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Middle English

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A power point presentation on Middle English by the students of English dept. at Metropolitan University, Sylhet. …

A power point presentation on Middle English by the students of English dept. at Metropolitan University, Sylhet.
Pulak Barua Ex Lecturer Dept. of English Metropolitan University, Sylhet, Bangladesh

Published in Education , Technology
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  • 1.
    • Presented by
    • Md. Anisul Haque
    • Fahmida Sharmin
    • Bushra E Tamanna
    • Rasel Shikdar
    • Shah Md. Mohsinul Haque Sueb
  • 2. History of English Language has three periods
    • Old English (450-1150)
    • Middle English (1150-1500)
    • Modern English (1500- )
  • 3. Middle English 1150-1500 AD
    • Middle English started with the Norman Conquest
    • English becomes official language of the law courts. More and more authors are writing in English
    • A Period of Great Change
    • Decay of Inflectional Endings
    • French Influence on the Vocabulary of Middle English
    • The Period of Greatest Influence
    • Hw became Wh
  • 4. Decay of Inflectional Endings
    • Middle English Grammar Changes
    • Reduction of Inflections
    • Change in phonetics
    • Old English Manuscripts had disappeared by the using of press
  • 5. The Verbs
    • The original English verb destroyed
    • French dominating
    • The weak verbs became strong gradually
    • The strong verb declined
  • 6. Losses among the Strong Verbs
    • Almost one third strong verbs of OE disappeared
    • No reference of strong verbs in the books after 1150
    • Few strong verbs now use in spoken language
    • Some strong verbs were rare and other were in competition.
    • About a dozen more strong verbs appeared in twelfth century texts.
    • Today more than half of the strong verbs have disappeared from the standard language.
  • 7. Strong Verbs That Became Weak
    • The weak conjugation offered a smoothly structure for the past and past participle.
    • Past participle survive in the resemblance of past tense.
    • Past tense were lost and become weak.
    • The past participle were not used as past participle but as adjective
    • For Example;
    • Laden- in OE Past participle
    • Laden- in Modern Adjective
    • Once a time English language was used only by the people of lower classes.
    • Many strong verbs also had weak forms such as blowed for blew and knowed for knew.
  • 8. Survival of Strong Principle
    • Past form of the OE survived as the past participles of strong verbs.
    • In the verb, beat the participle beaten has remained the standard form.
    • Other verbs of the strong participle cloven, laden are still used especially as adjectives.
  • 9. Loss of Grammatical Gender
    • Leaving of inflections, Grammatical gender become ambiguous.
    • The gender of old English nouns did not depend on meaning.
    • Sometimes it was in contradiction with the meaning.
    • Thus Woman ( Wif- mann in OE) was masculine because the second element in the compound was masculine.
    • In the Middle English after the losing of inflections, adjectives and demonstratives help to remove the problem of masculine and feminine.
    • In the north, grammatical gender disappeared first.
    • In the south it long lasted because there the decay of inflection was slower.
  • 10. Middle English Syntax
    • Syntactic and Semantic relationship became complex because of leaving inflections
    • Avoid the ambiguity word order of ME became limited and restricted
    • Development of Middle English as a separate stage of the language grammatically and phonologically in SV.
    • Development of grammar increased in the Middle English after Norman Conquest
    • Burce Mitchell writes in book The Language of the Peterborough Chronicle “Middle English is a process of transition”
    • A Latin sentence – “Nero interfecit Agrippinam” is changed it’s formation in ME
    • Language became syntactic to analytic
  • 11. French Influence on the Vocabulary
    • French Language influenced in the Germanic Tribes because of Norman Conquest
    • They transferred French to English in the case of governmental, administrative, ecclesiastical, legal, military, food & social life
    • Over 10000 French words entered in English gradually
    • The number of French word was so large because of it’s domination
    • Most of the French word used till in present Modern English
    • The example of French borrowed word for animals and their meat
    • Animal Meat
    • Sheep Mutton
    • Cow Beef
    • Swine Pork
  • 12. Period of Greatest Change
    • Otto Jespersen’s statistical study of 1000 words borrowed from French
    • Last half of 12 century- Slightly increased
    • 1200-1250= more rapidity
    • After 1250- not great
    • 1250- 1400= 40% French came
    • 15000 words came and 75% still in use in English
  • 13. Assimilation
    • French words were assimilated
    • English words were added with French origin in ending
    • The compounds and derivatives occur with the adaptations of adjectives. Ex- ‘Gentle’ recorded in 1225
    • The adverbial endings-ly have been adopted. Ex- ‘Gently’ recorded in 1330
    • Gentle recorded in 1225
    • gentlewoman recorded in 1230
    • Gentleman recorded in 1275
    • gentleness recorded in 1300
    • Gently recorded in 1330
  • 14. Loss of Native Words
    • Duplicate words appeared from French
    • Both English and French words used side by side
    • After time being huge number of English words died out
    • In the same way French words also expired
    • Thus OE (Old English) eam meaning uncle in French is still used in Scotland
  • 15. The Prefixes
    • Some prefixes are still used
    • Some died out because readymade words of French with same meaning added to English: for example, the prefix ‘for’ was formed at about 1300.
    • Prefix ‘to’ vanished completely
  • 16. Suffixes
    • Some suffixes are still used
    • Some died out because readymade words of French with same meaning added to English
    • Some words newly formed by using the suffix ‘dom’
    • But a few words formed with falsedom, richdom died out
  • 17. Middle English Dialects
    • Four Dialects in Middle English-
    • Northern
    • East Midland
    •   West Midland
    • Southern
    • East Midland Dialect was dominating
  • 18. The Rise of Standard English
    • Four reason regarding The Rise of Standard English
          • Flexibility of the Language
          • Regional Advantage
          • Because of Cambridge & Oxford Universities.
          • Influence of Chaucer
  • 19. Importance of London English
    • The London English was the language of the capital of England
    • London was politically and commercially center of England
    • London English became the language of court
  • 20. Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales A page from the Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer
  • 21. Chaucer’s Language Vs Present
  • 22. THANK YOU A LL