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Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
Ecology final
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Ecology final

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  • 1. ecology<br />
  • 2. The branch of biology that deals with the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment.<br />ecology<br />
  • 3. Ecosystem Structure<br />
  • 4. organism<br />In a form of may be simple and one-celled or complex and multi-cellular.<br />
  • 5. population<br />It consists of groups of similar individuals found in a certain area at a given time.<br />The individuals that form a population may be of the same or related species.<br />
  • 6. Groups of Living Things<br />
  • 7. community<br />All populations of organisms that live together in a specific area, and depend upon one another for food and shelter.<br /> ex. A rotting log.<br />
  • 8. ecosystem<br />Any stable environment in which living and nonliving things interact and in which materials are used over and over again.<br /> ex. The seashore.<br />
  • 9. Defined as the major ecological grouping of organisms.<br />biomes<br />
  • 10. biosphere<br />The area in which life is possible.<br />
  • 11. Characteristics of Population<br />
  • 12. D=N/S<br /> N=number of individuals<br /> S=area<br />Ex. There are 40 students in a 150m2.<br /> D=40students/ 150m2<br />D=0.26 students/m2<br />Population density<br />
  • 13. Dangers of predators<br />Availability of food<br />Water<br />Light<br />Heat<br />Nesting places<br />Factors of density <br />
  • 14. Well-maintained lawn<br />density<br />Semi-desert<br />
  • 15. random<br />distribution<br />uniform<br />
  • 16. clumped<br />
  • 17. Behavior of population<br />Communication<br />
  • 18. aggression<br />Visual displays<br />defense<br />
  • 19. coloration<br />
  • 20. Mute animals<br />Communicating by sound<br />Sound making <br />
  • 21. Use of chemicals<br />
  • 22. Physical contact<br />
  • 23. Social behavior<br />The interactions of animals among their own kind.<br />
  • 24. Social organization<br /><ul><li>Herding
  • 25. Schooling
  • 26. Flocking </li></li></ul><li>How Populations Change<br />
  • 27. Guidelines to reach biotic potential:<br />Must have all the foods or raw materials<br />Water<br />Space it needs to survive<br />Ideal climate<br />Absence of competitors and disease<br />Biotic potential<br />
  • 28. Ex. A pair of housefly.<br />
  • 29. The collection of factors that reduce the growth rate of a population.<br />Environmental resistance<br />
  • 30. Biotic factors<br />This includes the nonliving physical elements in the environment such as: temperature, humidity, water, light, soil, slope, air and wind.<br />Factors affecting population growth<br />Abiotic factors<br />Living organisms or their characteristics in the environment.<br />
  • 31. Density-dependent<br />Density factors<br />Density-independent<br />Ex. Badger and coyote.<br />Ex. Forest fire.<br />
  • 32. Carrying Capacity<br />The number of individuals of a population a particular area can support in terms of space, food and shelter.<br />Organisms decrease as available food supply and living area are eliminated.<br />
  • 33. Community Structure and Function<br />
  • 34. Desert community<br />Species Diversity<br />Coastal community<br />
  • 35. Maple forest<br />Dominant Species<br />Red wood forest<br />
  • 36. Purple marsh crab<br />habitat<br />Rats <br />
  • 37. Cricket <br />Niche <br />Grasshopper <br />
  • 38. Special Relationships Among Organisms<br />
  • 39. It describes the relationship between two species which interact but do not affect each other. It describes interactions where the fitness of one species has absolutely no effect whatsoever on that of the other. <br />Neutralism <br />
  • 40. Competition <br />This is where both organisms that interact are harmed due to competition for resources.<br />
  • 41. Cooperation <br />
  • 42. Predation <br />This shows one organism killing and eating another organism.<br />
  • 43. Symbiotic Relationships<br />
  • 44. Amensalism <br />It is between two species involves one impeding or restricting the success of the other while the other species has no effect on it.<br />
  • 45. Mutualism <br />A relationship in which two different kinds of organisms live together to the benefit of both.<br />
  • 46. Parasitism <br />This is a relationship where one benefits at the expense of the other<br />
  • 47. Remora fish and shark<br />Commensalism <br />Orchids on trees<br /><ul><li>This is a kind of relationship where one of the organism is benefited, while the other is neither benefited nor harmed.</li></li></ul><li>Interactions categorized by effect<br />O = no effect<br />-- =detrimental<br />+ =beneficial<br />
  • 48. Trophic levels (food getting interactions)<br />Food Chains and Energy Flow<br />
  • 49. Primary producers(autotrophs)<br />Food-producing organisms in an ecosystem.<br />
  • 50. Primary consumers(herbivores)<br />Plant eating consumers<br />
  • 51. Secondary consumers(carnivores)<br /><ul><li>Flesh eating consumers</li></li></ul><li>
  • 52. They feed on dead organisms (the wastes of living organisms).<br />Ex. Fungi and bacteria<br />Decomposers(heterotrophs)<br />
  • 53. Food chain<br />The transference of energy in a community from one organism to another in feeding patterns.<br />
  • 54. Food web<br />The collection of connecting feeding patterns in a community.<br />
  • 55.
  • 56. Characteristics of Ecosystem<br />
  • 57. Succession <br />The sequence of replacement of one community of organisms with another.<br />
  • 58. This is the product of a calamity or disaster (ex. Earthquakes, lava flow, etc.) which directly affects the entire ecosystem.<br />Primary succession<br />
  • 59. Secondary succession<br />
  • 60. Biomes <br />
  • 61. Tundra <br />
  • 62. LOCATION: located in the far northern parts of Asia, Europe and North America.<br />CHARACTERISTICS: almost treeless plain. The subsoil is called permafrost.<br />Winter: very long with short daylight<br />Summer: very short with long daylight. The ground is soggy because moisture cannot soak into the permafrost ground.<br />Because of the severe winters, many of the animals are migratory and move from one region to another with the change in seasons.<br />Tundra<br />
  • 63. Tundra trees and plants<br />Dwarf willows<br />Birches <br />Mosses <br />sedges<br />
  • 64. Tundra hervibores<br />Caribou<br />Arctic hare<br />Lemming <br />
  • 65. Tundra carnivores<br />Polar bears <br />Bobcat <br />Arctic fox<br />
  • 66. Taiga <br />
  • 67. LOCATION: 1300-1450 km. wide band south of tundra.<br />CHARACTERISTICS: it has long cold winters.<br /> :it’s summer season are longer than in tundra. And summer temperatures may reach 10-21˚C. the subsoil thaws completely during this season.<br />Taiga <br />
  • 68. Taiga's abundant body of water<br />lakes<br />ponds<br />
  • 69. Taiga coniferous trees<br />Spruce tree<br />Pine tree<br />Fir tree<br />
  • 70. Taiga decidous trees<br />Poplar tree<br />Aspen <br />
  • 71. Taiga hervibores<br />Snowshoe hare<br />Squirrel <br />Predatory martens<br />
  • 72. Taiga migratory hervibores<br />Moose <br />Deer <br />Elk <br />
  • 73. Taiga predators<br />Timber wolf<br />Grizzly bear<br />Wolverine <br />
  • 74. Temperate-decidous forest<br />
  • 75. LOCATION: south of the taiga in the northern hemisphere.<br />CHARACTERISTICS: it has hot summers, cold winters, rich soil and abundant rainfall. Trees lose their leaves during winter.<br />Temperate-decidous forest<br />
  • 76. Consumers and decomposers<br />Millipedes <br />Snails <br />Fungi <br />
  • 77. Common decidous trees<br />Beech<br />Oak <br />Hickory <br />Walnut <br />Maple <br />
  • 78. Common hervibores <br />Chipmunks <br />Rabbits <br />Beavers <br />
  • 79. Important predators<br />Black bear<br />Fox<br />
  • 80. Predatory birds<br />Hawk <br />Eagle <br />Owl<br />
  • 81. Ectothermic inhabitants<br />salamanders<br />Snakes <br />Frogs <br />
  • 82. Grassland <br />
  • 83. CHARACTERISTICS:<br /> :it usually have deep, rich soil.<br /> :hot summers, cold winters and irregular rainfall.<br />Grassland <br />
  • 84. Important grasses<br />Indian grass<br />Slough grass<br />
  • 85. Short grasses<br />Mesquite grass<br />Blue grama grass<br />
  • 86. Large hervibores<br />Bison <br />Wild horse<br />Pronghorn antelope<br />
  • 87. Small hervibores<br />Ground squirrel<br />Jack rabbit<br />Prairie dog<br />
  • 88. Desert <br />
  • 89. LOCATION :leeward side of mountain ranges, the side opposite the main wind direction.<br />CHARACTERISTICS: generally have hot days and cold nights.<br />Desert <br />
  • 90. Plants (during cold winters)<br />Sagebrush <br />Saltbush <br />
  • 91. Plants (during warm winters)<br />Cactus<br />Yucca <br />Creosote bush<br />
  • 92. Herbivorous animals<br />Jack rabbit<br />Ground squirrel<br />
  • 93. Predators <br />Badger <br />Coyotes <br />Kit fox<br />Prairie falcons<br />
  • 94. Other important biomes<br />
  • 95. Tropical rain forest<br />
  • 96. Location: within (roughly) 10 degrees north or south of the equator. They are common in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and on many of the Pacific Islands.<br />Characteristics: Rainforests are characterized by high rainfall. This often results in poor soils due to leaching of soluble nutrients. Oxisols, as are the soils of many seasonally flooded forests, which are annually replenished with fertile silt.<br />Tropical rainforest<br />
  • 97. Common animals<br />Monkeys <br />Colorful birds<br />
  • 98. Aquatic biome<br />
  • 99. Forms:<br />Ponds, lakes, streams<br />Rivers <br />
  • 100. Common inhabitants<br />Algae <br />Flatworms <br />Clams <br />
  • 101. Marine biome<br />
  • 102. Marine biome<br />Factors influencing living things:<br />-depth of the water<br />-currents<br />-tides<br />-high penetration<br />-temperature<br /><ul><li>The communities are made up of populations which at high tide are under water but low tide are actually on land.</li></li></ul><li>Savanna <br />
  • 103. LOCATION: Savannas are frequently in a transitional zone between forest and desert or prairie. Savanna covers 20% of the Earth's land area. The largest area of savanna is in Africa.<br />CHARACTERISTICS: seasonal water availability, with the majority of rainfall confined to one season.<br /> :tree densities are higher and trees are more regularly spaced than in forest.<br />Savanna <br />
  • 104. Chaparral <br />
  • 105. LOCATION: the west coast of the United States, the west coast of South America, the Cape Town area of South Africa, the western tip of Australia and the coastal areas of the Mediterranean.<br />CHARACTERISTICS: very hot and dry. As for the temperature, the winter is very mild and is usually about 10 °C. Then there is the summer. It is so hot and dry at 40 °C that fires and droughts are very common.<br />Chaparral <br />
  • 106. Coniferous forest<br />
  • 107. FUN FACTS<br />The largest Coniferous forest exists in a ring in Alaska, Canada,  northern Europe, and northern Asia, in a ring in the Northern Hemisphere.  This forest is called the "Taiga".<br /> <br />Most of the world's commercial softwood timber, used for paper, comes from the Taiga.<br /> <br />Coniferous Forests are the largest land Biome of the World.<br />Coniferous forest<br />
  • 108. =end=<br />Prepared by:<br />Rhonabelle C. Felix<br />For:<br />Sir JV (gen. bio instructor)<br />

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