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middle english period_(1066-1500)

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middle english period_(1066-1500)

  1. 1. 1066-1204 Decline of English French (Norman) invasion (1066), William, Duke of Normandys conquest andunification of England, crowned king of England as William I, the Conqueror(r. 1066-1087); Normans were descendants of Danes living in northern Franceand spoke a French influenced by Scandinavian; death of many Anglo-Saxonnobles French became the dominant language in England, spoken by the upperclasses from 1066 until late in the 14th century. English language was relegatedto the lower classes and was heavily influenced by French in matters ofvocabulary, prosody, and spelling Frenchmen in all high offices; kings of England spoke French, took Frenchwives and lived mostly in France; French-speaking court; imposition of feudalsystem, vassalage, peasants bound to the land2
  2. 2. 1066-1204 Decline of EnglishHenry II (House of Plantagenet, Angevine) (r. 1154-1189), married toEleanor of Aquitaine; Henry II and Eleanor were the parents ofRichard I, the Lionheart (r. 1189-1199) and John Lacklandlack of prestige of English; French was the language of the court; Latinwas the written language of the Church and secular documents;Scandinavian still spoken in the Danelaw; Celtic languages prevailedin Wales and Scotlanddevelopment of bilingualism among Norman officials, supervisors;some marriages of French and English; some bilingual children3
  3. 3. 1066-1204 Decline of Englishexamples of words of French origin: tax, estate,trouble, duty, pay, table, boil, serve, roast, dine,religion, savior; pray, trinityvery little written English from this period; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle continued to be written until 11544
  4. 4. 1204-1348 Rise of English King John (John Lackland) (r. 1199-1216); loss of Normandy in 1204; beginnings of thepolitical and cultural separation between England and France many Norman landholders chose to stay in England, spoke Anglo-French dialect Henry III (r. 1216-1272), son of John; francophilia of Henry III, many Frenchmen givenofficial positions eventual decline of French cultural dominance in England rise in use of English, smoothing out of dialectal differences, beginning of standardEnglish based on London dialect; crusades and pilgrimages contributed to increase incommunication and formation of common language.5
  5. 5. 1348-1509 Dominance of EnglishFrench remained official language of England until second half of 14thc.; by mid to late 14th c. English was normal medium of instruction; in1362 English became official language of legal proceedings; everyonein England spoke English by end of 14th c., displacing French, Norse,and Celtic languagesincrease in English writing, more common in legal documents thanFrench or Latin by 15th c.emergence of London/East Midland dialect as standard spoken andwritten language; dominance of London as commercial center,seaport, proximity to Westminster court6
  6. 6. 1348-1509 Dominance of EnglishEdward III (Windsor) (r. 1327-1377); his claim to French throne led toHundred Years War (1337-1453); eventual French victory; England lostall of its continental holdings; English hostility to French languageand cultureBlack Death 1348-1351, death of one third of English population, socialchaos, labor shortages, emancipation of peasants, wage increases, risein prestige of English as language of working classesWar of the Roses (1455-1485), House of York (white rose) vs. House ofLancaster (red rose)7
  7. 7. 1348-1509 Dominance of Englishprinters activity (William Caxton 1474), increased literacyHenry VII (House of Lancaster) (r. 1485-1509) marriesElizabeth of York (daughter of Edward IV), fathers HenryVIII, and begins Tudor dynasty1509 begins reign of Henry VIII; end of Middle EnglishPeriod, beginning of English Renaissance and EarlyModern English Period8
  8. 8. The End!9
  9. 9. The End!9

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