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Scaling Django Web Apps
                               Mike Malone




 djangocon 2009
Thursday, September 10, 2009
Thursday, September 10, 2009
Thursday, September 10, 2009
http://www.flickr.com/photos/kveton/2910536252/
Thursday, September 10, 2009
Thursday, September 10, 2009
Pownce

              • Large scale
                   •       Hundreds of requests/sec

                   •       Thousa...
Pownce

              • Encountered and eliminated many common
                     scaling bottlenecks
              • Re...
Scalability



Thursday, September 10, 2009
Scalability

  Scalability is NOT:
              • Speed / Performance
              • Generally affected by language choi...
A Scalable Application
import time

def application(environ, start_response):
    time.sleep(10)
    start_response('200 O...
A High Performance Application
def application(environ, start_response):
    remote_addr = environ['REMOTE_ADDR']
    f = ...
Scalability


           A scalable system doesn’t need to change when the
                       size of the problem chan...
Scalability

              • Accommodate increased usage
              • Accommodate increased data
              • Mainta...
Scalability

              • Two kinds of scalability
                   •       Vertical scalability: buying more powerfu...
Vertical Scalability

              • Costs don’t scale linearly (server that’s twice is
                     fast is more...
Vertical Scalability

 “    Sky scrapers are special. Normal
      buildings don’t need 10 floor
      foundations. Just bu...
Horizontal Scalability


           The ability to increase a system’s capacity by adding
                     more proces...
Horizontal Scalability



                       It’s how large apps are scaled.




 djangocon 2009                      ...
Horizontal Scalability

              • A lot more work to design, build, and maintain
              • Requires some plann...
Caching



Thursday, September 10, 2009
Caching

              • Several levels of caching available in Django
                   •       Per-site cache: caches e...
Caching

              • Low-level Cache API
                   •       Much more flexible, allows you to cache at any
    ...
Caching

              • Cache backends:
                   •       Memcached

                   •       Database caching...
Caching



                               Use Memcache.



 djangocon 2009                                24
Thursday, Sep...
Sessions



                               Use Memcache.



 djangocon 2009                                25
Thursday, Se...
Sessions


                                Or Tokyo Cabinet
                       http://github.com/ericflo/django-tokyo-s...
Caching
   Basic caching comes free with Django:
      from django.core.cache import cache

      class UserProfile(models...
Caching
   Invalidate when a model is saved or deleted:
      from django.core.cache import cache
      from django.db.mod...
Caching

              • Invalidate post_save, not pre_save
              • Still a small race condition
              • S...
Advanced Caching

              • Memcached’s atomic increment and decrement
                     operations are useful fo...
Advanced Caching

             • You can still use them if you poke at the
                     internals of the cache obj...
Advanced Caching

             • Other missing cache API
                   •       delete_multi & set_multi

            ...
Advanced Caching

             • It’s often useful to cache objects ‘forever’ (i.e.,
                     until you explic...
The Memcache Backend
 class CacheClass(BaseCache):
     def __init__(self, server, params):
         BaseCache.__init__(se...
The Memcache Backend
          class CacheClass(BaseCache):
              def __init__(self, server, params):
            ...
Advanced Caching
              • Typical setup has memcached running on web
                     servers
              • P...
Monkey Patching core.cache
   from django.core.cache import cache
   from django.utils.encoding import smart_str
   import...
Advanced Caching

              • Useful tool: automagic single object cache
              • Use a manager to check the ca...
Advanced Caching


                                 All this and more at:

                       http://github.com/mmalon...
Caching


               Now you’ve made life easier for your DB server,
                  next thing to fall over: your a...
Load Balancing



Thursday, September 10, 2009
Load Balancing
              • Out of the box, Django uses a shared nothing
                     architecture
            ...
Load Balancing
    Spread work between multiple
    nodes in a cluster using a load
    balancer.
                        ...
Load Balancing
              • Hardware load balancers
                   •       Expensive, like $35,000 each, plus maint...
Load Balancing
              • Most of these are layer 7 proxies, and some
                     software balancers do cool...
Load Balancing
   A common setup for large
   operations is to use
   redundant layer 4 hardware                   Hardwar...
Load Balancing

              • At Pownce, we used a single Perlbal balancer
                   •       Easily handled all...
Perlbal Reproxying


            Perlbal reproxying is a really cool, and really poorly
                           documen...
Perlbal Reproxying
        1. Perlbal receives request
        2. Redirects to App Server
              1. App server chec...
Perlbal Reproxying

              • Completely transparent to end user
              • Doesn’t keep large app server insta...
Perlbal Reproxying
Plus, it’s really easy:
 def download(request, filename):
   # Check auth, do your thing
   response = ...
Load Balancing


           Best way to reduce load on your app servers: don’t
                       use them to do hard ...
Queuing



Thursday, September 10, 2009
Queuing
              • A queue is simply a bucket that holds messages
                     until they are removed for pro...
Queuing
              • Lots of open source options for queuing
                   •       Ghetto Queue (MySQL + Cron)
   ...
Queuing
              • Lots of fancy features: brokers, exchanges,
                     routing keys, bindings...
       ...
Queuing

              • Pownce used a simple ghetto queue built on
                     MySQL / cron
                   •...
Django Standalone Scripts
    Consumers need to setup the Django environment

         from django.core.management import ...
THE DATABASE!



Thursday, September 10, 2009
The Database

              • Til now we’ve been talking about
                   •       Shared nothing

                ...
CAP Theorem

              • Three properties of a shared-data system
                   •       Consistency: all clients ...
CAP Theorem

              • Big long proof... here’s my version.
              • Empirically, seems to make sense.
      ...
CAP Theorem

              • The relational database systems we all use were
                     built with consistency a...
The Database

              • There are lots of non-relational databases
                     coming onto the scene
      ...
Denormalization



Thursday, September 10, 2009
Denormalization

              • Django encourages normalized data, which is
                     usually good
           ...
Denormalization

              • Start with a normalized database
              • Selectively denormalize things as they b...
Replication



Thursday, September 10, 2009
Replication

              • Typical web app is 80 to 90% reads
              • Adding read capacity will get you a long w...
Replication

              • Django doesn’t make it easy to use multiple
                     database connections, but it...
Replication
1. Create a custom database wrapper by subclassing DatabaseWrapper
class SlaveDatabaseWrapper(DatabaseWrapper)...
Replication
2. Custom QuerySet that uses primary DB for writes
class MultiDBQuerySet(QuerySet):
    ...
    def update(sel...
Replication
3. Custom Manager that uses your custom QuerySet
class SlaveDatabaseManager(db.models.Manager):
    def get_qu...
Replication


                                  Example on github:
                       http://github.com/mmalone/django...
http://bit.ly/multidb
Thursday, September 10, 2009
Replication

              • Goal:
                   •       Read-what-you-write consistency for writer

                ...
Replication


                               What happens when you become
                                      write satu...
Federation



Thursday, September 10, 2009
Federation

              • Start with Vertical Partitioning: split tables that
                     aren’t joined across ...
Federation
                        django.db.models.base




   FAIL!




 djangocon 2009                                 ...
Federation

              • At some point you’ll need to split a single table
                     across databases (e.g.,...
Profiling, Monitoring &
                          Measuring


Thursday, September 10, 2009
Know your SQL

                  >>> Article.objects.filter(pk=3).query.as_sql()
                  ('SELECT "app_article"....
Know your SQL
                  >>> import sqlparse
                  >>> def pp_query(qs):
                  ...   t = qs...
Know your SQL

             >>> from django.db import connection
             >>> connection.queries
             [{'time'...
Know your SQL

              • It’d be nice if a lightweight stacktrace could be
                     done in QuerySet.__i...
Measuring


                               Django Debug Toolbar

           http://github.com/robhudson/django-debug-toolb...
Monitoring

        You can’t improve what you don’t measure.
                  • Ganglia
                  • Munin



 dj...
Measuring & Monitoring

              • Measure
                   •       Server load, CPU usage, I/O

                  ...
All done... Questions?
                               Contact me at mjmalone@gmail.com or @mjmalone




Thursday, Septembe...
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Transcript of "Scaling Django Dc09"

  1. 1. Scaling Django Web Apps Mike Malone djangocon 2009 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  2. 2. Thursday, September 10, 2009
  3. 3. Thursday, September 10, 2009
  4. 4. http://www.flickr.com/photos/kveton/2910536252/ Thursday, September 10, 2009
  5. 5. Thursday, September 10, 2009
  6. 6. Pownce • Large scale • Hundreds of requests/sec • Thousands of DB operations/sec • Millions of user relationships • Millions of notes • Terabytes of static data djangocon 2009 6 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  7. 7. Pownce • Encountered and eliminated many common scaling bottlenecks • Real world example of scaling a Django app • Django provides a lot for free • I’ll be focusing on what you have to build yourself, and the rare places where Django got in the way djangocon 2009 7 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  8. 8. Scalability Thursday, September 10, 2009
  9. 9. Scalability Scalability is NOT: • Speed / Performance • Generally affected by language choice • Achieved by adopting a particular technology djangocon 2009 9 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  10. 10. A Scalable Application import time def application(environ, start_response): time.sleep(10) start_response('200 OK', [('content-type', 'text/plain')]) return ('Hello, world!',) djangocon 2009 10 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  11. 11. A High Performance Application def application(environ, start_response): remote_addr = environ['REMOTE_ADDR'] f = open('access-log', 'a+') f.write(remote_addr + "n") f.flush() f.seek(0) hits = sum(1 for l in f.xreadlines() if l.strip() == remote_addr) f.close() start_response('200 OK', [('content-type', 'text/plain')]) return (str(hits),) djangocon 2009 11 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  12. 12. Scalability A scalable system doesn’t need to change when the size of the problem changes. djangocon 2009 12 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  13. 13. Scalability • Accommodate increased usage • Accommodate increased data • Maintainable djangocon 2009 13 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  14. 14. Scalability • Two kinds of scalability • Vertical scalability: buying more powerful hardware, replacing what you already own • Horizontal scalability: buying additional hardware, supplementing what you already own djangocon 2009 14 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  15. 15. Vertical Scalability • Costs don’t scale linearly (server that’s twice is fast is more than twice as much) • Inherently limited by current technology • But it’s easy! If you can get away with it, good for you. djangocon 2009 15 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  16. 16. Vertical Scalability “ Sky scrapers are special. Normal buildings don’t need 10 floor foundations. Just build! - Cal Henderson djangocon 2009 16 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  17. 17. Horizontal Scalability The ability to increase a system’s capacity by adding more processing units (servers) djangocon 2009 17 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  18. 18. Horizontal Scalability It’s how large apps are scaled. djangocon 2009 18 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  19. 19. Horizontal Scalability • A lot more work to design, build, and maintain • Requires some planning, but you don’t have to do all the work up front • You can scale progressively... • Rest of the presentation is roughly in order djangocon 2009 19 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  20. 20. Caching Thursday, September 10, 2009
  21. 21. Caching • Several levels of caching available in Django • Per-site cache: caches every page that doesn’t have GET or POST parameters • Per-view cache: caches output of an individual view • Template fragment cache: caches fragments of a template • None of these are that useful if pages are heavily personalized djangocon 2009 21 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  22. 22. Caching • Low-level Cache API • Much more flexible, allows you to cache at any granularity • At Pownce we typically cached • Individual objects • Lists of object IDs • Hard part is invalidation djangocon 2009 22 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  23. 23. Caching • Cache backends: • Memcached • Database caching • Filesystem caching djangocon 2009 23 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  24. 24. Caching Use Memcache. djangocon 2009 24 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  25. 25. Sessions Use Memcache. djangocon 2009 25 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  26. 26. Sessions Or Tokyo Cabinet http://github.com/ericflo/django-tokyo-sessions/ Thanks @ericflo djangocon 2009 26 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  27. 27. Caching Basic caching comes free with Django: from django.core.cache import cache class UserProfile(models.Model): ... def get_social_network_profiles(self): cache_key = ‘networks_for_%s’ % self.user.id profiles = cache.get(cache_key) if profiles is None: profiles = self.user.social_network_profiles.all() cache.set(cache_key, profiles) return profiles djangocon 2009 27 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  28. 28. Caching Invalidate when a model is saved or deleted: from django.core.cache import cache from django.db.models import signals def nuke_social_network_cache(self, instance, **kwargs): cache_key = ‘networks_for_%s’ % self.instance.user_id cache.delete(cache_key) signals.post_save.connect(nuke_social_network_cache, sender=SocialNetworkProfile) signals.post_delete.connect(nuke_social_network_cache, sender=SocialNetworkProfile) djangocon 2009 28 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  29. 29. Caching • Invalidate post_save, not pre_save • Still a small race condition • Simple solution, worked for Pownce: • Instead of deleting, set the cache key to None for a short period of time • Instead of using set to cache objects, use add, which fails if there’s already something stored for the key djangocon 2009 29 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  30. 30. Advanced Caching • Memcached’s atomic increment and decrement operations are useful for maintaining counts • They were added to the Django cache API in Django 1.1 djangocon 2009 30 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  31. 31. Advanced Caching • You can still use them if you poke at the internals of the cache object a bit • cache._cache is the underlying cache object try: result = cache._cache.incr(cache_key, delta) except ValueError: # nonexistent key raises ValueError # Do it the hard way, store the result. return result djangocon 2009 31 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  32. 32. Advanced Caching • Other missing cache API • delete_multi & set_multi • append: add data to existing key after existing data • prepend: add data to existing key before existing data • cas: store this data, but only if no one has edited it since I fetched it djangocon 2009 32 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  33. 33. Advanced Caching • It’s often useful to cache objects ‘forever’ (i.e., until you explicitly invalidate them) • User and UserProfile • fetched almost every request • rarely change • But Django won’t let you • IMO, this is a bug :( djangocon 2009 33 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  34. 34. The Memcache Backend class CacheClass(BaseCache): def __init__(self, server, params): BaseCache.__init__(self, params) self._cache = memcache.Client(server.split(';')) def add(self, key, value, timeout=0): if isinstance(value, unicode): value = value.encode('utf-8') return self._cache.add(smart_str(key), value, timeout or self.default_timeout) djangocon 2009 34 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  35. 35. The Memcache Backend class CacheClass(BaseCache): def __init__(self, server, params): BaseCache.__init__(self, params) self._cache = memcache.Client(server.split(';')) def add(self, key, value, timeout=None): if isinstance(value, unicode): value = value.encode('utf-8') if timeout is None: timeout = self.default_timeout return self._cache.add(smart_str(key), value, timeout) djangocon 2009 35 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  36. 36. Advanced Caching • Typical setup has memcached running on web servers • Pownce web servers were I/O and memory bound, not CPU bound • Since we had some spare CPU cycles, we compressed large objects before caching them • The Python memcache library can do this automatically, but the API is not exposed djangocon 2009 36 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  37. 37. Monkey Patching core.cache from django.core.cache import cache from django.utils.encoding import smart_str import inspect as i if 'min_compress_len' in i.getargspec(cache._cache.set)[0]: class CacheClass(cache.__class__): def set(self, key, value, timeout=None, min_compress_len=150000): if isinstance(value, unicode): value = value.encode('utf-8') if timeout is None: timeout = self.default_timeout return self._cache.set(smart_str(key), value, timeout, min_compress_len) cache.__class__ = CacheClass djangocon 2009 37 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  38. 38. Advanced Caching • Useful tool: automagic single object cache • Use a manager to check the cache prior to any single object get by pk • Invalidate assets on save and delete • Eliminated several hundred QPS at Pownce djangocon 2009 38 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  39. 39. Advanced Caching All this and more at: http://github.com/mmalone/django-caching/ djangocon 2009 39 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  40. 40. Caching Now you’ve made life easier for your DB server, next thing to fall over: your app server. djangocon 2009 40 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  41. 41. Load Balancing Thursday, September 10, 2009
  42. 42. Load Balancing • Out of the box, Django uses a shared nothing architecture • App servers have no single point of contention • Responsibility pushed down the stack (to DB) • This makes scaling the app layer trivial: just add another server djangocon 2009 42 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  43. 43. Load Balancing Spread work between multiple nodes in a cluster using a load balancer. Load Balancer • Hardware or software • Layer 7 or Layer 4 App Servers Database djangocon 2009 43 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  44. 44. Load Balancing • Hardware load balancers • Expensive, like $35,000 each, plus maintenance contracts • Need two for failover / high availability • Software load balancers • Cheap and easy, but more difficult to eliminate as a single point of failure • Lots of options: Perlbal, Pound, HAProxy,Varnish, Nginx djangocon 2009 44 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  45. 45. Load Balancing • Most of these are layer 7 proxies, and some software balancers do cool things • Caching • Re-proxying • Authentication • URL rewriting djangocon 2009 45 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  46. 46. Load Balancing A common setup for large operations is to use redundant layer 4 hardware Hardware Balancers balancers in front of a pool of layer 7 software balancers. Software Balancers App Servers djangocon 2009 46 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  47. 47. Load Balancing • At Pownce, we used a single Perlbal balancer • Easily handled all of our traffic (hundreds of simultaneous connections) • A SPOF, but we didn’t have $100,000 for black box solutions, and weren’t worried about service guarantees beyond three or four nines • Plus there were some neat features that we took advantage of djangocon 2009 47 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  48. 48. Perlbal Reproxying Perlbal reproxying is a really cool, and really poorly documented feature. djangocon 2009 48 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  49. 49. Perlbal Reproxying 1. Perlbal receives request 2. Redirects to App Server 1. App server checks auth (etc.) 2. Returns HTTP 200 with X- Reproxy-URL header set to internal file server URL 3. File served from file server via Perlbal djangocon 2009 49 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  50. 50. Perlbal Reproxying • Completely transparent to end user • Doesn’t keep large app server instance around to serve file • Users can’t access files directly (like they could with a 302) djangocon 2009 50 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  51. 51. Perlbal Reproxying Plus, it’s really easy: def download(request, filename): # Check auth, do your thing response = HttpResponse() response[‘X-REPROXY-URL’] = ‘%s/%s’ % (FILE_SERVER, filename) return response djangocon 2009 51 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  52. 52. Load Balancing Best way to reduce load on your app servers: don’t use them to do hard stuff. djangocon 2009 52 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  53. 53. Queuing Thursday, September 10, 2009
  54. 54. Queuing • A queue is simply a bucket that holds messages until they are removed for processing by clients • Many expensive operations can be queued and performed asynchronously • User experience doesn’t have to suffer • Tell the user that you’re running the job in the background (e.g., transcoding) • Make it look like the job was done real-time (e.g., note distribution) djangocon 2009 54 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  55. 55. Queuing • Lots of open source options for queuing • Ghetto Queue (MySQL + Cron) • this is the official name. • Gearman • TheSchwartz • RabbitMQ • Apache ActiveMQ • ZeroMQ djangocon 2009 55 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  56. 56. Queuing • Lots of fancy features: brokers, exchanges, routing keys, bindings... • Don’t let that crap get you down, this is really simple stuff • Biggest decision: persistence • Does your queue need to be durable and persistent, able to survive a crash? • This requires logging to disk which slows things down, so don’t do it unless you have to djangocon 2009 56 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  57. 57. Queuing • Pownce used a simple ghetto queue built on MySQL / cron • Problematic if you have multiple consumers pulling jobs from the queue • No point in reinventing the wheel, there are dozens of battle-tested open source queues to choose from djangocon 2009 57 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  58. 58. Django Standalone Scripts Consumers need to setup the Django environment from django.core.management import setup_environ from mysite import settings setup_environ(settings) djangocon 2009 58 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  59. 59. THE DATABASE! Thursday, September 10, 2009
  60. 60. The Database • Til now we’ve been talking about • Shared nothing • Pushing problems down the stack • But we have to store a persistent and consistent view of our application’s state somewhere • Enter, the database... djangocon 2009 60 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  61. 61. CAP Theorem • Three properties of a shared-data system • Consistency: all clients see the same data • Availability: all clients can see some version of the data • Partition Tolerance: system properties hold even when the system is partitioned & messages are lost • But you can only have two djangocon 2009 61 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  62. 62. CAP Theorem • Big long proof... here’s my version. • Empirically, seems to make sense. • Eric Brewer • Professor at University of California, Berkeley • Co-founder and Chief Scientist of Inktomi • Probably smarter than me djangocon 2009 62 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  63. 63. CAP Theorem • The relational database systems we all use were built with consistency as their primary goal • But at scale our system needs to have high availability and must be partitionable • The RDBMS’s consistency requirements get in our way • Most sharding / federation schemes are kludges that trade consistency for availability & partition tolerance djangocon 2009 63 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  64. 64. The Database • There are lots of non-relational databases coming onto the scene • CouchDB • Cassandra • Tokyo Cabinet • But they’re not that mature, and they aren’t easy to use with Django djangocon 2009 64 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  65. 65. Denormalization Thursday, September 10, 2009
  66. 66. Denormalization • Django encourages normalized data, which is usually good • But at scale you need to denormalize • Corollary: joins are evil • Django makes it really easy to do joins using the ORM, so pay attention djangocon 2009 66 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  67. 67. Denormalization • Start with a normalized database • Selectively denormalize things as they become bottlenecks • Denormalized counts, copied fields, etc. can be updated in signal handlers djangocon 2009 67 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  68. 68. Replication Thursday, September 10, 2009
  69. 69. Replication • Typical web app is 80 to 90% reads • Adding read capacity will get you a long way • MySQL Master-Slave replication Read & Write Read only djangocon 2009 69 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  70. 70. Replication • Django doesn’t make it easy to use multiple database connections, but it is possible • Some caveats • Slave lag interacts with caching in weird ways • You can only save to your primary DB (the one you configure in settings.py) • Unless you get really clever... djangocon 2009 70 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  71. 71. Replication 1. Create a custom database wrapper by subclassing DatabaseWrapper class SlaveDatabaseWrapper(DatabaseWrapper): def _cursor(self, settings): if not self._valid_connection(): kwargs = { 'conv': django_conversions, 'charset': 'utf8', 'use_unicode': True, } kwargs = pick_random_slave(settings.SLAVE_DATABASES) self.connection = Database.connect(**kwargs) ... cursor = CursorWrapper(self.connection.cursor()) return cursor djangocon 2009 71 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  72. 72. Replication 2. Custom QuerySet that uses primary DB for writes class MultiDBQuerySet(QuerySet): ... def update(self, **kwargs): slave_conn = self.query.connection self.query.connection = default_connection super(MultiDBQuerySet, self).update(**kwargs) self.query.connection = slave_conn djangocon 2009 72 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  73. 73. Replication 3. Custom Manager that uses your custom QuerySet class SlaveDatabaseManager(db.models.Manager): def get_query_set(self): return MultiDBQuerySet(self.model, query=self.create_query()) def create_query(self): return db.models.sql.Query(self.model, connection) djangocon 2009 73 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  74. 74. Replication Example on github: http://github.com/mmalone/django-multidb/ djangocon 2009 74 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  75. 75. http://bit.ly/multidb Thursday, September 10, 2009
  76. 76. Replication • Goal: • Read-what-you-write consistency for writer • Eventual consistency for everyone else • Slave lag screws things up djangocon 2009 76 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  77. 77. Replication What happens when you become write saturated? djangocon 2009 77 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  78. 78. Federation Thursday, September 10, 2009
  79. 79. Federation • Start with Vertical Partitioning: split tables that aren’t joined across database servers • Actually pretty easy • Except not with Django djangocon 2009 79 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  80. 80. Federation django.db.models.base FAIL! djangocon 2009 80 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  81. 81. Federation • At some point you’ll need to split a single table across databases (e.g., user table) • Auto-increment PKs won’t work • It’d be nice to have a UUIDField for PKs • You can probably build this yourself djangocon 2009 81 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  82. 82. Profiling, Monitoring & Measuring Thursday, September 10, 2009
  83. 83. Know your SQL >>> Article.objects.filter(pk=3).query.as_sql() ('SELECT "app_article"."id", "app_article"."name", "app_article"."author_id" FROM "app_article" WHERE "app_article"."id" = %s ', (3,)) djangocon 2009 83 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  84. 84. Know your SQL >>> import sqlparse >>> def pp_query(qs): ... t = qs.query.as_sql() ... sql = t[0] % t[1] ... print sqlparse.format(sql, reindent=True, keyword_case='upper') ... >>> pp_query(Article.objects.filter(pk=3)) SELECT "app_article"."id", "app_article"."name", "app_article"."author_id" FROM "app_article" WHERE "app_article"."id" = 3 djangocon 2009 84 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  85. 85. Know your SQL >>> from django.db import connection >>> connection.queries [{'time': '0.001', 'sql': u'SELECT "app_article"."id", "app_article"."name", "app_article"."author_id" FROM "app_article"'}] djangocon 2009 85 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  86. 86. Know your SQL • It’d be nice if a lightweight stacktrace could be done in QuerySet.__init__ • Stick the result in connection.queries • Now we know where the query originated djangocon 2009 86 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  87. 87. Measuring Django Debug Toolbar http://github.com/robhudson/django-debug-toolbar/ djangocon 2009 87 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  88. 88. Monitoring You can’t improve what you don’t measure. • Ganglia • Munin djangocon 2009 88 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  89. 89. Measuring & Monitoring • Measure • Server load, CPU usage, I/O • Database QPS • Memcache QPS, hit rate, evictions • Queue lengths • Anything else interesting djangocon 2009 89 Thursday, September 10, 2009
  90. 90. All done... Questions? Contact me at mjmalone@gmail.com or @mjmalone Thursday, September 10, 2009
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