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English 10 Honors

English 10 Honors

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  • Example: employer can pay women less for performing same work as a man simply by giving her a different job title.
  • Feminists don’t deny biological differences; however, they don’t agree that differences in physical size, shape, and body chemistry make men naturally superior to women. more intelligent more logical better leaders
  • Men (either consciously or unconsciously) have oppressed women, allowing them little or no voice in the political, social, or economic issues of their society;
  • OTHER: an unnatural or deviant being Men, in effect, have made women the “nonsignificant Other.” Women have been marginalized by the dominant male culture.
  • men’s voices continued to articulate and determine the social role and cultural and personal significance of women.
  • She believed women should have a voice in the public arena alongside men.
  • However, women were still lacked the equality of men
  • British scholar and teacher Her work Laid foundation for present-day feminist criticism. Woolf’s symbol of the solitude and autonomy needed to seclude ones’ self from the world and its social constraints in order to find time to think and write. Ultimately, Shakespeare’s sister dies alone without any acknowledgement of her personal genius. Even her grave does not bear her name because she is buried in an unmarked grave simply because she is female.
  • British scholar and teacher Her work Laid foundation for present-day feminist criticism. Woolf’s symbol of the solitude and autonomy needed to seclude ones’ self from the world and its social constraints in order to find time to think and write. Ultimately, Shakespeare’s sister dies alone without any acknowledgement of her personal genius. Even her grave does not bear her name because she is buried in an unmarked grave simply because she is female.
  • British scholar and teacher Her work Laid foundation for present-day feminist criticism. Woolf’s symbol of the solitude and autonomy needed to seclude ones’ self from the world and its social constraints in order to find time to think and write. Ultimately, Shakespeare’s sister dies alone without any acknowledgement of her personal genius. Even her grave does not bear her name because she is buried in an unmarked grave simply because she is female.
  • Unfortunately, the Great Depression of the 30s and WWII drew the focus away from such matters and delayed the development of such feminist ideology.
  • French writer The OTHER: an object whose existence is defined and interpreted by the male, the dominant being in society.
  • Beauvior insists that women must see themselves as autonomous beings. They must reject the societal constructs that men are the subject or the absolute and that women are the Other. Embedded in this assumption is the suppostition that males have power and define cultureal terms and roles. Accordingly, women must define themselves outside the present social construct and reject being labeled as the Other.
  • With the advent of the 1960s and its political activism and social concerns, feminist issues found new voices, and prominent among them is Kate Millet. With her publication of Sexual Politics in ’69, a new wave of feminism begins. She was one of the first feminists to challenge the social ideological characteristics of both the male and the female.
  • She examines works of D.H. Lawrence, Henry Miller, Norman Mailer, and Jean Genet and argues that even these “liberal” modern writers still perpetuate the sexual stereotypes by portraying male power and domination as natural and desirable. Stereotypical Criticism
  • Conforming to these prescribed sex roles dictated by society is what she calls “Sexual Politics”
  • Feminism in 1960s and 1970s
  • Feminism in 1960s and 1970s
  • Feminism in 1960s and 1970s
  • Chopin: American archetypal, rediscovered feminist text Lessing: England Throughout the universities, readers turned their attention to historical and current works authored by women. Simultaneously, works that attempted to define the feminine imagination, to categorize and explain female literary history, and to attempt to define the female aesthetic or concept of beauty became the focus of feminist critics.
  • Showalter is the dominating voice of fem. Crit. Throughout the 80s
  • Writers accepted the prevailing social constructs of their day on the role and therefore the definition of women
  • Stereotypical criticism
  • Mysogyny: term Showalter uses to describe the male hatred of women.
  • Example: Olive Schreiner, a feminist novelist who wrote around the turn of the century Showalter doesn’t consider her an excellent literary artist (her novels are “depressing and claustrophobic”), but does point out that she influenced later writers such as Doris Lessing. Points out that these three women authors Susan Warner E.D.N. Southworth Mary E. Wilkins Freeman were by far the most popular authors of the second half of the 19 th century in American fiction but were not deemed worthy to be included in the canon.
  • The 4 models are sequential, subsuming and developing the preceding model(s)
  • War of Words is first volume of 3 vol. No Man’s Land: The place of the woman writer in the 20 th century.
  • Canon: body of work regarded as deserving of serious study. Alice Walker has brought new attention to works of Zora Neale Hurston, African American novelist, whose writings were well regarded earlier in the century but had drifted into virtual obscurity. Feminist critics argue that in order to appreciate the merits of women’s writings, must reexamine our ideas about what makes a literary work excellent or important.
  • 19 th century sentimental fiction was dismissed as “unworthy of serious critical attention” because it was the work of female authors who wrote for an audience of other women. However, feminist critics ould consider the sentimental novel “as a social as well as a literary document” and see it as far from trivial.
  • Argue male artists have created two principal masks, or images for women – and women cannot create freely unless they first understand and destroy these masks They analyze at length two works they see as creative “misreadings” or “rewritings” of Paradise Lost (inferior and Satanically inspired Eve – which has intimidated and blocked their view of possibiliites) Many women writers have devised their own revisionary myths to free themselves from the inhibiting image Milton created. Frankenstein (Mary Shelley) in which Victor Frankenstein and his monster may be identified with Eve And Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights, in which the fall from heaven is transformed and parodied.
  • Visions of how women ought to behave In resisting the obvious meanings, for example, the false claim that male falues are universal values, women may discover more significant meanings Example: Fetterly argues that in “A Rose for Emily” (read rest on handout)
  • already mentioned Kate Millet’s Sexual Politics
  • already mentioned Kate Millet’s Sexual Politics
  • Scarlet Letter has been read as work with a male protagonist (Arthur Dimmesdale) resisting temptations of seductress Hester Prynne Carol Ohmann: analyzes reviews that appeared when WH was first published; B’s contemporaries assume that B. had little conscious control over her material and that her lack of experience and understnading limits her achievement. Such statements are often used to dismiss the works of women writers.
  • SHowlater belives that feminist criticism has gradually shifted its focus from revisionary readings to a sustained investigation of literature by women Physical geography plays an important role in determining the major interests of various voices of feminist criticism. American feminism concerned with restoring the writings of female authors to the literary canon Annette Kolodny believes that the literary history itself is a fiction. Wishes to restore the history of women so that they themselves can tell “herstory” Women must first find a means to gain their voice in the midst of numerous voices (particularly male voices) clamouring for attention in society. All groups attempt to rescue women from being considered “the Other”
  • By applying any or all of these questions to a text, we can begin the journey into feminist criticism and better understand the world in which we live.
  •   Du Bois had always wanted to go to Harvard and he was initially disappointed when he learned that it had been arranged that he attend Fisk University in Nashville. But the experience changed his life. It helped to clarify his identity and pointed him in the direction of his life's work. When Du Bois left for Fisk in the fall of 1885, it was the last time he would call Great Barrington his home. His mother had died during that summer and Du Bois entered a world that he would claim for his own. Du Bois arrived in Nashville a serious, contemplative, self-conscious young man with habits and attitudes formed by a boyhood in Victorian New England. At Fisk he encountered sons and daughters of former slaves who had borne the mark of oppression but had nourished a rich cultural and spiritual tradition that Du Bois recognized as his own. Du Bois also encountered the White South. The achievements of Reconstruction were being destroyed by the white politicians and businessmen who had gained political control. Blacks were being terrorized at the polls and were being driven back into the economic status that differed from institutional slavery in little but name. Du Bois saw the suffering and the dignity of rural blacks when he taught school during the summers in the East Tennessee countryside, and he resolved that in some way his life would be dedicated to a struggle against racial and economic oppression. He was determined to continue his education and his perseverance was rewarded when he was offered a scholarship to study at Harvard University.
  •   Du Bois was born in the small New England village of Great Barrington, Massachusetts, three years after the end of the Civil War. Unlike most black Americans, his family had not just emerged from slavery. His great-grandfather had fought in the American Revolution, and the Burghardts had been an accepted part of the community for generations. Yet from his earliest years Du Bois was aware of differences that set him apart from his Yankee neighbors. In addition to the austere hymns of his village Congregational Church, Du Bois learned the songs of a much more ancient tradition from his grandmother. Passed from generation to generation, their original meanings long forgotten, the songs of Africa were sung around the fire in Du Bois' boyhood home. Thus, from the beginning, Du Bois was aware of an earlier tradition that set him apart from his New England community - a distant past shrouded in mystery, in sharp contrast to the detailed chronicle of Western Civilization that he learned at school.   Du Bois' father left home soon after Du Bois was born. The youngster was raised largely by his mother, who imparted to her child the sense of a special destiny. She encouraged his studies and his adherence to the Victorian virtues and pieties characteristic of rural New England in the 19th century. Du Bois in turn gravely accepted a sense of duty toward his mother that transcended all other loyalties.
  • Du Bois knew little of his father. Alfred Du Bois married Mary Burghardt in 1867. Soon after Du Bois was born, his father left, never to return. Du Bois described him as "a dreamer-- romantic, indolent, kind, unreliable, he had in him the making of a poet, an adventurer, or a beloved vagabond, according to the life that closed round him; and that life gave him all too little."
  •   Du Bois excelled at school and outshone his white contemporaries. While in high school he worked as a correspondent for New York newspapers and became something of a prodigy in the eyes of the community. As he reached adolescence he began to become aware of the subtle social boundaries which he was expected to observe. This made him all the more determined to force the community to recognize his academic achievements.
  •   Du Bois was clearly a young man of promise. The influential members of his community recognized this and quietly decided his future. Great Barrington, like most of New England, still glowed with the embers of the abolitionist fires that had only recently been dampened with the ending of the Reconstruction in the South. Together with the missionary inclinations of the Congregationalist Church, these sensibilities manifested themselves in the community's attitude towards Du Bois, who presented them with an opportunity to perform an act of Christian duty toward a promising example of what they considered to be the less fortunate races of the world.
  •   Du Bois had always wanted to go to Harvard and he was initially disappointed when he learned that it had been arranged that he attend Fisk University in Nashville. But the experience changed his life. It helped to clarify his identity and pointed him in the direction of his life's work. When Du Bois left for Fisk in the fall of 1885, it was the last time he would call Great Barrington his home. His mother had died during that summer and Du Bois entered a world that he would claim for his own.
  • Du Bois arrived in Nashville a serious, contemplative, self-conscious young man with habits and attitudes formed by a boyhood in Victorian New England. At Fisk he encountered sons and daughters of former slaves who had borne the mark of oppression but had nourished a rich cultural and spiritual tradition that Du Bois recognized as his own. Du Bois also encountered the White South.
  • The achievements of Reconstruction were being destroyed by the white politicians and businessmen who had gained political control. Blacks were being terrorized at the polls and were being driven back into the economic status that differed from institutional slavery in little but name. Du Bois saw the suffering and the dignity of rural blacks when he taught school during the summers in the East Tennessee countryside, and he resolved that in some way his life would be dedicated to a struggle against racial and economic oppression. He was determined to continue his education and his perseverance was rewarded when he was offered a scholarship to study at Harvard University.
  • Du Bois' life was a struggle of warring ideas and ideals. He entered Harvard during its golden age and studied with William James and Albert Bushnell Hart. It was a progressive era and Du Bois was smitten with the ideal of science - an objective truth that could dispel once and for all the irrational prejudices and ignorances that stood in the way of a just social order. He brought back the German scientific ideal from the University of Berlin and was one of the first to initiate scientific sociological study in the United States. For years he labored at Atlanta University and created landmarks in the scientific study of race relations. Yet a shadow fell over his work as he saw the nation retreating into barbarism. Repressive segregation laws, lynching, and terror were on the increase despite the march of science. Du Bois' faith in the detached role of the scientist was shaken, and with the Atlanta Riot of 1906 Du Bois with his "Litany at Atlanta" passionately sounded a challenge to those forces of repression and destruction. At a time when Booker T. Washington counseled acceptance of the social order, Du Bois sounded a call to arms and with the founding of the Niagara Movement and later the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People entered a new phase of his life. He became an impassioned champion of direct assault on the legal, political, and economic system that thrived on the exploitation of the poor and the powerless. As he began to point out the connections between the plight of Afro- Americans and those who suffered under colonial rule in other areas of the world, his struggle assumed international proportions. The Pan-African Movement that flowered in the years after World War I was the beginning of the creation of a third world consciousness.
  • Du Bois (at right) was one of six speakers at his Harvard commencement. While at Harvard, Du Bois wrote, "I was quite voluntarily and willingly outside its social life... I asked no fellowship of my fellow students. I found friends-- and most interesting and inspiring friends-- among the colored folk of Boston and surrounding places."
  • Admission card, signed by economist Gustav Schmoller, admitting Du Bois to his seminar at the University of Berlin.
  • While at Atlanta University, Du Bois planned a long-range series of studies dealing with the issues and problems that faced black Americans.
  • As a result of the intransigence of Booker T. Washington's "Tuskegee Machine," Du Bois and other black leaders of similar opinions organized what became known as the Niagara Movement. It was the first organization to seek full political and economic rights for Afro-Americans at a national level. By 1910, the organization led to the founding of the NAACP.
  • The NAACP was formed by a coalition of black leaders and white liberals, and Du Bois left Atlanta University in 1910 to become the NAACP's Director of Publicity and Research. Through this position he spearheaded efforts to enact anti-lynching laws and to initiate legislation that would end jim-crow practices in the nation's public institutions and transportation systems. Du Bois was a man of firm opinions and this trait often brought him into conflict with others on the NAACP's Board of Directors. When, in the depression year of 1934, Du Bois advised blacks to patronize black businesses, he was ironically forced to resign from the NAACP for advocating what was considered to be a plan of voluntary segregation.
  • Resolutions (page 1) established by 15 countries at the first Pan-African Congress, Paris, February 1919.
  • Especially after World War II, Du Bois' concerns became increasingly international. In 1945, he helped present a petition on behalf of oppressed minorities before the United Nations. Du Bois was horrified by the Cold War policy of the Truman administration and believed that the efforts to halt the spread of Communism often obscured the real desire of colonial peoples to gain political and social self-determination. As he became more vocal in behalf of peace, he came under the suspicion of his government. During the McCarthy era, many attempts were made to silence debate on issues affecting foreign policy and Du Bois became another victim of that effort. At the age of 83, Du Bois was indicted for failing to register as a "foreign agent." Although acquitted, the government had effectively attached a stigma to Du Bois' name and he became isolated from the mainstream of the growing civil rights movement which depended upon the goodwill of the Federal Government to advance its aims.
  • In 1951, in the midst of his battle with the Justice Department, Du Bois, now a widower, married Shirley Graham, a friend of long standing, on the eve of his 83rd birthday.
  • In the years after World War II the desperate struggles that Du Bois had waged came together in a vision that was to challenge many of the assumptions of his contemporaries. He had fought for many progressive causes but saw them consumed by a cold war mentality that silenced rational debate.
  • Throughout his career Du Bois was the object of investigation by Government intelligence agencies. Especially during the 1950s, the FBI kept Du Bois' activities under constant surveillance.
  • If Du Bois was a prophet without honor in his own country, he was hailed as a visionary by non-western nations. He was warmly received in visits to the Peoples' Republic of China and the Soviet Union and was a guest in the newly independent states of Africa. Du Bois also devoted his time to writing and speaking, producing an enormous amount of articles, speeches and a trilogy of novels which he titled The Black Flame. Du Bois addressing the first Afro-Asian Writers' Conference, Tashkent, U.S.S.R., October, 1958. Du Bois in the garden of Paul Robeson's home in London, Fall 1958. Premier Nikita Khrushchev greets Du Bois on a trip to the Soviet Union in 1958. Du Bois with Chairman Mao Tse Tung, 1959. The Peoples' Republic of China honored Du Bois on his 91st birthday in Peking.
  • Ghana's President Kwame Nkrumah offers a toast on Du Bois' 95th birthday, c. February, 1963.   Du Bois' mature vision was a reconciliation of the "sense of double consciousness"- the "two warring ideals" of being both black and an American - that he had written about fifty years earlier. He came to accept struggle and conflict as essential elements of life, but he continued to believe in the inevitable progress of the human race - that out of individual struggles against a divided self and political struggles of the oppressed against their oppressors, a broader and fuller human life would emerge that would benefit all of mankind.
  • At the age of ninety-three, Du Bois was invited to Ghana by President Kwame Nkrumah to assume editorship of the Encyclopedia Africana , a monumental project involving scholars from around the world. He assumed Ghanaian citizenship and lived in the land of his fathers until his death at the age of ninety-five on August 27, 1963-- the day before the March on Washington that marked the climax of the civil rights struggle in the United States.
  • One thing alone I charge you. As you live, believe in Life! Always human beings will live and progress to greater, broader and fuller life. The only possible death is to lose belief in this truth simply because the great end comes slowly, because time is long.    -- W.E.B. Du Bois in his last statement to the world, 1963

Week of april_26th Week of april_26th Presentation Transcript

  • Monday, April 26 th Mrs. Navejar
  • Review Last week’s Lessons
    • What do you remember…
  • Tuesday, April 20 th
    • Review the literary Criticism model
    • Feminist Criticism
    • Kate Chopin, The Storm
    • Finish Reading
      • Notes- Review slide 80
      • What should we look for as we look through the feminist criticism lens?
    • Basic 5 paragraph essay model
  • Kate Chopin’s _______
    • Read story
    • Make a statement using our mad Lit Crit skills
    • Find supporting details that support your thesis statement
    • “ Make a sandwich”
  • Wednesday, April 21 st
    • Review the literary Criticism model
    • Booker T. Washington
    • Literary Criticism
      • Historical
      • Mimetic
    • Atlanta Speech
    • Basic five paragraph model
  • Thursday, April 22 nd
    • Review the literary Criticism model
    • Booker T. Washington
    • Literary Criticism
      • Historical
      • Mimetic
    • Atlanta Speech
    • Look at the speech using a historical lens (review definition)
    • Basic five paragraph model
  • Friday, April 23 rd
    • Review the literary Criticism model
    • See PBS video on BTW
    • Review The Atlanta Compromise Speech
      • Slide 7 and 8
    • How does the time period and societal/legal Climate influence BTW’s position/argument?
    • How does BTW’s background influence this position/ argument?
    • Review Up From Slavery
    • Using the Historical Critical lens, what have we learned from this document?
      • Have we changed our ideas about BTW’s argument/position?
  • Monday, April 26 th
    • Review Literary Criticism model
      • What branch are we in?
    • Review Booker T. Washington
      • Atlanta Compromise Speech
      • Up From Slavery
    • Group Activity ( Jigsaw )- Souls of Black Folk
    • Compare BTW and Du Bois
      • What literary criticism branch are we using?
      • Compare the framework, argument, position, focus, voice and tone of each work.
      • Was Du Bois right or wrong to “attack” BTW?
  • Tuesday, April 27 th
    • Who was “ Jim Crow ”…
    • Review Literary Criticism model
      • What branch are we in?
    • Review Booker T. Washington
      • Atlanta Compromise Speech
      • Up From Slavery
    • Group Activity ( Jigsaw )- Souls of Black Folk
    • Compare BTW and Du Bois
      • What literary criticism branch are we using?
      • Compare the framework, argument, position, focus, voice and tone of each work.
      • Was Du Bois right or wrong to “attack” BTW?
    • Write an essay
  • Thursday, April 28 th
    • Review paper format
    • Look at your papers
    • What I will be looking for
    • Hand out poems
    • DO NOT GET INTO GROUPS, but take your group handout and read the material
    • I will be meeting with you regarding your
      • Writing assessments
      • Your Du Bois paper
  • Friday, April 29 th
    • We will begin reviewing 20 th century poets
      • Robert Frost
      • e.e. cummings
      • T.S. Elliot
      • Carl Sandburg
      • Ezra Pound
      • Langston Hughes (we’ll work on Hughes together)
    • Group work
      • Review
        • Poet’s life (what literary lens are you using?)
        • Research on poem
        • Poem
      • Presentation
        • Overview of life
        • Poem
        • Research on poem
        • Create 5 test questions for the class
          • Should capture the essential information about the poem research
  • Monday, May 3 rd
    • Finish Major 20 th century poets
    • We will be moving on to “The Lost Generation”
      • Hemingway
      • Fitzgerald
      • Faulkner
      • Steinbeck
  • Group Work
    • Group work
      • Review
        • Poet’s life (what literary lens are you using?)
        • Research on poem
        • Poem
      • Presentation
        • Overview of life
        • Poem
        • Research on poem
        • Create 5 test questions for the class
          • Should capture the essential information about the poem research
          • You are responsible for collecting the tests and grading them and report the grade to me.
          • Review the grades and see what answer people answered wrong
            • Was there something wrong with
            • The test question?
            • The presentation?
  • Rubric
    • Presentation
    • Faces classmates
    • Projects voice
    • Information is delivered in an readable, clear format
    • Poem
    • Read poem
    • Point out overall meaning citing research from your handout. (“According to..) (Robinson 134)
      • Commentary about societal issues, feminist concerns, economic issues, etc…
    • Literary devices used to express ideas
      • Do these devices highlight the above mentioned commentaries?
    • Poet’s life
    • Born-death
    • Points about life that are relevant to body of work, poem
    • Historical context that perhaps influences the poem, work
    No Yes
  • Test Questions
    • Create 5 test questions for the class
      • Should capture the essential information about the poem research
      • You are responsible for collecting the tests and grading them and report the grade to me.
      • Review the grades and see what answer people answered wrong
        • Was there something wrong with
        • The test question?
        • The presentation?
  • Compare the framework, argument, position, focus, voice and tone of each work. Was Du Bois right or wrong to “attack” BTW? Tone… Focus (political/legal)… Argument… Was raised and educated… Was born in… Du Bois Booker T Washington
    • Title of your document
    • Essential ideas
    • Cue into the ideas that will help us understand Du Bois’ position in light of BTW’s ideas/position/argument.
    • Stand
    • Veil = racism
    • W.E.B Du Bois Critiques Booker T. Washington
  • Your paper
    • 5 paragraphs
    • Respond to the question
      • Was Du Bois right or wrong to “attack” BTW?
      • Take a position
      • Listen to each group for supporting information
    • Look at the basic 5 paragraph structure
  • Introduction
    • General statement
    • Main Topic A
    • Main Topic B
    • Main Topic C
    • Thesis statement
  • Main Topic A, B and C
    • Topic Sentence
      • Your words
      • The point you’re trying to make that backs up the thesis statement
    • Supporting Detail
      • Facts
      • Line from a poem
      • Detail from the story
      • Statistic
    • Analysis
      • You should write at least three sentences of analysis
      • These are your words
    Bread/Topic Sentence Meat/Sup.Detail Bread/Analysis
  • Conclusion
    • Thesis Statement
    • Main topic A, B, and C
    • Closing statement
      • Consider it a bow that ends your essay. It leaves your reader with a final thought.
  • Group work
    • Students will be given a portion of Souls of Black Folk
    • Your group will read the portion and analyze it for the following:
      • What is Du Bois’ message?
      • Using a historical critical lens , what does his work say about the time period (laws, societal expectations, oppression, etc…)
    • Your group is responsible for completing the chart and reporting to the larger group
  • Brendan, Jada, Jazmin, Valerie, Felicia Santiago, Enrique, Gabriel, Miguel, Isabel, Itxel, Jacob, Luka, Natasha, Goran, Diana, Ryan Eric, Kathy, Victor, Mike Caitlin, Yovana, Mercedez, Ashlea, Pedro, Gina, Yashira Group Members 25 Pink Group Grupo naranja Super Team The A-Team The Jiebers Group Name 25 25 25 25 Summary Group Points
  • Historical Critical Analysis
    • Jim Crow
      • More Jim Crow
        • Take notes on the major historical events
    • Separate but Equal
    • Emancipation Proclamation
    • Souls of Black Folk
      • Group work
      • Read your portion
        • Look for features/positions/arguments that differ from BTW
        • Summarize
        • We will compare his experience/life with BTW
        • Which branch of literary criticism is this type of analysis?
  • W.E.B. Du Bois
    • About Booker T. Washington
      • What made Souls of Black Folk a sensation was that it was the first widely public shot in the debate between Du Bois and Booker T. Washington.
      • Until the turn of the century, Du Bois had supported Washington and had even congratulated him on his Atlanta Compromise speech in 1895.
      • In SOULS, Du Bois, while praising Washington for his contributions to the progress of the race, also criticized Washington for his failures to speak out in its behalf : "... so far as Mr. Washington apologizes for injustice, North and South, does not rightly value the privilege and duty of voting, belittles the emasculating effects of caste distinctions, and opposes the higher training and education of our brighter minds -- so far as he, the South or the Nation does this -- we must unceasingly and firmly oppose them."
  • Group work- Write your names on the paper. 5 4 3 2 Describe Du Bois’ message. 1. Analysis How does the time period influence his work/ words? Line
  • 1895 Atlanta Compromise Speech 4 3 2 BTW position is allow Blacks to be educated and thrive or be faced with ignorant, angry Blacks. Pick an argument/position of BTW BTW is appealing to the Whites and trying to take a logical approach. “If you don’t want trouble in your town, you better give a little to the Blacks.” 1. “We shall constitute one-third and more of the ignorance and crime of the South, or one-third [of] it intelligence…” Analysis Provide examples of BTW trying to appease the Whites Line
  • Using a Historical Critical Lens BTW is appealing to the Whites and trying to take a logical approach. “If you don’t want trouble in your town, you better give a little to the Blacks.” Analysis BTW’s position is allow Blacks to be educated and thrive or be faced with ignorant, angry Blacks. Pick an argument/position of BTW How does the time period and societal/legal Climate influence BTW’s position/argument? 1. “We shall constitute one-third and more of the ignorance and crime of the South, or one-third [of] it intelligence…” How does BTW’s background influence this position/ argument? Provide examples of BTW trying to appease the Whites Line
  • Writing Assessment
    • Write a four paragraph essay on the following:
    • “ What is the story, The Storm, about? Is it a story about a woman having an affair? Is it a story about a lonely housewife?”
    • Using the feminist criticism lens , provide details that support your ideas .
  • Kate Chopin’s, The Awakening
    • Consider The Awakening as a feminist bildungsroman , that is, the formation of a mature female temperament. Chart Edna’s growth from infantile wife and mother playing flirtatious games with others to independent woman ready to claim her sexual desires and artistic impulses.
    • As Edna develops, enumerate the resistance she encounters, from the bonbons her husband uses to pacify her to the injunction from her friend that she set her children’s needs before her own. As Edna grows, detail the forms of criticism, passive-aggressiveness, and disapproval that greet her.
    • Examine the men in her life- -- her husband, the doctor, Arobin, and Robert. Discuss the needs each one satisfies (or fails to satisfy) in her, and what she wants from them.
  • Kate Chopin’s, The Awakening
    • Contextual Issues
    • Early reviews of The Awakening were critical of Chopin’s sympathetic portrayal of Edna. They regarded Edna as a selfish woman who romanticized her irresponsibility . Discuss this judgment.
    • Discuss The Awakening as a specimen of regionalism , here the upper middle-class world of New Orleans society. Note the forms of leisure involved, such as the beach interlude, and the prevalence of the arts.
    • Consider whether The Awakening is a feminist novel in contemporary terms. Is her affair an expression of independence ? Does her suicide mark her as a tragic heroine, or a weak one? Her suicide may be interpreted as her failure to live independently, for Robert’s disappointing responses to her at the end signal the final unhappiness for her. Or, her suicide may be interpreted as an independent action in itself, a decision to live and die on her own terms.
  • Objectives – Summarize in your note book
    • Academic Standard
    • Content Standard
    • Performance Standard
    • I’m learning: ________
    • I will know I learned because I can: ___
    • I want to know: _____
    • I want to know more about: _____
  • Objectives – Summarize in your note book
    • Academic Standard :
      • A.12.2- Read, interpret, and critically analyze literature.
      • B.12.2- Students in Wisconsin will write clearly and effectively to share information and knowledge, to influence and persuade, to create and entertain .
    • Content Standard : Explain the structure of selected classical and contemporary works of literature, in whole and in part, from various cultures and historical periods , and illustrate ways in which authors use syntax, imagery , figures of speech , allusions, symbols , irony, and other devices in context of history , culture, and style .
    • Performance Standard :
      • Can you identify features in the work that reflects the time period?
      • Can you analyze the literature for these features and write about the distinguishing features (as expressed through the work)?
      • Can you use one literary criticism focus and analyze the work?
  • Let’s try some more Chopin!
    • Review our objectives
    • Review our literary criticism notes
    • Study the basic five paragraph essay structure
    • Read story, The Storm
    • Make a statement (slide 80)
      • Look for elements of feminist criticism (voice)
    • Find supporting details
    • “ Make a sandwich”
  • We looked at EIGHT PARADIGMS …
    • Formalism
    • Marxism
    • Feminism
    • Psychoanalytic
    • Cultural Criticism
    • Structuralism
    • Post-structuralism
    • Archetypal
  • Literary Criticism Map
    • Where do the theories fall?
  • Cont'd …
    • A historical approach relies heavily on the author and his world. In the historical view, it is important to understand the author and his world in order to understand his intent and to make sense of his work. In this view, the work is informed by the author's beliefs, prejudices, time, and history, and to fully understand the work, we must understand the author and his age.
    • An intertextual approach is concerned with comparing the work in question to other literature, to get a broader picture.
    • Reader-Response is concerned with how the work is viewed by the audience. In this approach, the reader creates meaning, not the author or the work.
  • Cont'd …
    • Mimetic criticism seeks to see how well a work accords with the real world (is it accurate? correct? moral? ). 
    • Then, beyond the real world are approaches dealing with the spiritual and the symbolic - -the images connecting people throughout time and cultures ( archetypes ). This is mimetic in a sense too, but the congruency looked for is not so much with the real world as with something beyond the real world--something tying in all the worlds/times/cultures inhabited by humans.
  • Cont'd …
    • The Psychological approach is placed outside these poles because it can fit in many places, depending how it is applied: (1) Historical if diagnosing the author himself (2) Mimetic if considering if characters are acting by "real world" standards and with recognizable psychological motivations (3) Archetypal when the idea of the Jungian collective unconscious is included (4) Reader-Response when the psychology of the reader--why he sees what he sees in the text--is examined.
  • Cont'd …
    • Likewise, Feminist, Minority, Marxist , and other such approaches may fit in: (1) Historical if the author's attitudes are being examined in relation to his times (i.e. was Shakespeare a feminist for his times, though he might not be considered so today?) (2) Mimetic- -when asking how well characters accord with the real world. Does a black character act like a black person would, or is he a stereotype? Are women being portrayed accurately? Does the work show a realistic economic picture of the world?
  • Feminism
    • The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes.
  • Feminist Criticism
    • Examines ways in which literature reinforces or undermines the oppression of women.
      • Economically
      • Socially
      • Politically
      • Psychologically
  • Traditional Gender Roles
    • Patriarchy
      • Any culture that privileges men by promoting traditional gender roles.
  • Traditional Gender Roles
    • Men
      • Rational
      • Strong
      • Protective
      • Decisive
    • Women
      • Emotional (irrational)
      • Weak
      • Nurturing
      • Submissive
    • Traditional gender roles have been used successfully to justify inequities such as excluding women from equal access to leadership and decision-making positions and paying men higher wages than women for doing the same job.
    • Patriarchy is by definition sexist
      • It promotes the belief that women are innately inferior to men
      • “head of the tribe or family”
    • Biological Essentialism
      • Belief of inborn inferiority
      • based on biological differences between the sexes that are part of our unchanging essence as men and women
        • Example: hysteria
    • Feminists don’t deny biological differences
      • don’t agree that differences in physical size, shape, and body chemistry make men naturally superior to women
        • more intelligent
        • more logical
        • better leaders
      • SEX : biological constitution as female or male
      • GENDER : our cultural programming as feminine or masculine
    • The inferior position long occupied by women in a patriarchal society has been culturally, not biologically, produced.
    • Patriarchy continually exerts forces that undermine women’s self-confidence and assertiveness, then points to the absence of these qualities as proof that women are naturally self-effacing and submissive.
      • Example: girls and math
    • Patriarchal gender roles are destructive for men as well as women.
      • Traditional gender roles dictate that men are supposed to be strong:
        • Physically powerful
        • Emotionally stoic
          • Men are not supposed to cry (considered a sign of weakness)
          • Unmanly to show fear or pain
          • Shouldn’t express sympathy for other men
    • In a patriarchy, everything that concerns men usually implies something (usually negative) about women.
      • All behaviors forbidden to men are considered “womanish” (inferior, beneath dignity of manhood)
        • Men/boys who cry labeled as “sissies” (cowardly, feminine)
    • One of the most devastating verbal attacks for a man to be subjected to is to be compared to a woman.
      • REAL MAN – requires that one hold feminine qualities in contempt
        • Homosexuality is included in list of “feminine” behaviors
          • American stereotype of typical male homosexual is effeminate (extremely feminine characteristics)
    • Whenever a patriarchy wants to undermine a behavior, it portrays that behavior as feminine.
  • Arguments Against Feminist Premises
      • Western society has actually been structured to protect women from the brutalities of war and commerce, allowing them to be nurturers, mothers, and homemakers.
      • Rather than exploiting or suppressing women, it actually celebrates and cherishes them.
  • Counter Argument by Feminists
    • Assumes suppression and exclusion.
      • If a woman is put on a pedestal, she can’t do much of anything up there.
    • Assumes women are weaker sex, needing protection.
    • Assumes women are unable to compete with men.
      • Disallows for the fact that some women are physically and mentally stronger than some men.
  • Roots of Feminism
    • Men have oppressed women.
      • allowing them little or no voice in the political, social, or economic issues of their society
  • Roots of Feminism
    • By not giving voice and value to women’s opinions, responses, and writings, men have therefore suppressed the female, defined what it means to be feminine, and thereby de-voiced, devalued, and trivialized what it means to be a woman; and…
  • Roots of Feminism
    • … Men have made women the “nonsignificant Other .”
  • Goal of Feminism
    • Therefore, feminism’s goal is to change these degrading views of women so that all women will realize they are not a “nonsignificant Other” and will realize that each woman is a valuable person possessing the same privileges and rights as every man.
  • Roots of Feminism
    • Women must define themselves and assert their own voices in the arenas of politics, society, education, and the arts.
    • By personally committing themselves to fostering such change, feminists hope to create a society in which not only the male but also the female voice is equally valued.
  • Historical Roots of Feminism
    • According to feminist criticism, the roots of prejudice against women have long been embedded in Western culture.
      • Some say it originated with biblical narrative where the fall of man is blamed on Eve, not Adam.
  • Historical Roots of Feminism
    • According to feminist criticism, the roots of prejudice against women have long been embedded in Western culture.
      • Ancient Greeks (Aristotle) ”The man is by nature superior, and the female inferior; and the one rules and the other is ruled.”
  • Roots of Feminism
    • According to feminist criticism, the roots of prejudice against women have long been embedded in Western culture.
      • Religious leaders: Thomas Aquinas and St. Augustine
        • women were merely “imperfect men”
        • Spiritually weak creatures
        • Possessed a sensual nature that lures men away from spiritual truths, thereby preventing males from attaining their spiritual potential.
  • Roots of Feminism
    • According to feminist criticism, the roots of prejudice against women have long been embedded in Western culture.
      • Darwin ( The Descent of Man – 1871)
        • “women are of a characteristic of … a past and lower state of civilization.”
        • Are inferior to men, who are physically, intellectually, and artistically superior
  • Roots of Feminism
    • Opposition to patriarchal opinions against women was not heard of until the late 1700s.
      • Mary Wollstonecraft
        • A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)
          • Women must stand up for their rights and not allow their male-dominated society to define what it means to be a woman.
          • Women must take the lead and articulate who they are and what role they will play in society.
          • Women must reject patriarchal assumption that women are inferior to men.
  • Roots of Feminism
    • Not until the early 1900s (Progressive Era) that the major roots of feminist criticism began to grow.
      • Women gained the right to vote
      • Women became prominent activists in the social issues of the day
        • Health care
        • Education
        • Politics
        • literature
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Virginia Woolf
      • A Room of One’s Own (1919)
        • Declares men have and continue to treat women as inferiors.
        • The male defines what is means to be female and controls the political, economic, social and literary structures.
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Virginia Woolf
      • A Room of One’s Own (1919)
        • Hypothesizes the existence of Shakespeare’s sister, equally as gifted a writer has he.
          • Gender prevents her from having “a room of her own”
          • She cannot obtain an education or find profitable employment because she is a woman.
          • Her innate artistic talents will therefore never flourish, for she cannot afford a room of her own.
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Virginia Woolf
      • A Room of One’s Own (1919)
        • This kind of loss of artistic talent and personal worthiness is the direct result of society’s opinion of women: they are intellectually inferior to men.
        • Women must reject this social construct and establish their own identity.
        • Women must challenge the prevailing, false cultural notions about their gender identity and develop a female discourse that will accurately portray their relationship “to the world of reality and not to the world of men.”
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Virginia Woolf
      • A Room of One’s Own (1919)
        • Woolf believed that if women accepted this “challenge”, Shakespeare’s sister can be “resurrected” in and through women living today, even those who may be “washing up the dishes and putting the children to bed.”
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Simone de Beauvior
      • The Second Sex (1949)
        • “ foundational work of 20 th century feminism”
        • Declares that French society (and Western societies in general) are PATRIARCHAL, controlled by males.
        • Like Woolf, believed that the male defines what it means to be human, including, therefore, what it means to be female.
        • Since the female is not the male, she becomes the Other , finding herself a nonexistent player in the major social institutions of her culture
          • Church
          • Government
          • Educational systems
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Simone de Beauvior
      • The Second Sex (1949)
        • Woman must break the bonds of her patriarchal society and define herself if she wishes to become a significant human being in her own right and defy male classification as the Other.
          • Must ask herself, “What is a woman?”
            • Answer must not be “mankind” (generic label allows men to define women as relative to him, not as herself.)
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Kate Millet
      • Sexual Politics (1970)
        • challenges the social ideological characteristics of both the male and the female.
          • “A female is born but a woman is created.”
            • One’s sex is determined at birth (male or female)
            • One’s gender is a social construct created by cultural ideals and norms (masculine or feminine)
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Kate Millet
      • Sexual Politics (1970)
        • challenges the social ideological characteristics of both the male and the female.
          • Women and men (consciously and unconsciously) conform to the cultural ideas established for them by society.
          • Cultural norms and expectations are transmitted through media: television, movies, songs, and literature.
            • Boys must be aggressive, self-assertive, domineering
            • Girls must be passive, meek, humble
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Kate Millet
      • Sexual Politics (1970)
        • Women must revolt against the power center of their culture: male dominance.
        • Women must establish female social conventions for themselves by establishing and articulating female discourse, literary studies, and feminist theory.
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Feminism in 1960s and 1970s
      • Feminist critics began to examine the traditional literary canon
        • Discovered examples that supported assertions of Beauvoir and Millet
          • that males considered the female “the Other”
          • male dominance and prejudice
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Feminism in 1960s and 1970s
      • Feminist critics began to examine the traditional literary canon
        • Stereotypes of women
          • Sex maniacs
          • Goddesses of beauty
          • Mindless entities
          • Old spinsters
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Feminism in 1960s and 1970s
      • Feminist critics began to examine the traditional literary canon
        • found male authors in established literary canon: Dickens, Wordsworth, Hawthorne, Thoreau, Twain, etc.
        • Found few females achieved such status
        • Roles of female, fictionalized characters were limited to secondary positions
          • More frequently than not as minor parts within story or as stereotypical images
        • Female scholars such as Woolf and Beauvior were ignored
          • Works seldom referred to by male critics of literary canon
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Feminism in 1960s and 1970s
      • Feminist critics began to examine the traditional literary canon
        • Asserted that the males who created and gained prominence in canon assumed all readers were male.
        • Most university professors were males
          • Women reading such works were trained to read as if they were males.
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Feminism in 1960s and 1970s
      • Feminist critics began to examine the traditional literary canon
        • Brought about existence of a female reader who was affronted by the male prejudices abounding in the canon.
        • Brought about questions concerning the male and female qualities of literary form, style, voice, and theme.
        • By 1970s, books that defined women’s writings in feminine terms flourished.
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Feminism in 1960s and 1970s
      • Having highlighted the importance of gender
        • Feminist critics began to rediscover literary works authored by females that had been dismissed or deemed inferior by their male counterparts, unworthy to be a part of the canon.
          • Kate Chopin’s The Awakening (1899)
          • Doris Lessing’s The Golden Notebook (1962)
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Criticism of the 1980s
      • Elaine Showalter
        • A Literature of Their Own (1977)
          • Chronicles three historical or evolutionary phases of female writing:
            • Feminine phase (1840-1880)
            • Feminist phase (1880-1920)
            • Female phase (1970-present)
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Elaine Showalter
      • A Literature of Their Own (1977)
        • Feminine phase (1840-1880)
          • Writers accepted their role as female writers
          • Wrote under pseudonyms
            • Charlotte Bronte
            • George Eliot
            • George Sand
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Elaine Showalter
      • A Literature of Their Own (1977)
        • Feminist phase (1880-1920)
          • Female authors dramatized the plight of the “slighted” woman
          • Depicted the harsh or cruel treatment of female characters
  • History of Feminist Criticism
    • Elaine Showalter
      • A Literature of Their Own (1977)
        • Female phase (1970-present)
          • Feminist critics now concern themselves with developing a particularly female understanding of the female experiences in arts, including a feminine analysis of literary forms and techniques.
          • Uncovering of misogyny in male texts
  • Feminist Criticism
    • Elaine Showalter
      • A Literature of Their Own: British Women Novelists from Brontë to Lessing (1977)
        • Asserts that most criticism of novels by women focuses only on a few novelists recognized as major figures
          • Jane Austen
          • The Brontës
          • George Eliot
          • Virginia Woolf
  • Feminist Criticism
    • Elaine Showalter
      • A Literature of Their Own: British Women Novelists from Brontë to Lessing (1977)
        • Asserts female authors were consciously and deliberately excluded from the literary canon by the male professors who established the canon itself.
          • Example: Olive Schreiner
        • To fully understand the development of women’s literature, we must recognize the Schreiners as well as the Austins.
  • Feminist Criticism
    • Elaine Showalter
      • Urges that the exclusion of the female voice must stop.
      • what is needed is “a feminist criticism that is genuinely women centered.”
  • Feminist Criticism
    • Elaine Showalter
      • Coined term gynocritics or gynocriticism : process of “constructing a female framework for analysis of women’s literature to develop new models based on the study of female experience, rather than to adapt to male models and theories.”
      • Gynocriticism
        • Label given to the study of women as writers
        • Subjects it deals with: the history, style, themes, genres, and structures of writings by women
  • Feminist Criticism
    • Elaine Showalter
      • Gynocriticism
        • Has provided critics with four models that address the nature of women’s writing
          • The biological
          • The linguistic
          • The psychoanalytic
          • The cultural
  • Feminist Criticism
    • Elaine Showalter
      • Four models that address the nature of women’s writing:
        • The biological model
          • Emphasizes how the female body marks itself upon a text by providing a host of literary images and a personal, intimate tone.
  • Feminist Criticism
    • Elaine Showalter
      • Four models that address the nature of women’s writing:
        • The linguistic model
          • Concerns itself with the need for a female discourse.
          • Investigates the differences between how women and men use language.
          • Asserts that women can and do create a language peculiar to their gender and addresses the way in which this language can be utilized in their writings.
  • Linguistics
    • Gilbert & Gubar
      • The War of Words (1988)
        • “ a major campaign in the battle of the sexes is the conflict over language and, specifically, over competing male and female claims to linguistic primacy” (228).
        • It’s not enough to challenge the way women have been portrayed in literature; must recognize that language itself has been shaped by men in ways that denigrate and alienate women.
  • Feminist Criticism
    • Elaine Showalter
      • Four models that address the nature of women’s writing:
        • The psychoanalytic model
          • Based on an analysis of the female psyche and how such an analysis affects the writing process.
          • Emphasizes the flux and fluidity of female writings as opposed to male rigidity and structure.
    • Elaine Showalter
      • Four models that address the nature of women’s writing:
        • The cultural model
          • Investigates how the society in which female authors work and functions shapes women’s goals, responses, and points of view.
    • By drawing attention to lesser known writers, Showalter led the way for other feminist critics to contribute to the reshaping of the literary canon.
        • Zora Neale Hurston
        • Charlotte Perkins Gilman
        • Kate Chopin
        • Susan Glaspell
    • In order to appreciate the merits of women’s writings, must reexamine our ideas about what makes a literary work excellent or important.
    • Must not only reconsider individual works but also “entire genres of writing long dismissed s inherently minor, popular, transient, and … feminine” (DuBois, Feminist Scholarship )
      • 19 th century sentimental fiction
  • Stereotypical Criticism
    • (Sandra) Gilbert & (Susan) Gubar
      • Madwoman in the Attic: the Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination (1979)
        • Analyze literature in relationship to the myths created by men and challenge such myths.
          • “ those mythic masks male artists have fastened over [woman’s] human face.”
            • Passive, submissive “angel”
            • Destructive, sinister “monster”
    • Judith Fetterly
      • The Resisting Reader (1978)
        • Women should resist the meanings that male authors – or female authors who have inherited patriarchal values – embed in their books.
        • A woman must read as a woman “exorcising the male mind that has been implanted in women.”
  • Stereotypical Criticism
    • Judith Fryer’s The Faces of Eve: Women in the 19 th Century American Novel (1976)
      • Faces of Eve:
        • The Temptress
        • The American princess
        • The Great Mother
        • The New Woman
  • Stereotypical Criticism
    • Not all stereotypical criticism is negative with the attack on works by male authors.
      • Annis Pratt examines “healthier representations” (“New Feminist Criticism”)
      • Miriam Lerenbaum (“Moll Flanders: A Woman on Her Own Account”)
        • Defends Defoe as shedding a positive light on the female character Moll.
    • Feminist critics also criticize critics they consider to be sexist.
      • “ Phallic Criticism” (Annis Pratt)
        • Critics that look at and distort chauvinistic interpretations of works either by men or women.
          • Nina Baym’s “Melodramas of Beset Manhood: How Theories of American Fiction Exclude Women Authors”
            • Scarlet Letter
        • Critics who ignore literature by women.
          • Carol Ohmann’s “Emily Bronte in the Hands of Male Critics”
            • Wuthering Heights
    • Some feminist critics have attempted to use literature and criticism to promote social change.
      • Carolyn G. Heilbrun ( Reinventing Womanhood -1979)
        • Makes literary criticism a part of her effort to promote “the struggle for female selfhood.”
      • Toril Moi ( Sexual/Textual Politics: Feminist Literary Theory – 1985)
        • Feminist criticism can and should contribute to social change
        • “ the principal objective of feminist criticism…has always been political: it seeks to expose, not to perpetuate, patriarchal practices.”
  • Feminist Criticism
    • No one critical theory of writing dominates feminist criticism; few theorists agree upon a unifying feminist approach to textual analysis.
      • American: textual, stressing repression
      • British: Marxist, stressing oppression
      • French: psychoanalytic, stressing repression
  • Feminist Criticism
    • Asserts that most of our literature presents a masculine-patriarchal view in which the role of women is negated or at best minimized.
  • Feminist View
    • Attempts to show that writers of traditional literature have ignored women and have transmitted misguided and prejudiced views of them;
    • Attempts to stimulate the creation of a critical environment that reflects a balanced view of the nature and value of women;
  • Feminist View
    • Attempts to recover the works of women writers of past times and to encourage the publication of present women writers so that the literary canon may be expanded to recognize women as thinkers and artists; and
    • Urges transformations in the language to eliminate inequities and inequalities that result from linguistic distortions.
  • Questions for Analysis
    • Is the author male or female?
    • Is the text narrated by a male or female?
    • What types of roles do women have in the text?
    • Are the female characters the protagonists or secondary and minor characters?
    • Do any stereotypical characterizations of women appear?
    • What are the attitudes toward women held by the male characters?
    • What is the author’s attitude toward women in society?
    • How does the author’s culture influence his or her attitude?
    • Is feminine imagery used? If so, what is the significance of such imagery?
    • Do the female characters speak differently than do the male characters? In your investigation, compare the frequency of speech for the male characters to the frequency of speech for the female characters.
  • Tuesday, April 20 th
    • Review the literary Criticism model
    • Feminist Criticism
    • Kate Chopin, The Storm
    • Finish Reading
      • Notes- Review slide 80
      • What should we look for as we look through the feminist criticism lens?
    • Basic 5 paragraph essay model
  • Basic 5 paragraph essay Format
    • Introduction
    • Body
    • Conclusion
  • Introduction
    • General statement
    • Main Topic A
    • Main Topic B
    • Main Topic C
    • Thesis statement
  • Main Topic A, B and C
    • Topic Sentence
      • Your words
      • The point you’re trying to make that backs up the thesis statement
    • Supporting Detail
      • Facts
      • Line from a poem
      • Detail from the story
      • Statistic
    • Analysis
      • You should write at least three sentences of analysis
      • These are your words
    Bread/Topic Sentence Meat/Sup.Detail Bread/Analysis
  • Practice making a “sandwich”
    • Texting while driving is dangerous.
    • Write a sentence that supports that statement (and will introduce the statistic): _________________.
    • Insert Statistic: “Each year, 21% of fatal car crashes involving teenagers between the ages of 16 and 19 were the result of cell phone usage.”
    • Now write three sentences that support your position (keep the stat in mind)- ____________________________________
  • Result- Let’s hear some examples
  • Practice making a “sandwich”
    • Thesis: Women should not stay in abusive relationships.
    • Write a sentence that supports that statement (and will introduce the statistic): _________________.
    • Insert Statistic: Statistic: In 1995, 7 percent of all murder victims were young women who were killed by their boyfriends.
    • Now write three sentences that support your position (keep the stat in mind)- ____________________________________
  • Result- Let’s hear some examples
  • Conclusion
    • Thesis Statement
    • Main topic A, B, and C
    • Closing statement
      • Consider it a bow that ends your essay. It leaves your reader with a final thought.
  • Kate Chopin’s _______
    • Read story
    • Make a statement using our mad Lit Crit skills
    • Find supporting details that support your thesis statement
    • “ Make a sandwich”
  • Tuesday, April 20 th
  • Booker T. Washington
    • Online PowerPoint
  • W.E.B Du Bois
    • The beginning of Souls announces one fo the most famous formulations of American writing, the statement of the “problem of the color line” and the “double consciousness” of Blacks in the United States.
    • Du Bois claims that blacks occupy an especially complex position in U.S. society, in that they are citizens, but denied certain civil rights; in that they must be ever vigilant of their public behavior, mindful of Jim Crow rules and white sensitivities;
    • and in that they learn to have one identity in the white environment, and another in the black environment ( DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESS ).
  • W.E.B Du Bois, Souls of Black Folk reading
    • The chapter on Booker T. Washington is one of the centerpieces of Souls, and caused the most comment when the book appeared.
    • Specify exactly what Du Bois says is most remarkable about Washington’s ascent , and
      • why whites have chosen him as the “leader of his race.”
    • Single out Washington’s economic appeal , and his downplaying of political activity .
    • Then, detail the reasons why Du Bois says, Washington's “go slowly” strategy, and his refusal of political agitation, is bound to fail.
    • Consider the chapter on “Sorrow Songs” as an emotional rhetorical plea for the recognition of African-American suffering.
  • W.E.B Du Bois, Souls of Black Folk reading
    • Contextual issues:
    • The importance of talking about “spiritual strivings” (chapter 1) becomes clear if we remember that many people in the United States at this time did not regard blacks as even having spiritual strivings . Consider Du Bois’ comments in light of the resistance he anticipates from White readers.
    • After Souls was published, many white readers were impressed with its intelligence and poignancy, but white supremacist commentators said that Du Bois’ gifts demonstrated nothing to disprove the inferiority of blacks. Du Bois himself was obviously brilliant, but he was just an exception. How might Du Bois respond to this?
  • W.E.B Du Bois, Souls of Black Folk reading
    • Du Bois criticizes Washington’s so-called “accomodationism,” but the two men occupied different worlds.
      • Washington was born into slavery, worked to put himself through school, and then ran a school in a small town in rural Alabama.
      • Du Bois was a Harvard PhD who studied in Germany and worked at a university in the flagship city of New South, Atlanta.
      • Consider how their different situations might explain their differing politics.
  • W.E.B. Du Bois, 1868-1963
  • W.E.B (William Edward Burghardt) Du Bois was born on February 23, 1863 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts.
  • Du Bois knew little of his father. Alfred Du Bois married Mary Burghardt in 1867. Soon after Du Bois was born, his father left, never to return. Du Bois described him as "a dreamer-- romantic, indolent, kind, unreliable, he had in him the making of a poet, an adventurer, or a beloved vagabond, according to the life that closed round him; and that life gave him all too little."
  • Du Bois at the age of four, dressed to conform to the Victorian era's idea of how well-behaved little boys should appear .
  • Du Bois at age nineteen.
  • Jubilee Hall at Fisk University is the oldest permanent building for the higher education of African Americans in the United States
  • Du Bois with Fisk University faculty and students in front of Jubilee Hall, c. 1887.
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  • Fisk University Class of 1888.
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  • Du Bois at Harvard, 1890, or University of Berlin, 1892.
  • Du Bois was the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1896.
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  • Du Bois at the Paris International Exposition in 1900 where he won a gold medal for his exhibit on the achievement of black Americans.
  • Du Bois met Nina Gomer while at Wilberforce and they were married in 1896. Their first child, Burghardt, died as an infant in Atlanta from a typhoid epidemic.
  • Du Bois at Atlanta University, 1909.
  • Du Bois and other black leaders of similar opinions organized what became known as the Niagara Movement. It was the first organization to seek full political and economic rights for Afro-Americans at a national level. By 1910, the organization led to the founding of the NAACP.
  • Du Bois (2nd row, 2nd from right) in a NAACP sponsored demonstration against lynching and mob violence against blacks.
  • Du Bois receiving the NAACP's Spingarn Medal, Atlanta University, 1920.
  • Du Bois and members of The Crisis staff in their New York office.
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  • Resolutions established by 15 countries at the first Pan-African Congress, Paris, February 1919.
  • Speakers at the Pan-African Congress held in Brussels, Belgium, in 1921. Du Bois is 2nd from right.
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  • Du Bois carried his message to the political arena when he ran for the U.S. Senate in 1951 on the American Labor Party's ticket.
  • Du Bois, with Shirley Graham Du Bois (right) and other indicted members of the Peace Information Center, in Washington prior to their court hearing.
  • Throughout the 1950s, Du Bois' concerns became increasingly international, and he traveled and lectured on a number of issues including disarmament and the future of Africa.
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  • Ghana's President Kwame Nkrumah offers a toast on Du Bois' 95th birthday, c. February, 1963.
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  • One thing alone I charge you. As you live, believe in Life! Always human beings will live and progress to greater, broader and fuller life. The only possible death is to lose belief in this truth simply because the great end comes slowly, because time is long.    -- W.E.B. Du Bois in his last statement to the world, 1963
  • W.E.B. Du Bois, 1868-1963 “ How does it feel to be a problem?”
  • Then it dawned upon me with a certain suddenness that I was different from the others; or like, mayhap, in heart and life and longing, but shut out from their world by a vast veil. I had thereafter no desire to tear down that veil, to creep through; I held all beyond it in common contempt, and lived above it in a region of blue sky and great wandering shadows. That sky was bluest when I could beat my mates at examination-time, or beat them at a foot-race, or even beat their stringy heads. p. 124.
  • One ever feels his two-ness, — an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder. The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife, — this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He does not wish to Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa; he does not wish to bleach his Negro blood in a flood of white Americanism, for he believes — foolishly, perhaps, but fervently — that Negro blood has yet a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without losing the opportunity of self-development. p. 125.
  • To be a poor man is hard, but to be a poor race in a land of dollars is the very bottom of hardships. He felt the weight of his ignorance, — not simply of letters, but of life, of business, of the humanities; the accumulated sloth and shirking and awkwardness of decades and centuries shackled his hands and feet. Nor was his burden all poverty and ignorance. The red stain of bastardy, which two centuries of systematic legal defilement of Negro women had stamped upon his race, meant not only the loss of ancient African chastity, but also the hereditary weight of a mass of filth from white whoremongers and adulterers, threatening almost the obliteration of the Negro home. A people thus handicapped ought not to be asked to race with the world, but rather allowed to give all its time and thought to its own social problems. p. 126.
  • They still press on, they still nurse the dogged hope, — not a hope of nauseating patronage, not a hope of reception into charmed social circles of stock-jobbers, pork-packers, and earl-hunters, but the hope of a higher synthesis of civilization and humanity, a true progress, with which the chorus "Peace, good will to men,“ "May make one music as before, But vaster." Pages 126-127.
  • Learning Strategies
    • When I don’t understand something I should: ________
    • I don’t understand the terms or language used in class. I should: ____
    • I feel like I’m falling behind. I should: ___
    • I’m distracted. I should: _____
    • I’m bored. I should: ___
    • I’m sleepy. I should: _____
  • Community of Learners
    • We respect each other because…
      • It’s not fun being laughed at.
      • It’s not fun being ignored when I’m/you’re talking.
      • We’re here to learn, grow, and interact with our peers. It’s not fun sitting in class for over an hour when someone is acting foolish.
    • Non-negotiables
      • No sleeping or resting your head
      • No moving around the class without permission
      • Don’t arrive late. Other people might hang out in the hallways, but you can and will not .
      • Don’t stand by the door waiting for the bell to ring.
      • No swearing.
  • Groups Brendan, Jada, Jazmin, Valerie, Felicia Gina, Yashira, Jerry, Vintinita Santiago, Enrique, Gabriel, Miguel, Isabel, Itxel, Jacob, Luka, Natasha, Goran, Diana, Ryan Eric, Kathy, Victor, Mike Caitlin, Yovana, Mercedez, Ashlea, Pedro Group Members 25 Pink Group Ch 16 Fabulous Divas Ch 15 Orange group ch 14 Super Team Ch 13 The A-Team Ch 12 The Jiebers Ch 11 Group Name 25 25 25 25 25 Summary Group Points
  • Today’s Lesson and Strategy
    • Read the Atlanta Comprise Speech
    • Identify the distinguishing features of the period. (Historical Markers that tell you that you’re in the 1800s).
    • Identify the focus of the speech.
      • Outline the speech
      • What’s his argument?
  • Model
  • Guided Practice
  • Assessment
  • Independent Practice
  • Differentiated Instruction for grade, skill and language differences
  • Reflect on what you learned
    • Review the learning objective.
    • Did you meet the objective? Yes or no.
    • If yes, how do you know you met the objective?
    • If no, how do you know you did not meet the objective?
    • What do you want to learn more about this subject?
    • What can Mrs. Navejar do to make this lesson more interesting?
  • Objectives – Summarize in your note book
    • Academic Standard
    • Content Standard
    • Performance Standard
    • I’m learning: ________
    • I will know I learned because I can: ___
    • I want to know: _____
    • I want to know more about: _____
  • Learning Strategies
    • When I don’t understand something I should: ________
    • I don’t understand the terms or language used in class. I should: ____
    • I feel like I’m falling behind. I should: ___
    • I’m distracted. I should: _____
    • I’m bored. I should: ___
    • I’m sleepy. I should: _____
  • Community of Learners
    • We respect each other because…
      • It’s not fun being laughed at.
      • It’s not fun being ignored when I’m/you’re talking.
      • We’re here to learn, grow, and interact with our peers. It’s not fun sitting in class for over an hour when someone is acting foolish.
    • Non-negotiables
      • No sleeping or resting your head
      • No moving around the class without permission
      • Don’t arrive late. Other people might hang out in the hallways, but you can and will not .
      • Don’t stand by the door waiting for the bell to ring.
      • No swearing.
  • Today’s Lesson and Strategy
  • Model
  • Guided Practice
  • Assessment
  • Independent Practice
  • Differentiated Instruction for grade, skill and language differences
  • Reflect on what you learned
    • Review the learning objective.
    • Did you meet the objective? Yes or no.
    • If yes, how do you know you met the objective?
    • If no, how do you know you did not meet the objective?
    • What do you want to learn more about this subject?
    • What can Mrs. Navejar do to make this lesson more interesting?