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Menchie zoology
 

Menchie zoology

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    Menchie zoology Menchie zoology Presentation Transcript

    • A. Taxonomy Defined 1. Grouping of organisms - the science of classifying living organisms based on shared features 2. Principles of classification – the practice or principles of classification 3. Study of classification – the study of the rules and practice of classifying living organisms
    • QUESTION: Would you also consider thattaxonomy deals withIDENTIFICATION of livingorganisms? Why or why not?
    • Taxonomy involves:1. Classification – ranking of groups of organisms in some hierarchical relationship - based on their similarities in their characteristics (genetic relationship, internal and external anatomy, physiology or evolutionary history)2. Identification – separation of one group from other groups according to their unique characteristics
    •  Identifying organisms based on their morphology, anatomy, physiology, cytology, biochemistry and geographic distributionWHAT ARE THE ROLES of TAXONOMISTS and SYSTEMATICISTS?To classify, identify and make a census of the unique characteristics of each species.
    •  To reconstruct the evolutionary history of the present classified species based on morphology, anatomy, chemical composition, geographic distribution, breeding behavior, and chromosome number To determine which traits are advanced (derived in time from primitive traits) or primitive
    •  To discover all species of animals. To reconstruct their evolutionary relationships. To classify animals according to their evoutionary relationships.
    •  Unexplored areas, only an estimation could be done Continuous evolution process (diversification) Continuous extinction How about in local settings?
    •  300 BCAristotle – used dichotomies or polar oppositesEx. Animals with blood and without blood (vertebrates and invertebrates) - wrote extensively on both plants and animals but his writings on plants were lostTheophrastus – Aristotle’s pupil and applied his approach to the study of plants in his work “Inquiry into Plants”
    • Theophrastus – subdivided plants based on shape, and into broad categories as trees, shrubs, and herbsDioscorides – developed a more practical approach - Ex. Medicinal herbs were separated from those used in making perfumes
    • Polynomial System-translation of the common names of organisms into Latin-each species was described in Latin by a sentence limited to 12 words that begins with the genus name-Ex. Spiderwort -Tradescantia ephemerum phalangoides tripetalum non repens virginianum gramineum Common name: Tradescantia virginiana
    • Translation: The annual, upright Tradescantia from Virginia which has a grasslike habit, 3 petals, and stamens with hairs like spider legs, common name Tradescantia of VirginiaBut the polynomial system was simplified into a two-word or BINOMIAL naming system in the mid-16th century to mid-17th century by a group of naturalists known as herbalists.
    • Andrea Cesalpino – first scientist to classify plants primarily according to structural characteristics, such as their fruits and seedsCaspar Bauhin – adapted Cesalpino’s method; catalogued an extensive list of plants
    • Animal Classification AdvancedPierre Belon – extensively studied and catalogued birds-first to use adaptation to habitat to divide birds as AQUATIC, WADING, PERCHING, and LAND BIRDS and BIRDS of PREY
    • John Ray – used key characteristics such as the shape and size of the birds’ beak to classify birdsMID 1700sCarolus Linnaeus Binomial system of nomenclature – similar organisms are grouped into a genus, and each organism is given a two-word Latin name
    • Carolus Linnaeus Binomial nomenclature first name – genus name second name – adjective describing the organism, its geographic location or the person who discovered itEx. domestic dog Canis familiaris
    • Canis – genus name for the group of animals that includes dogs, wolves, coyotes, and jackalsfamiliaris – acts as a descriptor to further differentiate the domestic dog from its wild cousins
    • Carolus Linnaeus – also designed the HIERARCHICAL classification scheme Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
    •  Development and use of microscopes presented new classification problems which still relied on a 2-kingdom classification system (Plantae and Animalia
    •  Charles Darwin -published “On the Origin of Species” in 1859 -argued that classification system should reflect the history of life; species should be related based on their shared ancestry -emphasis on taxonomy shifted to:a. A search for characters which reflected genetic (evolutionary) relationships; andb. The construction of a phylogenetic classification scheme
    •  Phylogenetic – based on genetic, evolutionary relationships - which traits are primitive or advanced
    • Ernst Haeckel-proposed placing the unicellular forms in kingdom Protista; placed bacteria within this kingdom1930sEdouard Chatton – distinguished prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    • Herbert Copeland-prokaryotes in the 4th kingdom, Monera1950sRobert Whittaker-proposed adding a 5th kingdom, Fungi1970sAdvances in molecular systematics
    • Polymerase chain reaction – permits easy analysis and comparison of DNA structuresCarl Woese – determined that archaebacteria were found to have unique molecular structures and physiological characteristics from bacteria -proposed a 6-kingdom classification system
    • Other scientists propose an 8-kingdom system
    •  Modern animal taxonomy was established using evolutionary systematics and recent cladistic revisions. PhyloCode -new taxonomic system -being developed as an alternative to Linnaean taxonomy -replaces Linnaean ranks with codes that denote nested hierarchy of monophyletic groups converged by cladograms
    •  The terms “primitive”, “advanced”, “specialized”, and “generalized” are used for specific characteristics and not for groups as a whole.