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Phylogenetic signal and diversity of visceral pigmentation in eight anuran families
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Phylogenetic signal and diversity of visceral pigmentation in eight anuran families

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This is a talk I gave in the 2013 Joint Meeting of Ichtyologist and Herpetologists in Albuquerque, NM, USA. This talk is dirived from a paper we publiched in 2012 in Zoologica Scripta

This is a talk I gave in the 2013 Joint Meeting of Ichtyologist and Herpetologists in Albuquerque, NM, USA. This talk is dirived from a paper we publiched in 2012 in Zoologica Scripta

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  • 1. PHYLOGENETIC SIGNAL AND VARIATION OF VISCERAL PIGMENTATION IN EIGHT ANURAN FAMILIES Zoologica Scripta 2012 41(6): 547-556 DIOGO B. PROVETE et al.
  • 2. Biological traits ¨  Models of trait evolution ¤  Plasticity vs. Conservatism => phylogenetic constraints and the role of environment ¤  Meaning of phylogenetic signal => related species have similar traits
  • 3. Pigmented cells Wallin,2002
  • 4. Visceral melanocytes Differential occurrence among organs
  • 5. Goals ¨  Function of visceral pigmentation not yet understood ¤  Hypothesis relate the role of melanin as a protective agent against toxic agents and also in thermoregulation ¨  Analyse the distribution of visceral pigmentation among species ¨  Test for a phylogenetic signal using a comparative method (Pavoine et al. 2010)
  • 6. Methods ¨  Pigmentation categories on the surface of 16 visceral organs of 35 anuran species, belonging to 13 genera from 8 families nested within Meridianura (sensu Frost et al. 2006)
  • 7. Methods ¨  Data collection ¤ Field: We collected calling adult anurans in several locations in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil ¤ Literature: Franco-Belussi et al. (2011, 2012) ¤ Museum specimens: DZSJRP, CCLZU, JJ-MNRJ
  • 8. Visceral melanocytes quantification Franco-Belussi et al., 2009 Anat. Rec. Figure 2. (Legend on page 179.)
  • 9. category 1, we assigned category 0 to that organ in that ified by Grant et al. (2006) and Hedges et al. (2008), for Fig. 1 Phylogenetic tree constructed for the analysis of trait diversity showing the higher-order groups (left), families (right) and species
  • 10. Decomposing trait diversity along the nodes of a phylogeny FIG. 2. Four different situations that occur in the decomposition of trait diversity among the nodes of a phylogenetic tree: (A SANDRINE PAVOINE ET AL.490 Ecological Monograp Vol. 80, No Pavoine et al. 2010 Ecol. Monog Phylogenetic signal Plasticity Random
  • 11. Results ¨  Phylogenetic signal in each organ/structure is significantly biased towards the root in the heart, testicle, lumbar parietal peritoneum, lumbar nerve plexus, as well as considering all organs together. ¨  Analysis was run to 12 out of 16 organs (4 organs did not have pigmenation) Lumbar parietal peritoneum TQE = 0.179 SN test = 0.01 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.15 SN test = 0.40 FN test = 0.07 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.084 SN test = 0.29 FN test = 0.10 Ro test = 0.32 Lumbar nerve plexus All organsVertebral column TQE = 0.092 SN test = 0.02 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.096 SN test = 0.82 FN test = 0.32 Ro test = 0.79 TQE = 0.068 SN test = 0.01 FN test = 0.11 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.126 SN test = 0.01 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 J K L M 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.022 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.0180.022 0.028 ation among the nodes of the anuran phylogenetic tree. (A–L) Variation of
  • 12. Pigmentation in the urogenital system Pericardium Cardiac blood vessels 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.002 0.008 0.0120.018 0.022 0.028 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.09 TQE = 0.244 SN test = 0.87 FN test = 0.73 Ro test = 0.84 TQE = 0.121 SN test = 0.03 FN test = 0.07 Ro test = 0.14 Kidney Renal veins Tes cle Rectum Mesenterium Lumbar parietal peritoneum TQE = 0.179 SN test = 0.01 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.15 SN test = 0.40 FN test = 0.07 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.084 SN test = 0.29 FN test = 0.10 Ro test = 0.32 Lumbar nerve plexus All organsVertebral columnE F J K L M B C G H I n anurans d D. B. Provete et al. TQE = 0.130 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.035 0.045 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.022 0.028 SNtTest = 0.02 FNtest = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.244 SN test = 0.87 FN test = 0.73 Ro test = 0.84 TQE = 0.121 SN test = 0.03 FN test = 0.07 Ro test = 0.14 KidneyLung Renal veins TQE = 0.078 SN test = 0.72 FN test = 0.23 Ro test = 0.05 TQE = 0.121 SN test = 0.02 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.07 TQE = 0.152 SN test = 0.07 FN test = 0.02 Ro test = 0.14 D E F 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.035 0.005 0.015 0.025 Fig. 6 Decomposition of the diversity of categories of pigmentation pigmentation categories as measured in a single specified organ. — pigmentation categories of all organs among the 32 species. Circles TQE = 0.130 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.035 0.045 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.022 0.028 SNtTest = 0.02 FNtest = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.244 SN test = 0.87 FN test = 0.73 Ro test = 0.84 TQE = 0.121 SN test = 0.03 FN test = 0.07 Ro test = 0.14 KidneyLung Renal veins TQE = 0.078 SN test = 0.72 FN test = 0.23 Ro test = 0.05 TQE = 0.121 SN test = 0.02 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.07 TQE = 0.152 SN test = 0.07 FN test = 0.02 Ro test = 0.14 D E F 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.035 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.0 Fig. 6 Decomposition of the diversity of categories of pigmentation a pigmentation categories as measured in a single specified organ. —M pigmentation categories of all organs among the 32 species. Circles a given below each tree. The larger the circle, the larger the trait dive
  • 13. Cardio-respiratory system The species from Terrarana, Leptodactylidae, Hylodidae and Proceratophrys had no pigmentation in the pericardium, whereas Odontophrynus an Leiuperidae had a small amount of pigmentation  
  • 14. Cardio-respiratory system Heart Pericardium Cardiac blood vessels TQE = 0.130 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.035 0.045 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.00 0.022 0.028 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.09 SNtTest = 0.02 FNtest = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.244 SN test = 0.87 FN test = 0.73 Ro test = 0.84 TQE = 0.121 SN test = 0.03 FN test = 0.07 Ro test = 0.14 KidneyLung Renal veins Tes cle Lumbar parietal peritoneum TQE = 0.179 SN test = 0.01 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 Ve co A D E F J K B C G H Visceral pigmentation in anurans d D. B. Provete et al. TQE = 0.130 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.035 0.045 0.002 0.00 SNtTest = 0.02 FNtest = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQ SN FN Ro KidnLung TQE = 0.078 SN test = 0.72 FN test = 0.23 Ro test = 0.05 TQE = 0 SN test FN test Ro test D E 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.005 0.015 0.0 Fig. 6 Decomposition of the d pigmentation categories as me pigmentation categories of all
  • 15. Digestory system dium Cardiac blood vessels 2 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.002 0.008 0.0120.018 0.022 0.028 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.244 = 0.87 = 0.73 = 0.84 TQE = 0.121 SN test = 0.03 FN test = 0.07 Ro test = 0.14 Renal veins Tes cle Rectum Mesenterium Lumbar parietal peritoneum TQE = 0.179 SN test = 0.01 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.15 SN test = 0.40 FN test = 0.07 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.084 SN test = 0.29 FN test = 0.10 Ro test = 0.32 Lumbar nerve plexus All orVertebral columnF J K L M C G H I d D. B. Provete et al.
  • 16. Digestory system Heart Pericardium Cardiac blood vessels TQE = 0.130 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.035 0.045 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.002 0.008 0.0120.018 0.022 0.028 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.09 SNtTest = 0.02 FNtest = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.244 SN test = 0.87 FN test = 0.73 Ro test = 0.84 TQE = 0.121 SN test = 0.03 FN test = 0.07 Ro test = 0.14 KidneyLung Renal veins Tes cle Rectum Mesenterium Lumbar parietal peritoneum TQE = 0.179 SN test = 0.01 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.15 SN test = 0.40 FN test = 0.07 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.084 SN test = 0.29 FN test = 0.10 Ro test = 0.32 Lumbar nerve plexus All organsVertebral column A D E F J K L M B C G H I 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.035 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.022 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.0180.022 0.028 Visceral pigmentation in anurans d D. B. Provete et al. influence melanocyte dynamics and the occurrence of pig- mentation on testes. However, experimental studies on the pigmentation may vary according to physiological (e.g. age, nutritional status and diseases; Agius & Agbede 1984) TQE = 0.130 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.035 0.045 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.002 0.008 0.0120.018 0.022 0.028 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.09 SNtTest = 0.02 FNtest = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.244 SN test = 0.87 FN test = 0.73 Ro test = 0.84 TQE = 0.121 SN test = 0.03 FN test = 0.07 Ro test = 0.14 KidneyLung Renal veins TQE = 0.078 SN test = 0.72 FN test = 0.23 Ro test = 0.05 TQE = 0.121 SN test = 0.02 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.07 TQE = 0.152 SN test = 0.07 FN test = 0.02 Ro test = 0.14 Lumbar parietal peritoneum TQE = 0.179 SN test = 0.01 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.15 SN test = 0.40 FN test = 0.07 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.084 SN test = 0.29 FN test = 0.10 Ro test = 0.32 Lumbar nerve plexus All organsVertebral column TQE = 0.092 SN test = 0.02 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.096 SN test = 0.82 FN test = 0.32 Ro test = 0.79 TQE = 0.068 SN test = 0.01 FN test = 0.11 Ro test = 0.01 TQE = 0.126 SN test = 0.01 FN test = 0.01 Ro test = 0.01 D E F J K L M 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.035 0.005 0.015 0.025 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.022 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.018 0.002 0.008 0.012 0.0180.022 0.028 Fig. 6 Decomposition of the diversity of categories of pigmentation among the nodes of the anuran phylogenetic tree. (A–L) Variation of pigmentation categories as measured in a single specified organ. —M. Variation of pigmentation categories as measured considering the pigmentation categories of all organs among the 32 species. Circles at nodes provide the contribution of nodes to trait diversity, scale are given below each tree. The larger the circle, the larger the trait diversity in that node. Results of the permutation tests are given at the bottom of each tree: SN, single-node skewness test; FN, few-nodes skewness test; Ro, root ⁄ tips skewness test (two sided). Total quadratic entropy (TQE) represents the overall value of trait diversity, the higher the TQE, the higher the diversity of pigmentation categories in a given organ. See Fig. 1 for node labels. [Correction added on 8 October 2012, after first online publication: Fig. 6 was replaced with the correct test values for section K].
  • 17. Discussion ¨  Pigmentation protecting against bacterial infections in testicles (Franco-Belussi & Oliveira 2011) => increase fitness ¤  Clade Calamitophrynia ¨  Role of environment in dictating plasticity ¤  Temperature => increase pigmentation => species that lives in areas with high temperature ¨  Physiological factors (e.g., disease, age, MSH hormone)
  • 18. Conclusion ¨  Overall, the pigmentation of organs is a very conserved trait. ¨  Future studies ¤  Histological analyses ¤  Experiments manipulating factors that influence melanin production and melanocyte migration (Franco-Belussi et al. in press) ¨  More pictures in MorphoBank http://bit.ly/phylosignal
  • 19. Shortcommings ¨  Dependency of the topology ¤  Incorporate Bayesian methods to account for phylogenetic uncertainty ¨  Qualitative methods to describe pigmentation ¤  Incorporate quantitative methods ¨  Expand taxon sampling to other speciose anuran families
  • 20. New directions ¨  Incorporate intraspecific variation ¨  How pigmentation varies along space ¨  Climatic and topographic correlates (Extended RLQ analysis) ¤  Which environmental factors influence the expression and variation of pigmentation
  • 21. Funding
  • 22. Webite bit.ly/DiogoBrazil Email: dbprovete@utexas.edu Thank you!!