , :peerC, :peer E ] Allowed Copy Pattern ’ Pattern’’ Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007
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