The Founders Intent
Rule of Law
French Revolution 1789 Nationalsozialismus
National Socialism (Nazi)
Total Government Control by Any
25-50 million killed
13 Million killed
Total Government Control by Any
1-2 million killed
1-1.5 million killed
1-1.5 million killed
Fascism was an authoritarian political movement that developed in Italy
and other European countries after 1919 as another form of socialism to
the political and social changes brought about by World War I and the
spread of revolutionary socialism and communism. Its name was derived
from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a
bundle of rods and an ax.
Fascist ideology, largely the work of the neo-idealist philosopher Giovanni
Gentile, emphasized the subordination of the individual to a “totalitarian”
state that was to control all aspects of national life. Violence as a creative
force was an important aspect of the Fascist philosophy. A special feature
of Italian fascism was the attempt to eliminate the class struggle from
history through nationalism and the corporate state.
Italian fascism was founded in Milan on 23 Mar 1919, by Benito Mussolini, a
former revolutionary socialist leader. His followers, mostly war veterans,
were organized along paramilitary lines and wore black shirts as uniforms.
The early Fascist program was a left wing group of ideas that emphasized
intense nationalism, productivism, antisocialism, elitism, and the need for
a strong leader.
per la Sicurezza
Hitler’s Rise to Power in Germany
Germany’s defeat in World War I left the German people demoralized and without a strong
TheWeimar Republic government was seen as weak and ineffective.
In 1919, Communist uprisings broke out in several German cities.
Nazi critics feared that the Social Democrats would take over industry and break up large estates.
Nationalists and militarists wanted to rebuild Germany’s army, which theTreaty ofVersailles forbade.
In 1923, hyperinflation drove Germany to near economic collapse. During the worldwide economic
depression that began in 1929, banks and businesses failed and unemployment soared in Germany.
Hitler and the Nazi Party blamed Germany’s problems on the Jews and claimed that the Germans were a
superior people—Aryan race. These racist ideas led to extreme nationalism.
1923 Nazis fail in attempt to overthrow the Bavarian government. Hitler is jailed and writes Mein Kampf.
1924 Hitler becomes German chancellor. Third Reich is created, and Hitler transforms Germany into a
One of the most important political tracts of the 20th century, Mein Kampf (My Battle or
Struggle, 1924 and 1926; Eng. Trans., 1939) is considered the bible of
Nationalsozialismus—Nazism. Written by Adolf Hitler while he served a sentence in
Landsberg Prison, the book presents Hitler’s major ideas on anti-Semitism, anti-
Communism, superiority of the Aryan race, German nationalism, the state’s superiority
over the individual, and Hitler’s feelings of hostility for freedom and miscegenation. The
importance of the book, which calls for German domination of Europe is derived from
the notoriety of its author rather than from his logical presentation of National Socialist
The Stalin Years
Lenin died in 1924, and a struggle for leadership began between Joseph Stalin and Leon
Trotsky. As secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist party, Stalin stripped
Trotsky of power and exiled him in 1928.
Stalin continued Lenin’s New Economic Plan (NEP) until 1928. Fearing the entrenchment
of a capitalist class in agriculture, however, he initiated the First Five-Year Plan. The plan
called for rapid growth in heavy industry and collectivization of agriculture.
Rapid and forced collectivization of agriculture resulted in great inefficiencies, the
deportation of millions of the wealthier peasants, and confiscation of grain. Rather than
yield their livestock to the new collectives, many farmers slaughtered them. A man-made
famine resulted. In 1932, about 3 million people died of starvation in the Ukraine alone.
Nevertheless, when the First Five-Year Plan ended in 1932, the government announced
that great progress had been made. Peasant resistance had been smashed, and the
country was on the road to industrialization.
Stalin meanwhile tightened his grip on the government and the Red Army by means of a
series of purges. In 1935 and 1936, nearly 500,000 people were executed, imprisoned, or
forced into labor camps (gulags). He further consolidated his position through the Great
Purge trials of 1936-39. Through this system, Stalin eliminated his rivals. He
systematically employed the services of the secret police Komitet gosudarstvennoy
bezopasnosti (later known as the KGB) to root out “political criminals.”
Prelude to Dictatorship Venn Diagram
Prelude to Dictatorship Quiz
1. Name a dictator and the amount of people
executed during their reign of terror.
2. Who was the founder of fascism and who
implemented Italian fascism?
3. Name one of the contributing factors that
led toAdolf Hitler’s rise to power.
4. What was the book that was considered
Hitler’s bible for Nazism?
5. What did Josef Stalin do to consolidate
power in government and the Red Army?
Why do wars occur?
Countries are wronged by another
Nations compete over natural
Individuals demand greater political
and economic freedom.
We will study 3 aspects of WWII
The war in Europe against
Germany and Italy
The war in Asia with Japan
The home front
What caused WWII in Europe?
back what she lost
Great Britain and
France gave Hitler
land w/o fighting for
one reason he
was simply to kill the
Jews living there.
Treaty of Versailles – end of WWI
The main points of
the Treaty [BRAT]
1. Germany had
to accept the
starting the war
2. Germany paid
the damage done
during the war.
3. Germany was
forbidden to have
submarines or an
air force. She
could have a navy
an Army of just
Depression in 1920s Europe
Economy was bad in Europe
WWI killed a lot of workers and
After years of humiliation and
starvation, Germans looked for a
NAZIs elected to power!
Nazis promised to
build up their army
and get revenge for
This is Adolf Hitler in
1933 with the
His thugs to convince
the people his way
Mussolini (Italy) Hitler (Germany)
Germany late 1930s
This is Berlin
Appeasement – Hitler wanted
land, Britain and France let
him have it without war
Reign End Ruler
1901 Jan 22 -1910 EdwardVII
1910 May 6 -1936 GeorgeV
1936 Jan 20 - Dec 10 abdicated EdwardVIII
1936 Dec 10 -1952 GeorgeVI
1952 Feb 6 - present Elizabeth II
Prelude to World War II Concept
Hitler’s Solution toTreaty
Great Depression,Totalitarianism, Foreign Policy
Prelude to World War II Quiz
1. Name a reason countries go to war.
2. Name a cause of war in Europe.
3. What were the terms of theVersaillesTreaty
concerning the size of Germany’s military?
4. What was the name of Hitler’s paramilitary
5. How did Germany escape the Great
Hitler Rearms Germany and
German chancellor Adolf Hitler abandoned the efforts of his predecessors to ease the
provisions of the Versailles Treaty through a policy of reconciliation with the World War I
victors. Instead, he unilaterally tore up the treaty. Hitler took Germany out of the League
of Nations in 1933 and began a massive program to build up the German army, navy, and
air force. In March 1935, he restored universal military service. The democracies did not
react, and Britain even concluded a naval agreement with Germany in 1935 that permitted
greater German naval strength than that allowed by the Versailles Treaty. In 1936, Hitler
sent troops into the demilitarized zone.
Almost immediately afterward, the Nazi regime began agitating on behalf of the Sudeten
Germans—who lived in pockets of western Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland—
claiming that they were a persecuted minority. The Czech government made numerous
concessions to the Sudeten Germans, but in September 1938, Hitler demanded the
immediate cession of the Sudetenland to Germany. On 29-30 Sep, Britain and France
(Czechoslovakia’s ally) agreed at the Munich Conference to yield to Hitler, who promised to
make no further territorial demands in Europe. Czechoslovakia was excluded from
participation at Munich. Unlike Austria, Czechoslovakia was democratic, and its president,
Eduard Benes, was prepared to resist Hitler, but the two western European democracies
insisted on submission.
World War II
World War II commenced as a localized conflict in eastern Europe and expanded until it
merged with a confrontation in the Far East to form a global war of immense
proportions. The war began in Europe on 1 Sep 1939, when Germany attacked Poland,
and ended on 2 Sep 1945, with the formal surrender of Japan aboard the U.S. battleship
USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. Involving most of the world’s major powers as belligerents, it
also included many smaller states and had a great impact on neutral nations. The
victorious Allies included Great Britain and the Commonwealth, France, the United
States, the USSR, and China. The losing side comprised Germany, Italy, and Japan, as
well as smaller nations. The opponents clashed in two major areas: Europe, including
the coast of North Africa and the North Atlantic; and Asia, including the Central and
Southwest Pacific, China, Burma, and Japan. The belligerents fought over the central
issue of Axis expansion, which was halted at the cost of many millions of military and
World War II
Action Eastern Europe Pearl Harbor
Attacker Germany Japan
Invaded Poland U.S. territory-
Means Blitzkrieg- land
Results Beginning ofWorld
U.S. entry into
German Attack on Poland
On 1 Sep, 1939, the German military machine struck decisively at Poland, in what was
known as a blitzkrieg (lightning war). High-speed panzer (tank) units pushed across the
borders, blasting holes in the Polish lines. From the skies, Luftwaffe (air force) bombers
destroyed the Polish air force, damaged communications lines, and prevented the Poles
from moving reinforcements, supplies, and ammunition to the front lines. Then German
foot soldiers moved forward to hold the conquered ground. Meanwhile, Britain and
France declared war on Germany on 3 Sep.
Lend Lease Act
FDR sent war
Britain and the
This is a
The U.S. Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, at President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s
request, in March 1941. Designed to allow Britain and China to draw on the industrial
resources of the then-nonbelligerent United States in World War II, the measure
authorized the president to transfer, lease, or lend “any defense article” to “the
government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of
the United States.” The bill was opposed by isolationists, such as Sen. Burton K.
Wheeler of Montana, who termed it “the New Deal’s triple A foreign policy; it will plow
under every fourth American boy.” Still it passed the House by a vote of 260 to 5 and
the Senate, by 60 to 31. By 21 Aug 1945, when the program was terminated, almost $50
billion in Lend-Lease aid had been shipped to Britain, the USSR, China, and other Allied
nations. From September 1942, the United States received “reverse lend-lease” from
the British Commonwealth and the Free French in the form of $8 billion worth of goods
and services provided to U.S. forces overseas. Financial settlements were made after
the war, until 1972.
In no time,
Tough cold winters killed
many NAZI troops in USSR.
dead, yet no
WWII Quiz (European Involvement)
German Actions European/U.S.Actions
WWII Quiz (European Involvement)
1. Name the 2 countries that Germany invaded beforeWWII
2. What was the lightning warfare that Germany developed?
3. What is the diplomatic term for “giving in?”
4. What is the U.S. policy to give European allies the
5. After Hitler conquered continental Europe, what defense
complex did he create?
Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.
America enters WWII.
December 7, 1941
Germany and Italy declared war immediately
after Pearl Harbor.
Germany, Italy and Japan made a deal to help
each other in case one was attacked.
The Allies were the USA, Great Britain, and
the Soviet Union (USSR).These are called the
In addition British and French colonies and
U.S. territories of these countries.
These included China, Canada, Australia,
France, Poland and others.
The U.S. demanded that Japan withdraw
from China and Indochina
Japanese military thought that attacking the
U.S. would provide them an easy win, and a
territory with abundant land and resources to
rule once they were victorious. The Japanese
thought that the U.S. foreign policy of
isolationism was cowardice.
The U.S. oil embargo against Japan was
hurting Japan’s economy
The United States expected the first blow to be in the Philippines or Southeast Asia.
Japan had made plans for a devastating aerial strike against the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl
Harbor, in the Hawaiian Islands. In late November, a powerful Japanese task force left the
Kuril Islands; on 2 Dec, it received a coded message issuing the attack order-Tora, Tora,
Tora (Tiger, Tiger, Tiger). The undetected Japanese force arrived off the Hawaiian Islands
on the morning of 7 Dec. In two successive waves more than 350 Japanese bombers,
torpedo planes, and fighters struck. Altogether, 18 U.S. ships were sunk or disabled. At
one stroke, U.S. naval power in the Pacific was crippled. Fortunately for the Americans,
their aircraft carriers were on missions elsewhere. The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps lost
2,117 men, the Army lost 218, and 68 civilians were killed. More than 1,200 were
wounded. About 200 aircraft were destroyed, most on the ground. The Japanese lost 29
The next day President Roosevelt told a joint session of Congress that 7 Dec was “a date
which will live in infamy.” Congress voted to declare war on Japan. On 11 Dec, Germany
and Italy declared war on the United States.
- Fleet of 6 Aircraft Carriers under the
command of Admiral Nagumo and Admiral
- Aerial Assault Force under the command of
- Pearl Harbor Naval/Army Base under the
command of Admiral Husband E. Kimmel
and Lt. General Walter C. Short
5 PHASE ATTACK BY JAPANESE…
(as noted by the U.S. Navy)
PHASE 1: Combined torpedo plane and dive bomber
attacks lasting from 7:55 a.m. to 8:25 a.m.
PHASE 2: Lull in attacks lasting from 8:25 - 8:40
PHASE 3: Horizontal bomber attacks from 8:40 –
PHASE 4: Dive bomber attacks between 9:15-9:45
PHASE 5: Warning of attacks and completion of raid
after 9:45 a.m.
Commander Mitsuo Fuchida
“Veering right toward the west coast of the
island, we could see that the sky over Pearl
Harbor was clear. Presently the harbor itself
became visible across the central Oahu plain,
a film of morning mist hovering over it. I
peered intently through my binoculars at the
ships riding peacefully at anchor. One by one
I counted them. Yes, the battleships were
there all right, eight of them! But our last
lingering hope of finding any carriers present
was now gone. Not one was to be seen.”
Warfare Used During Attack
- 81 Fighter Planes
- 135 Dive Bombers
- 104 Horizontal Bombers
- 40Torpedo Planes
- At least 5 Midget Submarines
- 108 Fighter Planes (59 not available for flight)
- 35 Army Bombers (27 not available for flight)
- 993 Army/Navy Antiaircraft Guns
- Less then 100 men
- 29 planes
- 5 midget submarines
- 2,335 servicemen killed, 68 civilians killed, 1,178
- 188 planes
- 18 ships (8 battleships, 3 light cruisers, 3 destroyers,
4 other vessels)
USS Arizona Burning: 1,100+
servicemen died on the ship
Marine Corporal E.C. Nightingale
“I was about three quarters of the way to the
first platform on the mast when it seemed as
though a bomb struck our quarterdeck. I
could hear shrapnel or fragments whistling
past me. As soon as I reached the first
platform, I saw Second Lieutenant Simonson
lying on his back with blood on his shirt
front. I bent over him…He was dead…”
Lt. Ruth Erickson, USN (Nurse)
“The first patient came into our dressing
room at 8:25 a.m. with a large opening in
his abdomen and bleeding profusely. They
started an intravenous and transfusion. I
can still see the tremor of Dr. Brunson’s
hand as he picked up the needle. Everyone
was terrified. The patient died within the
Japan dealt a seemingly crippling blow to the U.S.
Pacific fleet (U.S. Pacific Fleet aircraft carriers:
Lexington, Enterprise, & Saratoga were not in port)
Japan began their quest for a Pacific empire
The U.S. finally was forced to join World War II
(“The Sleeping Giant was awakened”)
The U.S. & Great Britain declare war on Japan (Dec.
Germany & Italy declare war on the U.S. (Dec. 11,
December 8, 1941 FDR Speech
“Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - A date which will live
in infamy – the United States of America was
suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval
and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”
WWII Asian Theater U.S.
Involvement and Pearl Harbor
Causes Plan and Preparation Execution and Results
WWII Asian Theater and U.S.
1. What were the Japanese after while setting up their
2. What was the understood U.S. policy concerning
3. What happened on 7 Dec 1941?
4. Who were the major combatants in the attack on
5. What did FDR say 7 Dec 1941 was?
Resistance Movement against
Operation Walküre (Valkyrie)
The 20 July plot of 1944 was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of the Third Reich, inside his
Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia. The plot was the culmination of the efforts of
several groups in the German Resistance to overthrow the Nazi regime. The failure of both the assassination
and the military coup d'état which was planned to follow it led to the arrest of at least 7,000 people by the
Gestapo. According to records of the Führer Conferences on Naval Affairs, 4,980 people were executed,
resulting in the destruction of the organized resistance movement in Germany.
TheWolf's Lair conference
room soon after the explosion
Claus Philipp Maria Justinian
Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg was
a German army officer and Catholic
aristocrat who was one of the
leading members of the failed 20
July plot of 1944 to assassinate
Adolf Hitler and remove the Nazi
Party from power. Along with
Henning von Tresckow and Hans
Oster, he was one of the central
figures of the German Resistance
movement within the Wehrmacht.
For his involvement in the
movement he was shot shortly after
the failed attempt known as
Resistance Movement against
Die Weisse Rose (TheWhite Rose)
A non-violent/intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany, consisting of students from the University of
Munich and their philosophy professor. The group became known for an anonymous leaflet campaign,
lasting from June 1942 until February 1943, that called for active opposition to dictator Adolf Hitler's regime.
The six core members of the group were arrested by the Gestapo (German secret police) and they were
executed by decapitation in 1943. The text of their sixth leaflet was smuggled by Helmuth James Graf von
Moltke out of Germany through Scandinavia to the United Kingdom, and in July 1943 copies of it were
dropped over Germany by Allied planes, retitled "The Manifesto of the Students of Munich.” Another
member, Hans Conrad Leipelt, who helped distribute Leaflet 6 in Hamburg, was executed on January 29,
1945 for his participation.Today, the members of the White Rose are honored in Germany amongst its
greatest heroes, since they opposed theThird Reich in the face of certain death.
Members of theWhite Rose, Munich 1942. From left: Hans
Scholl, his sister Sophie Scholl, and Christoph Probst.
Resistance Movement against
Bonhoeffer went into hiding for the next two years; he traveled secretly from one eastern
German village to another to help his students in their small illegal parishes. In January 1938,
he was banned from Berlin, and in September 1940, he was forbidden to speak in public.
In the midst of political turmoil, Bonhoeffer continued to question the proper role of a
Christian in Nazi Germany. When German synagogues and Jewish businesses were burned
and demolished on Kristallnacht, November 9, 1938, Bonhoeffer immediately left for Berlin,
despite having been banned by the Gestapo, to investigate the destruction. After his return,
when his students were discussing the theological significance of Kristallnacht, Bonhoeffer
rejected the theory that Kristallnacht had resulted from "the curse which had haunted the
Jews since Jesus' death on the cross." Instead, Bonhoeffer called the pogrom an example of
the "sheer violence" of Nazism's "godless face.”
The Confessing Church resistance expanded its efforts to help "non-Aryan" refugees leave
the country. One member of the resistance movement was the passionate anti-Nazi, Hans
von Dohnanyi, a lawyer married to Bonhoeffer's sister. In early 1939, Dohnanyi was
transferred from the Justice Department to the Armed Forces High Command Office of
Military Intelligence, and used his new post to inform Bonhoeffer that war was imminent.
Bonhoeffer, knowing that he would never fight in Hitler’s
Resistance Movement against
Who stands firm? Only the one for whom the final
standard is not his reason, his principles, his conscience,
his freedom, his virtue, but who is ready to sacrifice all
these, when in faith and sole allegiance to God he is
called to obedient and responsible action: the responsible
person, whose life will be nothing but an answer to God's
question and call.
— Dietrich Bonhöffer
Resistance Movement against
Dietrich Bonhöffer (cont’d)
army, left the country in June 1939 for a teaching position at Union Seminary in NewYork.
But upon arrival in the United States, Bonhoeffer realized that he had been mistaken, that if
he did not lead his people during the difficult years of war and turmoil, then he could not
partake in the postwar revival of German Christan life. His place, he decided, was in
Germany; he returned only a month after his departure, in July 1939. He undertook a more
active effort to undermine the regime. With international contacts in the ecumenical
movement, he became a crucial leader in the German underground movement.
In October 1940, despite previous Gestapo tracking, Bonhoeffer gained employment as an
agent for Hans von Dohnanyi's Office of Military Intelligence, supposedly working for the
expansion of Nazism. In reality, he worked for the expansion of the anti-Nazi resistance.
During his 1941 and 1942 visits to Italy, Switzerland, and the Scandinavian countries, he
attempted to gain foreign support for the resistance movement. Bonhöffer was hanged
naked with other Nazi political prisoners at Flossenburg concentration camp two weeks
before its liberation by the U.S. 98th and 99th Infantry divisions.
An ethnic German industrialist born in Moravia. He is credited with saving almost
1,200 Jews during the Holocaust by employing them in his enamelware and
ammunitions factories, which were located in what is now Poland and the Czech
Republic respectively. He is the subject of the novel Schindler's Ark, and the film
based on it, Schindler's List.
As the Red Army drew nearer to Auschwitz concentration camp and the other
easternmost concentration camps, the SS began evacuating the remaining
prisoners westward. Schindler persuaded the SS officials to allow him to move his
1,100 Jewish workers to Brněnec (German: Brünnlitz) in the German-speaking
Sudetenland province (currently in the Czech Republic), thus sparing the Jews
from certain death in the extermination camps. In Brněnec, he gained another
former Jewish factory, where he was supposed to produce shells and hand
grenades for the war effort. However, during the months that this factory was
running, he would secretly not allow a single weapon produced to be up to
standards, and thus not fit for use in war. Hence Schindler made no money; rather,
his previously earned fortune grew steadily smaller as he bribed officials and cared
for his workers
"He who saves a single
soul, saves the world
entire" The Jewish
Schindler’s ring given to
him by the Jews at
Resistance Movement against
Martin Niemöller was a German pastor and theologian
born in Lippstadt, Germany, in 1892. Niemöller was an
anti-Communist and supported Hitler's rise to power at
first. But when Hitler insisted on the supremacy of the
state over religion, Niemöller became disillusioned. He
became the leader of a group of German clergymen
opposed to Hitler. Unlike Niemöller, they gave in to the
Nazis' threats. In 1937 he was arrested and eventually
confined in the Sachsenhausen and Dachau concentration
camps. His crime was "not being enthusiastic enough
about the Nazi movement." Niemöller was released in
1945 by the Allies. He continued his career in Germany as
a clergyman and as a leading voice of penance and
reconciliation for the German people after World War II.
His statement, sometimes presented as a poem, is well-
known, frequently quoted, and is a popular model for
describing the dangers of political apathy, as it often
begins with specific and targeted fear and hatred which
soon escalates out of control.
Resistance Movement against
First they came for the communists, and I
didn't speak out because I wasn't a
communist. Then they came for the trade
unionists, and I didn't speak out because I
wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for
the Jews, and I didn't speak out because I
wasn't a Jew. Then they came for me and
there was no one left to speak out for me.
- Pastor Martin Niemöller
Resistance Movement against
Nazism Graphic Organizer
Pastor Martin NiemöllerDietrich Bonöffer
Nazi Resistance Quiz
1. What was the plot to blow Hitler up at hisWolf’s Lair?
2. What was the organization of university students that
resisted Hitler’s Nazism?
3. Who questioned a Christian’s role in the fight against
1. What industrialist smuggled Jews out of concentration
camps into his personal industries?
2. Who wrote the poem, “FirstThey Came . . . ?”
WWII Timeline Quiz
1. What event precipitated the end ofWorld
B.The unconditional surrender of Germany
C.Hitler commits suicide
D.Atomic bombs are dropped on Hiroshima and
Roosevelt had begun establishing mobilization agencies in 1939, but none had sufficient
power or authority to bring order out of the chaos generated as industry converted to
war production. He therefore created the War Production Board in January 1942 to
coordinate mobilization, and in 1943 an Office of War Mobilization was established to
supervise the host of defense agencies that had sprung up in Washington, D.C.
Gradually, a priorities system was devised to supply defense plants with raw materials; a
synthetic rubber industry was developed from scratch; rationing conserved scarce
resources; and the Office of Price Administration kept inflation under control.
Hailed at the time as a production miracle, this increase was about equal to what the
country would have produced in peacetime before the depression, assuming full
employment. War production might have risen even higher if regulation of civilian
consumption and industry had been stricter.
Scientists, under the direction of the Office of Scientific Research and Development,
played a more important role in production than in any previous war, making gains in
rocketry, radar and sonar, and other areas. Among the new inventions was the proximity
fuse, which contained a tiny radio that detonated an artillery shell in the vicinity of its
target, making a direct hit unnecessary. Of greatest importance was the atomic bomb,
developed by scientists in secrecy and first tested on 6 Jul 1945.
The military was segregated, but black Americans
served. The Redball Express which was the
supply line from the front to the rear would not
have existed without black Americans.
Women in Forces
Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (later the
Women's Army Corps orWAC),
Women Accepted forVolunteer Military
Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP)
How did USA pay for this
war? Our budget was on
Internment Camps- How did they
FDR made the statement
“We don’t want any
incident that happened
in NY harbor prior to
WWI. (Ch. 9)
Because of the fear of
saboteurs and terrorists
German and Japanese
Americans were rounded
up and placed into
Internment of Japanese and
USA was afraid if Japan
or Germany were to
attack the coasts,
Japanese and German
Americans would help
ordered them to move
Japanese family tagged
and documented for
CrystalCity,Texas Family Internment Camp, inaccurately
stated that only Japanese American civilian prisoners
were held at this site duringWorldWar II. A Texas
HistoricalCommission marker now clarifies that German
and Japanese Latin Americans and at least one Italian
LatinAmerican family were housed here, too, as were
German and Japanese American families.
Joint Japanese and German American work crewCrystal
City Women sewing in CrystalCityInternee men at lunch, CrystalCityFt. Lincoln, Bismarck, ND in 1941
World War II largely obliterated feminist activism on any continent. The war did open
employment opportunities for women—from working in factories (“Rosie the Riveter”
became an American icon) to playing professional baseball– but these doors of
opportunity were largely closed after the war, when women routinely lost their jobs to
men discharged from military service. This turn of events angered many women, but few
were willing to mount any organized protest.
Shortly after the outbreak of hostilities between Japan and the United States (7 Dec 1941),
when more than 100,000 Japanese and Japanese-Americans on the West Coast were taken
into custody and placed in camps in the interior.
Rationing is a government policy consisting of the planned and restrictive allocation of
scarce resources and consumer goods, that was practiced during World War II. Informal
rationing, which precedes the imposition of formal controls, may consist of admonitions to
consumers to reduce their consumption or of independent action taken by suppliers in
allocating scarce supplies. Rationing by quantity may limit the hours during which the
commodity is available or may assign quotas of a commodity to all known and approved
claimants. Point rationing assigns a point value to each commodity and allocates a certain
number of points to each consumer.
The Home Front
American Involvement and
Home Front Graphic Organizer
Home FrontInternment CampsWorkforce
Home Front Quiz
1. What did FDR create to coordinate America’s mobilization for WWII?
2. What segment of the population joined the war production to fill in
for the men at war?
3. What was theWWI terrorist attack that sparked internment camps
and why did the USA intern the German and Japanese Americans?
4. What was the black American U.S. Army Air Corps squadron that was
highly decorated duringWWII?
5. What did the government do to ensure essential food, commodities
and fuel went to the war effort?
D-Day- Operation Overlord
As they prepared for a cross-Channel assault on France, the Western Allies built up on British
soil one of the largest and most powerful invasion forces in history. For two months before
the landing, while troops, equipment, and supplies poured into Britain, the Allied air forces
bombed railroads, bridges, airfields, and fortifications, in France and Belgium and continued
their attacks on German industrial centers.
Postponed by delays in gathering the necessary landing equipment and by weather and tidal
conditions, Operation Overlord, with Eisenhower in command, began on 6 Jun 1944,
afterward known as D-Day (Normandy Invasion). Throughout the preceding night,
paratroopers were dropped behind German coastal defenses to sever communications and
seize key defense posts. Hundreds of warships and innumerable small craft supported the
Between 0630 and 0730, waves of Allied troops moved ashore between Cherbourg and Le
Havre in history’s largest amphibious operation, involving approximately 5,000 ships of all
kinds. About 11,000 Allied aircraft operated over the invasion area. More than 150,000
troops disembarked at Normandy on D-Day. Because all major ports in the north were
mined and fortified, the Allies improvised two artificial harbors, with pontoons, breakwaters,
and sunken ships. One of the harbors was destroyed by a severe Atlantic gale, but the other
worked perfectly. Twenty pipelines below the Channel were used to bring in critical
D-Day- Operation Overlord
supplies of gasoline for the tanks.
The Germans had anticipated an Allied invasion of western Europe at about this time
but were surprised by its location. GEN Gerd von Rundstedt, commander of German
forces in the west had expected the Allies to take the shortest water route and land at
Pas de Calais. A British intelligence operation called Ultra, having broken key German
ciphers (Enigma), learned of his misapprehension. To capitalize on the situation, the
Allies stationed a phantom army in Kent, England commanded by LTG George S. Patton
(the most feared American general by the Germans) that reinforced Rundstedt’s
mistaken opinion. It may also have influenced Hitler to decide against sending panzer
divisions to Normandy, a decision that greatly facilitated the landing and the
establishment of beachheads.
Yet the Germans struck back vigorously. For more than a month, they resisted while
Allied forces were being built up on the crowded beaches. The defenders were under a
severe handicap, however, because Hitler had been forced to send many of his troops
from France to the eastern front, where the Soviets were on the offensive.
European Theater Quiz
1. Where did the Allies decide to attack Hitler’s
Atlantikwall: Fortress Europa?
2. What was the military operational name for D-Day?
3. What was the date of D-Day?
4. What was the name of the meeting that planned the
end of the war with Germany?
5. What was the name of the day that Germany
Midway- the Turning Point
The Japanese quickly rallied their forces after the defeat at the Coral Sea. The Naval
General Staff, seeking to stretch Japan’s outer perimeter eastward and destroy what was
left of the U.S. Navy in the Pacific, decided to strike at the island of Midway. About 1,100
mi. northwest of Pearl Harbor, Midway was regarded as the sentry for Hawaii. The
Japanese hoped to make it a key outpost of their new perimeter. The Naval Command
organized the largest naval operation in its history, assembling a task force of 200 ships
and 600 planes.
Counting on total surprise, Japanese strategists were certain that this huge force was
more than enough to destroy what remained of the U.S. fleet in the Pacific. Its
effectiveness was undermined, however, by U.S. intelligence, which consistently broke
Japanese codes and ciphers during the war, giving the Americans advance warning of
every step taken by the task force.
On the afternoon of 3 Jun 1942, a patrol plane sighted the Japanese force approaching
Midway. The next day a hundred Japanese bombers took off from their carriers and
headed for Midway. In wait for the invaders was a strong force of American torpedo
planes and fighters. The U.S. aircraft rose from the decks of the Hornet, Yorktown, and
Enterprise and sank 4 Japanese carriers. Appalled by the loss of his carriers, ADM
Yamamoto Isoroku turned back his great armada.
Midway- the Turning Point
against Japan (cont’d)
U.S. planes pursued the retiring ships, inflicting great damage. Within 4 days, Japanese
losses, in addition to the 4 aircraft carriers, included 2 heavy cruisers and 3 destroyers
heavily damaged and 322 planes (280 on sinking carriers). The Americans paid a heavy
price, also, losing the carrier Yorktown, a destroyer, and 147 aircraft. Midway remained in
American hands, and the Japanese fleet was so severely damaged that Japan’s war effort
changed from an offensive thrust to a holding operation.
Battle for Midway Island
Battle for Iwo Jima
Island hopping became a
fact of the war with
Island Hopping is the
process of attacking
Pacific islands held by
the Japanese empire
with the ultimate goal
being the island of Japan
Died: 6800 US 20000
This flag raising was a
serious morale boost to
soldiers on the island.
This plane dropped an atom bomb
on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Designation Mk-I "Little Boy” Mk-III "Fat Man"
Width 28 in. 60.25 in.
Length 120 in. 128 in.
Weight 8,900 lb. 10,300 lb.
Yield 15 - 16 Kt 21 Kt
In essence, the Little Boy
design consisted of a gun
that fired one mass of
uranium 235 at another
mass of uranium 235, thus
creating a supercritical
mass. A crucial requirement
was that the pieces be
brought together in a time
shorter than the time
fissions. Once the two
pieces of uranium are
brought together, the
initiator introduces a burst
of neutrons and the chain
reaction begins, continuing
until the energy released
becomes so great that the
bomb simply blows itself
Why drop the Atomic Bomb?
The Japanese had shown they would fight to
the last man, woman and child.
The atomic bomb saved as many as 1 million
U.S. lives, and possibly many millions of
HarryTruman said he dropped the bomb to
end the war.
Japan surrenders 15 Aug 1945
Victory over Japan Day (VJ Day)
Pacific Theater Quiz
1. What cities were nuclear bombed?
The Assassination of a War Hero
General George S. Patton, perhaps the most popular of the American generals,
immediately opposed the total or partial application of the Morgenthau Plan (the
imposed starvation of the German populace) in his sector of occupation. Soon, he had a
run-in with another general of higher rank: General Eisenhower. It's well-known what
extremely violent debates they had about how the civilian population of Germany was to
be treated. Patton was SENTENCEDTO DEATH by the directors of the scenario.
Patton’s desire to invade the USSR after WWII was not popular either. He did not trust
the Russians and realized that we needed eliminate a threat that would haunt us until
1989 when the Cold War ended with the collapse of the USSR. The communist infiltrated
administration of Roosevelt had given the final invasion of the German capital to the
Russians by withholding Patton’s poised army.
On the 21st of April 1945, his airplane on which he was being transported to General
Headquarters of the Third Army in Feldfield (England) was attacked by what was assumed
to be a German fighter-bomber, but it turned out to be a "Spitfire" piloted by an inexpert
Polish pilot. Patton's plane was shot up, but was miraculously able to land. On the 3rd of
May, some days before the end of the war, the General's jeep was charged by an ox-
drawn cart, leaving Patton with light injuries.
The Assassination of a War Hero
October 13, 1945 was when the collision with the truck occurred. When Patton appeared to be
getting better from the accident, the "heart attack" occurred. The fact is that after October 13
only the doctors saw Patton, forbidding any other visitors.
Until recently, it was only speculation that Patton had been assassinated. Now it is known for a
fact. And it is know for a very simple reason. Because an agent of the well-known OSS (Office
of Strategic Services, forerunner for the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA) or American military
spy, a certain Douglas Bazata, a Jew of Lebanese origin, announced it in front of 450 invited
guests; high ranking, ex-members of the OSS, in the Hilton Hotel in Washington, the 25th of
September, 1979. Bazata said, word-for-word:
"For divers political reasons, many extremely high-ranking persons hated Patton. I know who
killed him. Because I am the one who was hired to do it. Ten thousand dollars. General William
[“Wild Bill”] Donovan himself, director of the O.S.S, entrusted me with the mission. I set up the
accident. Since he didn't die in the accident, he was kept in isolation in the hospital, where he
was killed with an injection."
The tragic fate of Patton convinced other colleagues and their honorable compatriots of the
uselessness of fighting against the WAR POWERS. And if any doubts remained, the "Morgan
case" was enough to dissipate them.
- Company B, 15th Regiment,Third
-The Most Decorated Soldier in
World War II Military
USSR 22 million
China 11 million
Germany 7 million
Poland 7 million
U.S. 0.5 million
Great Britain 0.3 million
Japan 1.5 million
Former Nazi leaders were indicted and tried as war criminals by the International Military
Tribunal. The indictment lodged against them contained four counts: (1) crimes against
peace—i.e., the planning, initiating, and waging of wars of aggression in violation of
international treaties and agreements; (2) crimes against humanity—i.e., exterminations,
deportations, and genocide; (3) war crimes—i.e., violations of the laws of war; and (4) “a
common plan or conspiracy to commit” the criminal acts listed in the first three counts.
After 216 court sessions, on 1 Oct 1946, the verdict on 22 of the original 24 defendants was
handed down. (Robert Ley committed suicide while in prison, and Gustav Krupp von
Bohlen und Halbach’s mental and physical condition prevented his being tried.) Three of
the defendants were acquitted; Hjalmar Schacht, Franz von Papen, and Hans Fritzsche.
Four were sentenced to terms of imprisonment ranging from 10 to 20 years: Karl Dönitz,
Baldur von Schirach, Albert Speer, and Konstantin von Neurath. Three were sentenced to
life imprisonment: Rudolf Hess, Walther Funk, and Erich Räder. Twelve of the defendants
were sentenced to death by hanging. Ten of them, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Julius
Streicher, Alfred Rosenberg, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Fritz Sauckel,
Alfred Jodl, Wilhelm Keitel, and Arthur Seyss-Inquart, were hanged on 16 Oct 1946. Martin
Boormann was tried and condemned to death in absentia, and Hermann Göring
committed suicide before he could be executed.
Nuremberg Trials – Hitler's most trusted party
officials, government ministers, military leaders,
and powerful industrialists brought to trial for
crimes against humanity, crimes against the peace
and war crimes by U.S. Supreme Court Justice Robert
Post War Quiz
1. What war hero was assassinated by the
predecessor of the CIA—theOSS?
2. What was the importance of Midway Island
3. What was island hopping?
4. What legal proceedings were held afterWWII to
try Nazis for war crimes?