Social and Emotional Education. International Analysis 2011

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  • 1. Social and Emotional Education.An International AnalysisFundación Botín Report 2011
  • 2. Social and Emotional Education. An International Analysis Fundación Botín Report 2011
  • 3. CreditsPromoted, organized and coordinated byFundación BotínResearch Team DirectorChristopher ClouderEditorBelinda HeysProduced and published byFundación BotínPedrueca 1. 39003 SantanderTel. +34 942 226 072 / Fax +34 942 226 045www.fundacionbotin.orgDesignTres DG / Fernando RianchoPhotographsFundación Botín Archive. Esteban CoboTranslationZesauroTom SkippPrintersGráficas CalimaISBN: 978-84-96655-93-5© Fundación Botín, 2011The Botín Foundation is committed to an education that promotes the healthy growth of children and young people, fosteringtheir talent and creativity to help them become autonomous, competent, charitable and happy. It promotes an education thatgenerates development and contributes to society´s progress.There are three areas of focus for this: Intervention (Responsible Education Programme), Training (scholarships andprogrammes such as the Master´s Degree in Social, Emotional and Creative Education) and Research (the Botín Platform forInnovation in Education).The contents and opinions expressed in this report are entirely the responsibility of their authors.The Fundación Botín will allow the complete or partial reproduction of this report, as long as its contents are notmisrepresented, modified, altered or used in such way that may harm its legitimate interests or reputation, and only insofaras its contents are reproduced according to academic standards.
  • 4. IndexPreface 9Introduction 15Country ChaptersPortugal 31Australia 67Finland 103Singapore 143Canada 179Evaluation 219Results of the Botín Foundation’s Social 221and Emotional Educational ProgrammeThe Effects of a Social and Emotional 229Educational Programme on infant-juveniledevelopmentPedagogical Evaluation of a Social and 247Emotional Educational Programme
  • 5. Social and Emotional Education. An International Analysis Fundación Botín Report 2011 Christopher Clouder (Director) Javier Argos Mª Pilar Ezquerra Luisa Faria Jennifer M. Gidley Marja Kokkonen Dennis Kom Lucy Le Mare Mª Ángeles Melero José Manuel Osoro Raquel Palomera Laurentino Salvador Fátima Sánchez Santiago
  • 6. Preface
  • 7. 10An educational trip around the worldThree years have gone by since October 2008 when we presented the first Botín Re-port on Social and Emotional Education1 –an international study featuring contribu-tions from renowned experts in the field– in October 2008 at the head office of theBotín Foundation in Santander.This study provided many people in the educational sector interested in the wellbeingof children and teenagers with relevant information about the various contexts in whichSocial and Emotional Education is initiated and subsequently developed, including casestudies of successful trials that have been carried out in different parts of the world. Sixcountries –Germany, Spain, the USA, the Netherlands, the UK and Sweden– took partin the first report which was accompanied by a final chapter featuring an assessmentexploring the scientific literature on the subject, including statistics on the effects ofSocial and Emotional Education on children and teenagers.The reaction to the Fundación Botín Report 2008 has been very positive, and has ful-filled our dual purpose of, on the one hand, contributing practical knowledge and ed-ucational expertise to help improve the education and development of children andteenagers, and, on the other hand, setting up a network of experts, institutions and thegeneral public in which skills, procedures and research about emotional, social, cogni-tive and creative development from infancy onwards can be shared and exchanged.The Botín Foundation continues to wholehearted support and invest resources in edu-cation. We are convinced that now, more than ever, in these difficult times, is when weneed to strongly encourage the development of personal and social skills from infancyonwards, so that families, schools and communities may consist of independent, com-petent, supportive and happy individuals – individuals with creative talents capable ofinspiring progress and of contributing to the advancement of society.Much has changed in these three years. What started off as an international report toinform the public of the progress made in the field of Social and Emotional Intelli-gence and Creativity around the world and to support the educational programmethe Foundation is carrying out in Cantabria (Spain), has been transformed into afully-fledged applied research project. The Botín Platform for Innovation in Education,set up in 2009 and directed by Christopher Clouder, is a meeting place for expertsfrom around the world. The Platform enables research and study to be undertakenby international work groups in order to improve knowledge on the subject. It alsoencourages and promotes the Foundation’s own educational programme. In additionto this, recommendable and successful educational approaches, trials and standardsare gathered together and shared via an interactive online social network that is freelyaccessibly (
  • 8. 11This new Fundación Botín Report 2011 is no ordinary report. It is the outcome of a wayof working and of a quest that seeks to bring together an increasing number of peoplewho are looking for innovative and creative formulae to change educational systems andprovide children and teenagers with training adapted to their needs and to the socialchanges which are constantly occurring.On this occasion, we have been joined around the table by researchers from Australia,Canada, Finland, Portugal and Singapore. The variety of different settings, cultures,situations and experiences has helped to enrich this study. The last chapter focuses,as it did in the first report, on evaluating social and emotional education programmes.This year we introduce the results obtained by the Botín Foundation’s ResponsibleEducation Programme, following its three-year long implementation in one hundredschools in Cantabria.We would like to express our thanks to all the team members –Christopher Clouder,Luisa Faria, Jennifer Gidley, Belinda Heys, Marja Kokkonen, Dennis Kom, Lucy Le Mare,Arrate Martín and Fátima Sánchez Santiago– for their hard work and effort. We hopeyou will enjoy perusing this Fundación Botín Report 2011 and taking another educa-tional trip around the world, which we trust will be a source of inspiration.Iñigo Sáenz de MieraGeneral Director of the Botín Foundation1 “Social and Emotional Education. An International Analysis. Fundacion Marcelino Botin Report 2008.
  • 9. “The salvation of this human world lies nowhere elsethan in the human heart, in the human power to reflect,in human meekness and human responsibility.”Vaclav Havel
  • 10. Introduction
  • 11. Looking AfreshChristopher ClouderThere is always that edge of doubtTrust it, that’s where the new things come fromIf you can’t live with it, get out, because when it is gone you’re onautomatic, repeating something you’ve learned.From “The Edge of Doubt” by Albert Huffstickler1In Antoine de Saint-Exupéry’s The Little Prince the eponymous child travels the universe andvisits a series of planets to learn about the vagaries of adult behaviour. The sixth such planetwas inhabited by an old gentleman who wrote voluminous books. He declares himself to be ageographer and he defines his occupation as that of “a learned man who knows where all theseas, rivers, towns, mountains and deserts are located“.2 (Saint-Exupéry, 2000) The prince isimpressed, as he seems to have encountered a real profession at last, having visited the pre-vious planets only to be disappointed. But on asking the geographer more factual questionsabout the planet that he inhabits the only retort he gets is “I can’t tell”. The boy remarks thatthis is an odd reply from a geographer and is then told, “It is not the geographer’s job to goaround counting off the towns, the rivers, the mountains, the seas, the oceans and the deserts.The geographer is far too important to go sauntering about. He does not leave his desk. Therehe sits and receives the explorers. He asks them questions, and notes down what they recol-lect from their travels.” But he also believes that explorers are not be trusted and have to besubject to an enquiry to establish their credentials, as they might be lying or even drunk. Ifthey pass this hurdle they then have to furnish proof of their discoveries. The conversationcontinues with the prince telling of the flower that lives on his planet and to his astonishmentthe geographer states “We do not take note of flowers. “The prince protests that they are pret-tier than anything else, but the geographer maintains they are not like mountains that stay es-tablished in one place and do not change, thereby making them worthy of mention becausethey are eternal, whereas a flower is ephemeral and dies.The writers in this analysis of social and emotional education across our planet, as both ex-plorers and educational geographers, exemplify this dilemma. Whatever happens in the class-room is ephemeral; it can only happen there and then with that particular combination ofpeople and circumstances. We can take note of it and attempt to describe it. We can developtheoretical grounding for its practice and its antecedents, imply the outcomes and then seekto measure them. Other educators can try to replicate that particular lesson, as though it werea mountain, but the streams of time, cultural evolution and diversity declare its ephemeralnature. Our intellectual curiosity needs to preserve the world in aspic in order to dissect itand thus understand, knowing full well it will always be an incompleted task that is ultimatelybeyond us. “Look up at the sky…. And you will see how everything changes… And no grown-ups
  • 12. 18 Introductionwill ever understand the significance of this!“3 (Saint-Exupéry, 2000) The beauty of the floweris in its very transcendence and that is analogous to the satisfying joy of educating and learn-ing “If someone loves a star of which there is only one example among all the millions and mil-lions of stars, that is enough to make him happy when he looks up at the night”.4 In the storythe flower is threatened by a sheep, the very sheep the child in his wisdom and awareness oftransience asked the writer to draw and create on their first encounter. “Here then is the greatmystery. For you who love the little prince, as for me, nothing in the universe can be the sameif somewhere –we do not know where– a sheep we have never met has or has not eaten arose”.5 (Saint-Exupéry, 2000)As we study and research social and emotional education we run the risk of either constructingour own inquisitive sheep that destroys the ephemeral beauty that it sees, or, of becoming ageographer, where only what is replicable or tactile can count as having any value. Explorers,too, can be drunk with enthusiasm and find only the products of their wishful thinking. Theline between the two is narrow indeed. As educators we need to evaluate and analyse ourIn order to find the new connections that are relevant toour contemporary lives we have, in the art of education aswell as in the art of being human, to be constantly creativeand questioningpractices and outcomes in order to gain a clearer picture, test our theoretical assumptions andto improve our schools. Furthermore what can be learnt in one situation can inform and beadapted for another through exchange of experience and deeper insights. In the research intoSocial and Emotional Education (SEE) we are touching on fundamental human values and ex-pectations and therefore our enthusiasm for any seemingly effective approach should be tem-pered with careful consideration and an ethical perspective. Our initial publication, Social andEmotional Education. An International Analysis, as does this second one, gave a picture notonly of schools, students, parents and teachers but also the cultural context within which they,as learning communities, lived and operated.However one lesson we have been able to draw from all our work is that there is no recipeand that all our combined perspectives still only lead to a partial picture. “In the twentieth
  • 13. Introduction 19century the specialists gathered around the cradle, and the child became a scientific object.The paediatrician’s biological child has nothing to do with the psychologist’s scientific child.Psychologists know nothing about children in institutional care and are astounded by therelativity of the historian’s child”.6 (Cyrulnic, 2009) We have to categorise in order to con-ceptualise - putting the world into nineteenth century natural history butterfly specimendrawers in a museum according to their perceived order of species and variations. Yet thesedistinctions are, in reality, false, as our world is an interconnected and interdependent meta-morphosing muddle. In order to find the new connections that are relevant to our contem-porary lives we have, in the art of education as well as in the art of being human, to beconstantly creative and questioning.As the world is being transformed around us so we also evolve. Childhood today is not thesame experience as it was for previous generations. Implicit in this is that the institutions andfacilities which society provides for the education of children should change too. Evolution,whether in the realm of nature around us, or within our species as human beings, progressesby fits and starts and not in a neat and comprehensible straight line, as life adapts itself to thechallenges of its environment and reciprocally affects it. For instance a paper was publishedin the Proceedings of the Royal Society at the beginning of 2011 that reported that becauseof disturbance caused by the noise in the urban environment songbirds were evolving thetechniques of their songs. Silvereyes, which have a wide repertoire and sing in sentences,have heightened the pitch of their tunes in urban settings from 40 decibels to 80, a signifi-cant change, and also slowed the pace so they could be more readily understood.7 (SydneyMorning Herald, 2011) However its country cousins have not needed to adjust in the sameway. So the species eventually divides into new communities through their differing methodof communicating. In our fast changing world it is not surprising that we can observe suchchanges in ourselves and in our societies too, and these changes deeply affect our children.Trends in Education 20108 (OECD, 2010) gives some telling insights into the possible ram-ifications of these changes. The greater urbanisation of humanity has potentially huge social,economic and cultural implications. It is expected that by 2050 around 70% of the world’spopulation will live in cities, whereas in the last few years it has reached a record 50%. In-habitants in large cities across the world will have more in common with each other thanthey will have with rural communities in their own country. Alongside this the exponentialdevelopment in modern technology gives us ease of communication across the globe. Weseem to possess the world in our pockets. This allows increasing interaction, collaborationand dissemination of information as well as creating new areas of creativity, but it also speedsup the pace of life. OECD countries find themselves with an ageing population because of an
  • 14. 20 IntroductionChildhood today is not the same experience as it was forprevious generations. Implicit in this is that theinstitutions and facilities which society provides for theeducation of children should change tooincreased life expectancy as well as lower birth rates and both have an impact on public ex-penditure that can lead to constraints on the educational budget due to significant increasesin pension and health costs.In most OECD countries income inequality is on the increase, as is relative poverty and thenumber of households characterised by child poverty. The negative impact that this has onchildhood well-being is well documented. In these ‘western’ countries the economy is in-creasingly knowledge-intensive and developing countries with their relatively young and dy-namic populations take on more and more of the actual production of goods. Women aremuch better qualified than a generation ago and have in fact become a majority in complet-ing secondary and tertiary education. With the growth of the norm that both parents areeconomically active there is less time to spend with children within the family and manychildren live with one parent or in patchwork families with a consequent effect on the child’ssocial and psychological development. Rates of child obesity are going up. This effect is ex-emplified in a U.K study of the physical condition of ten year olds conducted by Essex Uni-versity and carried out over the ten year period of 1998–2008. The results showed that inthat period of ten years there was a decline of 27% in the number of sit ups that the ten yearolds could do, as well as a fall in arm strength of 26% and a 7% drop in grip strength. Whereasone in 20 could not hold their own weight when hanging from wall bars in 1998, this in-creased to one in 10 by 2008.9 (Cohen et al, 2011) There has been an increase in the num-ber of children being treated for mental and behavioural disorders. “We should wonder whydepression has become a disease. It is a disease of society that is looking desperately for hap-piness, which we cannot catch. And so people collapse into themselves”.10 (Bruckner, 2011)Simultaneously the expectation placed on children to do well academically has also intensi-fied and educational policies in many countries are geared to achieving this. Niels Bohr, theDanish physicist, famously stated, “Prediction is very difficult, especially about the future.” Ofcourse wariness is needed when extrapolating these trends. Nevertheless, some of their im-plications are with us now.
  • 15. Introduction 21The present OECD General Secretary, Angel Gurria, pointed out in a speech given to the Ed-ucational Round Table at UNESCO headquarters in 2009, that we are currently facing thegreatest job crisis of our lives, especially for young people. “Our economic growth is increas-ingly driven by innovation, making skills obsolete at a much faster pace than before – The re-sponse lies in education. The key to success is no longer simply whether you can reproducesomething you have learned, but whether you can extrapolate from what you know and applyyour knowledge in a novel and changing setting”.11 (Gurria, 2009) Conventional education inschools has used methods that break problems down into manageable parts and have taughtstudents how to solve each section individually. Modern economies will require a synthesis-ing of different fields of knowledge and the ability to make connections between ideas that hadpreviously seemed unrelated. The implication is that teachers will have to increasingly col-laborate across disciplines, thereby transforming the school, and children and students will re-quire new learning techniques. Through sources such as the Programme for InternationalStudent Assessment [PISA] and Teaching and Learning International Survey [TALIS]) “…wehave also learned that change is possible …. by moving from uniformity to embrace diversity andindividualising learning”.12 (Gurria, 2009) Although this is a liberal market-economy orien-tated outlook, based on valuing human beings as producers and consumers as well as indi-viduals, it is nevertheless yet another influential voice added to a growing sense thateducational practices have to change. Looking at the uncertain cultural and economic envi-ronment into which we are now being plunged it is not surprising that greater considerationis being given to the salutogenetic role of schools. We can see greater bio-distress on the hori-zon and our children need to be prepared for such times. Yet such changes involve risk, asGurria also acknowledges “Breaking the status quo is not easy ….. Overcoming active resistanceto change in education policy is one of our central challenges’.13 (Gurria, 2009)Modern economies will require a synthesising of differentfields of knowledge and the ability to make connectionsbetween ideas that had previously seemed unrelated. Theimplication is that teachers will have to increasinglycollaborate across disciplines, thereby transforming theschool, and children and students will require newlearning techniques
  • 16. 22 IntroductionIn times of uncertainty we become more aware of human resilience, whether social or indi-vidual. Resilience has been used mainly as a term to designate children who have grown upin unpropitious circumstances or have undergone traumatic experiences and who have a setof qualities that have enabled them to find a process of successful adaptation and transfor-mation in the face of such risk and adversity. Nevertheless it is a human propensity that weall have to a greater or lesser degree, “We are all born with an innate capacity for resilience,by which we are able to develop social competence, problem solving skills, a critical con-sciousness, autonomy, and a sense of purpose“.14 (Benard, 1995)Decades of research have shown that there are commoncharacteristics of family, school and communityenvironments that can provide protective processes or arefactors that enable children to manifest resilienceDecades of research have shown that there are common characteristics of family, school andcommunity environments that can provide protective processes or are factors that enablechildren to manifest resilience. These are: caring and supportive relationships, positive andhigh expectations and opportunities for meaningful participation in the making of decisionsthat affect them. Other factors that support resilience play a role in the early years of a child’slife, such as having a mother with no long term health problems, positive parental attitudestowards seeking advice and support, an enriching home learning environment, living in ahousehold with at least one adult in full-time work and satisfaction with local services andneighbourhood.15(Kelly, 2010) Although many of these factors need to be there in the earlyyears when the child should be warmly ensconced in their family, schools can also play a rolein building resilience through creating an environment of caring personal relationships. How-ever, “social and cultural factors that play a deciding role in determining what are good or badoutcomes, make the notion of resilience a contextually specific and culturally biased con-struct”.16 (Unger, 2003) To build resilient schools requires that all the teachers make or aregiven the time to develop professional relationships with other members of the school com-munity as a whole, and a fundamental recognition that each situation is unique.Resilience refers to personal features that determine how adversity and stressful conditionsare dealt with. More resilient individuals are more likely to respond to adversity in ways that
  • 17. Introduction 23are less damaging to their physical and mental health. Boris Cyrulnik suggests that an aptmetaphor for resilience is knitting. “The ability to knit together a feeling of selfhood appearsto be a major factor in the aptitude for resilience”.17 (Cyrulnic, 2009) and he states categori-cally, “Resilience is a mesh not a substance”.18(Cyrulnik, 2009) Evidence of how such a fab-ric can be woven comes from programmes such as ‘The Song Room’ in Australia, which is aproject that has effectively supported the development of resilience in socially and economi-cally disadvantaged children by using the arts within school settings. An evaluation report bythe highly respected Professor Brian Caldwell, and launched by the Commonwealth Minsterof Education in Canberra, has highlighted the difference that the provision of an arts educa-tion can have on student engagement with their studies and schooling, as well as in helpingto develop happier, well-rounded students. Students that participated in The Song Room pro-gramme longer-term showed significantly higher grades in their academic subjects (English,mathematics, science and technology, and human society) than those who had not partici-pated; achieved significantly higher results in reading and overall literacy; had significantlyhigher attendance rates; and were more likely to be at the top two levels of the Social-Emo-tional Wellbeing Index in respect of the indicators of resilience, positive social skills, positivework management and engagement skills. The research also showed that schools participat-ing in Song Room programmes had better school attendance rates than non-participatingschools, with a 65% lower rate of absenteeism for students who had participated in The SongRoom programmes.19 (Caldwell et al, 2011) Through using the art of pedagogy as well as thearts themselves children’s lives can be transformed. “The point I am trying to make, the wholepoint of my hypothesis, is that the work of art is not an analogy – it is the essential act of trans-formation, not merely the pattern of mental evolution, but the vital process itself”.20 (Read,More resilient individuals are more likely to respond toadversity in ways that are less damaging to their physicaland mental health1951). Art is not an extra to be added to a school curriculum, so that the students can eitherjust relax or have a good time between the lessons that “really count”. Rather it is a prerequi-site to any balanced attitude to life and healthy living. For children it is an essential factor oftheir experience of growing that enables them to develop and change towards finding thesources of their own well being, physical and mental health and the ability to live harmo-niously alongside others.
  • 18. 24 Introduction“I believe that art can play –and indeed has an ethical responsibility to do so– a more activeand critical role in representing and questioning the complexities that are part of the globalworld and, although it does not have the power to change anything, it has the capacity and thepresence to refocus issues and propose reorientations to society”.21 (Power, 2009) JosephBeuys once said that “Creativity is national income” and in an age of economic turbulence anduncertainty with soaring youth unemployment, job insecurity and blighted career prospectswe should be turning our attention to how to prepare children and young people for such aworld. “As the future unfolds, schools will emerge as critical sites for promoting health, envi-ronmental vitality, academic growth, student well-being, and connections across communities…Creating resilient schools will require educators, families and other citizens to develop new ca-pacities”.22 (KnowledgeWorks, 2008) Schools, too, can be resilient organisations as they ac-knowledge and develop social and emotional education, for teachers and children alike, andexplore the research on which it is based. It underpins the traditional knowledge curriculum“Learning cognitive and emotional self-regulation helps young children with other activitiesand is proving a better predictor of later academic success than IQ tests”23 (Prince et al, 2009)and it is allied to a respect for the inner life of each individual child. The schools of the futurewill have to meet the new world challenges of responsive flexibility, enhanced collaborationand transparency through their own methods of innovation, adaption and openness. Health,learning and the environment are converging in our school communities and creating un-precedented challenges for all involved. ‘The general conclusion is that education can certainlyhelp improve health behaviours and outcomes. This can be done by raising cognitive, socialand emotional skills, and early launching of these competencies would not only be an efficientway of improving health but also an effective way of reducing health inequalities when tar-geted at disadvantaged groups”.24 (Miyamoto et al, 2010)Educational institutions that are based on the industrial or factory model inherited from the 19thcentury, with their top-down hierarchical structure, will clearly be found wanting as the move-ment towards a more creative culture in schools gather pace. Most innovations that really meetthe needs of today’s learners are likely to take place outside traditional institutions. As govern-ments across the world use the financial crisis as a pretext for increasing the focus in educationon effectiveness of student outcomes, reduce autonomy and increase privatisation25 (Douterlungeet al, 2010) it should be apparent that these are only short term measures that mask the fun-damental changes in educational practice that are really needed. The ideals of social cohesionthen run the risk of becoming empty promises, adding to the general cynicism. ”Unless we canbegin to see that our inherent discontent and drive for increasing competence run up against ourinterdependence or connectedness, we humans may not survive the next millennium“.26 (Young-Eisendrath, 1996) The clock cannot be turned back. The realm of education has become com-
  • 19. 26 Introduction“As the future unfolds, schools will emerge as critical sitesfor promoting health, environmental vitality, academicgrowth, student well-being, and connections acrosscommunities… Creating resilient schools will requireeducators, families and other citizens to develop newcapacities.” (KnowledgeWorks, 2008)petitive, especially between nations. This is understandable in a climate of economic turbulenceand anxiety. Yet our contention is that this can also be a disservice if we are serious about cre-ating an education that provides sustainability and is primarily concerned with the well being ofour future citizens. The opportunity could be used in a more constructive and far-seeing way andour two publications highlight how this could be doneThe texts in this second International Analysis survey the situation in a further five countrieswhere educators are seeking new approaches to social and emotional education. This is an areaoccupied by pioneers who are searching for what is relevant to our times, and who inevitablyachieve differing levels of success, due to a variety of cultural factors. But since 2008, when thefirst Botin Foundation International Analysis was published, there has been a growing body of ev-idence that strongly supports our common assumption that a creative and integrated approachto social and emotional education can serve the wellbeing of the child more extensively than thetraditional models have done. The final chapter in this publication on the evaluation results of theBotin Foundation’s Responsible Education programme fully supports this approach and showsremarkable benefits, within only three years of its initial implementation. Worldwide educationalresearch is coming to similar conclusions. These results in Cantabria are in line with the previ-ously mentioned Song Room outcomes and are also to be found in Reinvesting in Arts Education(PCAH, 2011)27 where findings of neuroscience using advanced techniques are cited that showthat: music training is closely correlated with the development of phonological awareness, whichis an important predictor of reading skills; children who were motivated to practice a specific artform develop improved attention and also improve general intelligence; links have been foundbetween high levels of music training and the ability to manipulate information in both workingmemory and long-term memory ‘Policymakers and civic and business leaders, as reflected inseveral recent high level task force reports, are increasingly recognizing the potential role of thearts in spurring innovation, providing teachers with more effective classroom strategies, engagingstudents in learning, and creating a climate of high performance in schools’.28
  • 20. Introduction 27When Saint-Exupéry was asked how the child-hero had entered his life, he said that he hadlooked down on what he thought was a blank piece of paper to find a tiny figure. ‘I asked himwho he was.’ he explained. ‘I’m the Little Prince’ came the reply.29 (Schiff, 1996) When we lookat our educational practices do we have the courage to see them as a blank piece of paper andallow our imaginations to work so that we hear what the children and young people of todayand of the future actually need in school, rather than living with presupposed and anachro-nistic models from the past? To do this we have to accept our unfinishedness as teachers, ed-ucators and carers, as we live and work with children who experience more fully theunfinishedness of their human nature than we, as adults, do. Man’s biggest wealth is his incompleteness. With this I am wealthy. Words that accept me the way I am – I don’t accept. Forgive me. But I need to be others. I intend to revitalize man By using butterflies. From “Mist Biography” by Manoel de Barros30For children the joy of exploration, learning, curiosity, wonder and awe are still fresh and per-vasive as long as their environment is conducive to their healthy growth and development.Whether we create butterflies or sheep is immaterial as long as when working with and along-side our children we can keep our imaginations alive. Scandalously for such a century as ours,When we look at our educational practices do we have thecourage to see them as a blank piece of paper and allowour imaginations to work so that we hear what thechildren and young people of today and of the futureactually need in school, rather than living withpresupposed and anachronistic models from the past?
  • 21. 28 Introductionwith all our immense capacities, not all children have anywhere near this level of good fortuneand suffer abuse, deprivation and gross exploitation. Yet there are grounds for hope as the adop-tion of the Millennium Development Goals has shown, by awakening the international commu-nity to the fact that improvement is possible through united action. The number of the world’schildren in primary education has increased from 84% in 1999 to 90% in 2008. The numberof children of primary school age who were out of school fell from 106 million in 1999 to 67million in 2009, which is a net increase of 7 percentage points despite an overall increase inthe number of children in this age group. But in the latter part of this period the rate of progresshas slowed, making the goal of universal primary education by 2015 a dim prospect.31 Childmortality for those who are under five years of age has been reduced by 33% in the last tenyears, in other words 12,000 fewer children are dying each day.32 Although the results so farare not all that were originally hoped for this does show we can improve the lot of our childrenby working across the historical barriers of culture, ethnicity, and prejudice. We cannot expectan ideal world but we can certainly work to make it better. “What we are awkwardly groping fortoday is an art of living that includes an acknowledgement of adversity but does not fall into theabyss of renunciation: an art of enduring that allows us to exist with suffering and against it”.33(Bruckner, 2010) And the common sense place to start is with childhood. This is not only a mat-ter of health-enhancing and fulfilling education but of human rights - the right to develop humancapabilities that encompass the individual power to reflect and be mindful, to make choices, toseek a voice in society and enjoy a better life.The United Nations officially published general comments on article 29 of the Convention ofthe Rights of the Child where they state that this article “insists upon a holistic approach to ed-ucation… that…. reflect an appropriate balance between promoting the physical, mental, spiri-tual and emotional aspects of education … The overall objective is to maximise the child’s abilityand opportunity to participate fully and responsibly in a free society. It should be emphasisedthat the type of teaching that is focussed primarily on accumulation of knowledge, promotingcompetition and leading to an excessive burden of work on children, may seriously hamper theharmonious development of the child to the fullest potential of his or her abilities and talents.”Our work in this publication, as in the former one, is a celebration of the initiative and en-deavours of many colleagues and parents who think along these lines and support each otherwith new questions, challenges and visions. We look forward to working with the growingnumber of like-minded people with goodwill for all the world’s children who are willing to joinus in this necessary reformation of educational practice on our own planet.
  • 22. Introduction 29Christopher Clouder FRSA is CEO of the European Council for Steiner Waldorf Education, speak-ing for 670 European Steiner schools in 26 countries.  He has had a long teaching career work-ing with adolescents and is a member of the executive group of the Steiner Waldorf SchoolsFellowship for the UK and Ireland. In 1997 he co-founded the Alliance for Childhood, a globalnetwork of advocates for the quality of childhood. He gives keynote lectures at conferences, uni-versities and teacher education courses internationally on educational matters, play and imag-ination in childhood, challenging contemporary issues around childhood, creativity andsocial-emotional education. He has published numerous books and writes articles on educationand childhood and works with policy makers. In 2009 he was appointed the founding Directorof the Botin Platform for Innovation in Education, based in Santander in Spain, which promotessocial and emotional education and creative learning in schools across the world.
  • 23. 30 Introduction1 Huffstickler, A. The Edge of Doubt2 de Saint-Exupéry, A. The Little Prince. Penguin. London. 2000, p.523 ibid. p.914 ibid. p.275 ibid. p.916 Cyrulnik, B. Resilience. Penguin Books. London 2009. p.77 Sydney Morning Herald 6/1/2011 City songbirds undergo evolution of the tweeties.8 OECD. Trends Shaping Education 20109 Cohen, DD. Voss, C. Taylor, MJD. Delextrat, A. Ogunleye, AA. Sandercock, GRH. Ten-year secular changes in muscular fitness in English children Acta Paediatrica. Wiley. 11/05/ 201110 Anthony, A. Interview with Pascal Bruckner. The Guardian. London. 23/01/201111 Angel Gurria Education for the future – Promoting changes in policies and practices: the way forward. OECD 10/10/2009.12 ibid13 ibid14 Benard, B. Fostering Resilience in Children. ERIC Digest. August 199515 Kelly, L. A Healthy Start in Life. Children in Scotland, Edinburgh June 201016 Ungar, M. Qualitative Contributions to Resilience Research. Qualitative Social Work. Vol 2. Sage Publications. 2003. p.8517 Cyrulnic. p.19 see 618 Cyrulnic. p.51 see 619 Caldwell, B.J. Harris, J. Vaughen, T. Bridging the Gap in School Achievement through the Arts. A summary report. 201120 Read, H. Art and the Evolution of Man. Lecture given in Conway Hall. London. 10/05/1951. Quoted in Herbert Read. Thistlewood. D. Routledge & Keegan Paul. London. 1984. p. 13821 Power, K. Culture, Poverty and the Megapolis in Cultura, pobreza y megápolis Fundación Marcilino Botín . San- tander 2009. p.7722 KnowledgeWorks. 2020 Forecast: Creating the Future of Learning. 200823 Prince, K. Lefkowits, L. Woempner, C. Crafting Policy for Emerging Educational Futures. KnowledgeWorks Foun- dation. 2009 Miyamoto, K. & Chevalier, A. Education and Health in Improving Health and Social Cohesion through Education. OECD. Paris 2010. p. 14725 Douterlunge, M. A Reflection on Benchmarks in Education and Training in a Period of Economic Crisis. Report of the EUNIC seminar. Limassol May/June 201026 Young-Eisendrath, P. The Resilient Spirit. De Capo Press. New York. 1996. p.192.27 Reinvesting in Arts Education. President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities. Washington DC. May 2011 p.2228 ibid p.vi29 Schiff, S. Saint-Exupéry, A Biography. Pimlico. London. 1996 p.58430 de Barros, M. Mist Biography. Poesia complete. Leya. São Paulo 2010. A maior riqueza do homem é a sua in- completude. Nesse ponto sou abastado. Palavras que me aceitam como sou—eu não aceito. . Perdoai Mas eu pre- ciso ser Outros.Eu penso renovar o homem usando borboletas.” From “Biografia do Orvalho” Translated by Jamie Sundquist31 The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011. UN. New York July 2011 p. 1732 ibid. p. 2633 Bruckner, P. Perpetual Euphoria - on the duty to be happy. Princeton University Press USA . 2010. p 224
  • 24. Portugal
  • 25. Social and Emotional Education in Portugal:Perspectives and ProspectsLuisa FariaAbstractThis work begins by presenting a view of social and emotional education in Portugal and high-lights the transformations that have taken place within the Portuguese education system. Thesechanges have gone hand in hand with the social and political changes that the country has ex-perienced, especially since the April 1974 Revolution. This revolution restored democracy andpluralism to society and triggered significant change in the roles played by women, the fam-ily and the school.In Portugal, the personal and social education approach has been developed and assimilatedin the areas of civic, moral and affective education, especially as it is defined in the EducationAct of 1986 (the law which defines the current Portuguese education system). The EducationAct stressed the encouragement of the integrated and harmonious development of students,in several aspects beyond just the cognitive, including bringing into the Portuguese educationsystem the overall area of personal and social education.In this context, two specific examples of schools and their practices are presented: a primaryschool – the Escola da Ponte (The Bridge School) – and a school for young people whose needshave not been met by the regular education system – the Escola de Segunda Oportunidade deMatosinhos (The Matosinhos Second Chance School). Both schools are known for their holis-tic and comprehensive approach to student development and their regard for personal and so-cial education.Next I present, within the conceptual framework of social and emotional education, an inter-vention programme for children developed as part of a university research project.Lastly, by way of a summary, I stress that both personal and social education and social andemotional education are based on a belief in the plasticity of human personality and its abil-ity to be positively altered through learning.Luísa Faria is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the Faculty of Psychology and Education,University of Porto, Portugal. She has been based there since 1986, and lectures in the fields ofDifferential and Educational Psychology. She was the director of a Masters Programme on Themesof Psychology, and she was the leader of a Research & Development Project (supported by thePortuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, the Portuguese Ministry of Education, andEuropean Union) on pupils’ personal conceptions of competence and achievement, and schools’collective efficacy. She is the author of numerous books, chapters, reports and articles, in na-tional and international journals, on Motivation, Intelligence and Psychological Evaluation. 33
  • 26. Country Chapter #4 | Portugal “Changes, however radical they may be, church and family, quickly gave way to a ter- never manage to completely extinguish tiary and aging population. It is a country that which is permanent.” which is similar to other European countries in terms of immigration, it is open to private António Barreto (2000, p. 39) enterprise and the market economy, with a welfare state that cares for children, the un-Introduction: between change employed, the sick and the elderly in a gen-and permanence eral, universal and standardised way (Bar-Portugal is an old country, “one of the oldest reto, 2000). The great issue that we face is tonation-states in the world”, but young in know whether the balance of such changes isterms of democracy, as democracy only ar- positive and whether these changes have al-rived on 25 April 1974 (Barreto, 2000). It lowed the best in us to a country full of contradictions. Thesemake up its wealth and feed the hopes of de- My intention is thus to reflect on our mostvelopment and renewal. promising attainment, namely the constant attempt to educate and develop citizens who It is a relatively small (almost 10 million are aware, free, responsible, and independ-inhabitants) and poor country, but just 37 ent, able to make and keep to commitments,years ago it was the last multi-continental to actively participate in social life, able toempire; it is a country which, over the last identify with the nation to which they be-four decades, has changed more than any long, and respecting and exchanging viewsother in Europe, but has the greatest gap be- with others.tween rich and poor. It is a country that haschanged the most within the Western world, Social and political changes in Portugalbut remains strongly divided between tradi-tion and modernity (Barreto, 2000). Education and the role of women within the family and society Today Portugal is an open society, which is The education of the young population ofexperiencing a high degree of uncertainty Portugal reached its peak following the April(Barreto, 1995) and which has been under- 1974 Revolution, with adult illiteracygoing many changes. These changes have af- amongst the young becoming almost non-ex-fected Portuguese society as a whole, altering istent and, in 2001, illiteracy among the pop-beliefs, behaviours, practices and what has ulation at large having fallen to rates belowbeen achieved. Portugal broke away from 48 9% (Table 1).years of authoritarian and conservative dic-tatorship, and embraced democracy, change, Compulsory education used to last 9 yearspluralism, the debating of ideas and differing and has, since 2009, been increased to 12perspectives. This triggered an explosion of years: Law No. 85/2009 of 27 August 2009religious and ethnic diversity, as well as a di- considers children and young adults fromversity of practices and customs, expecta- the ages of 6 to 18 to be of school age. At-tions and aspirations, which demanded new tendance at all levels of education is increas-ways of being, living and behaving. ing exponentially: in public secondary edu- cation (10th, 11th and 12th grades, that is ages The traditional, rural country with a young 16, 17 and 181) attendance went frompopulation, a high rate of emigration, a pro- 14,000 at the beginning of the 1960s, totectionist economy and bonds and networks 350,000 pupils in 2008. However, it was inof community solidarity and generosity, of pre-school and in higher education where34
  • 27. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalTable 1. Evolution of illiteracy in Portugal been observed in academic performance: the ratio of graduates per 100 students isYear Situation Variation favourable to women, who accounted for1900 73%1911 69% -4% 67.1% of total graduates at the start of the1920 65% -4% decade, and who accounted for 59.6% during1930 60% -5% the 2008/2009 academic year. Along with1940 52% -8%1950 42% -10% the increase in the education of the popula-1960 33% -9% tion and of women in particular, from the1970 26% -7% 1960s onwards we witnessed the progressive1981 21% -5%1991 11% -10% and full inclusion of women into the work-2001 9% -2% force. The rate of female participation in theSource: workforce increased from 15% in the 1960s to 56% in 2009, with the majority of women being employed in Public Administration, es-the greatest increases were recorded. The pecially in the areas of education and healthnumber of pre-schoolers grew from 6,000 (Valente Rosa & Chitas, 2010). Furthermore,children registered at the beginning of the the participation of Portuguese women in the1960s to 266,000 in 2008, with an increase workforce is one of the highest within the Eu-in average duration of attendance from less ropean Union. In 2008, the rate of activity ofthan 1 year in 1988 to a current average of women living in Portugal was only slightly2.5 years. Alongside this an “explosion” took exceeded by the rates in Sweden, Denmark,place in higher education, with the number of the Netherlands and Finland.registered students between 1978 and 2009rising by 290,000. Government investment Portugal is therefore the country in Europein education between 1978 and 2008 expe- with one of the highest rates of double in-rienced a threefold increase, from 1.4% to come households. This has a clear impact on4.4% of GDP. Between 1997 and 2003 gov- the social and legal status of women, and onernment funds allocated to the education sec- the organisation of family life, the care andtor accounted for at least 5% of GDP (Valente education of children and teenagers and theRosa & Chitas, 2010). support and care of the elderly, with families and society at large having to adapt to the The increased take-up of education among new role of women.the Portuguese population in the last fewdecades has been particularly strengthened However, despite the family being the firstby the participation of women. From the end environment in which the child begins to de-of the 1970s there were more young women velop as a social being, modern families mustthan young men in secondary education resort to institutions and establishments that(10th, 11th and 12th grades, i.e. 16, 17 and 18 specialise in the care and education of chil-years of age). The ratio of female pupils at dren. This brings up the issue of the advan-this educational level reached its highest per- tages and disadvantages of a child’s educationcentage during the 1991/92 school year during the first few years of life being en-(56.1%), and was 52.7% in the 2007/8 trusted to “strangers”, as a result of theschool year. In the first decade of the 21st mother’s professional commitments and ofcentury, women students were in the major- the social or support networks beyond theity in higher education, with 53.4 women family that have emerged due to social trans-per 100 students registered in higher educa- formations and the new social and profes-tion in 2008/2009. This same trend has sional roles of women. 35
  • 28. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalThe role of the school and of formal education is thusbecoming increasingly important in terms of the educationand overall development of children and young people,given that the family is no longer the fundamental sourceof socialisation The role of the school and of formal edu- The increase in the number of yearscation is thus becoming increasingly impor- spent at school by children and young peo-tant in terms of the education and overall de- ple makes the school a particularly impor-velopment of children and young people, tant social context for development. On thegiven that the family is no longer the funda- one hand and in the face of the constantmental source of socialisation: schools are technical and scientific development takingcurrently required to share with families the place in society, it has become necessary totask of educating and socialising children and teach, train and teach how to learn. On theyoung people. other hand, in the light of the changes in the social and professional roles of women inThe role of the school in educating children Portuguese society, the school is increas-and young people ingly active alongside the family in assumingDespite the particular emphasis that schools the care and education of children. However,place on the development of cognitive skills, in addition to collaborating with families,the focus has more recently shifted to the en- the school, as an integral part of the com-couragement of social and emotional, inter- munity and society, cannot distance itselfpersonal and moral aspects in the develop- from other organisations in the environ-ment of students. In fact, the objectives of ment, especially municipal authorities andschool do not remain the same throughout some civic associations. The relationship be-the school years. The first few years of tween the school and the family tends to beschooling focus on the overall development of complex: teachers often blame the failurepupils, paying attention to the various as- and behaviour problems of pupils on thepects of psychological development – cogni- family environment and parents complaintive, social, emotional, moral and creative. In about the school, holding the teachers re-the years corresponding to pre-adolescence sponsible for the failure and bad behaviourand adolescence, the objectives of school are of their children. It is therefore important tomore focused on the students’ cognitive de- establish strategies to encourage parentalvelopment and skills, with an increase in the participation and closer relationships be-formal organisation of teaching-learning tween the school and the family.structures i.e., several academic subjects, avariety of teachers each using different eval- The transformation of education in Portugaluation criteria, quantitative grades instead of The various social and political transfor-qualitative evaluation, more competitive mations that have taken place in Portugallearning activities and structures instead of over the last few decades have increasedmastery-oriented or cooperative ones. the relevance of encouraging non-cognitive development in formal education. In fact,36
  • 29. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalThe various social and political transformations that havetaken place in Portugal over the last few decades haveincreased the relevance of encouraging non-cognitivedevelopment in formal educationthe change in the role of women within The influence of economic growth in thesociety and the family, the change in the early 1970s opened up the regime. Severalrole and influence of the family in the ed- changes were introduced to the educationucation and socialisation of children and system: the extension of compulsory educa-young people, the increase in drug abuse, tion from 6 to 8 years, the inclusion of pre-violence, young offenders and teenage school education, the reform of the universitypregnancy, have rendered the school cur- and polytechnic system, which became ac-ricula obsolete in terms of preparing young cessible to all social classes, and the reform ofpeople to cope with the new challenges and teacher training. Nevertheless, many of thesenew roles with which they are faced. Ur- changes were not implemented and the dom-gent reform is thus required. inant school management system, which was non-participative and non-democratic, pre- In Portugal, after the 1974 Revolution vailed.which brought down the authoritarianregime, which was based on a social and po- The periods of unrest which followed thelitical organisation that was bureaucratic and 1974 Revolution were important for the es-Catholic, (Campos & Menezes, 1996), notable tablishment of democracy and pluralism, in-changes took place with regard to the role fluencing the democratic management ofplayed by the school in preparing young peo- schools, the development of new curriculaple for the new challenges of democracy. for the various subjects, new textbooks, and the emergence of student organisations and Under the former regime, education was teachers’ unions.based on tradition and the love of God, coun-try and family. A stereotypical division in The new democratic constitution broughtgender roles was emphasized, highlighting with it new objectives for education, whichthe role of women in the family as house- included the encouragement of personal andwives and of men as breadwinners. Compul- social development and the reinforcement ofsory schooling was for a short period only social cohesion and a collective national(lasting for 4 years up to 1964 and for 6 identity. In order to fulfil such objectives,years after 1964) and was marked by high new initiatives and disciplines were intro-rates of failure and absenteeism. Teachers duced into the school curricula. These in-were poorly trained, especially those in pri- volved the dissemination of concepts relatingmary education, and used compulsory text- to democracy through various subjects dur-books that were centrally imposed and based ing the first 6 years of schooling; the creationon the values of the regime (Stoer, 1986). of extra-curricular areas such as civic edu- cation, geared towards the development of 37
  • 30. Country Chapter #4 | Portugalcommunity projects and undertaking civil • a lack of cooperative and participatory at-service prior to going to University; and the titudes among young people;creation of a subject known as “Introduction • a lack of investment in schools in the per-to Politics” in secondary education (Campos sonal and social development of students,& Menezes, 1996). However, these measures with curricula, teaching methods, prac-were suspended, after being in force for only tices and organisations that overrate cog-two years (1974 to 1976), due to the lack of nitive development.continuity and integration, the lack of propertraining of teachers and adaptation to the de- With the publication in October 1986 ofvelopment levels of the pupils, as well as due the Education Act which defined the currentto accusations of indoctrination. Portuguese education system, principles such as the democratisation of education and the The 1980s were marked by the normali- fact that the State can neither determine norsation of democratic life, which reached its organise the educational system on the basispeak with the entry of Portugal into the Eu- of any type of religious, ideological, philo-ropean Community in 1986. These years sophical or political orientation were estab-witnessed (Grácio, 1981): lished (Campos & Menezes, 1998). Other key principles were the recognition of the• the elimination from the curricula of all right to education and culture, to equal op- values relating to the previous regime; portunities in terms of educational success,• valuing the pedagogical and social role of and to the freedom to learn and teach (Med- teachers; ina Carreira, 1996). Article 47 of the Edu-• the establishment of a democratic form of cation Act, which deals with curricular de- governance in schools; velopment, focuses on the integrated and• schools and teachers were gradually given harmonious encouragement of student de- greater autonomy; velopment, in several areas beyond the cog-• the importance given to the bonds that nitive, and includes an area of personal and exist between schools and the surrounding social education, as shown in Figure 1. In or- community; der to fulfil such an objective, schools must• the full democratisation of the school, open operate as democratic institutions and in- to all social groups. clude personal and social education in their curricula. These years also saw the emergence ofseveral studies and research projects in areas The teaching system now comprises 9such as political socialisation, the psychology years of compulsory schooling, with threeof development and education. The overall cycles and a universal curriculum. In additionconclusions of these studies paint a negative to the nine years of compulsory schoolingpicture of Portuguese young people (Campos there are 3 years of secondary education,& Menezes, 1996; Menezes & Campos, which are divided into three main areas –2000) including: general, technological and vocational. All stu- dents who have completed secondary educa-• a lack of participation in political life; tion may continue on to higher education• support for the democratic system but (Table 2). scepticism about its results;• values focused on the search for immedi- The establishment of the personal and so- ate gratification instead of progress or the cial education area led to discussions about the search for mid to long term objectives; best way to put this into practice, with regard38
  • 31. Country Chapter #4 | Portugal Balanced harmony between physical, and motor, cognitive, affective, aesthetic, social and moral development of the students Personal and Social Education in compulsory primary and secondary education (ecological consumer, Optional teaching of Catholic Flexible contents that includefamily, sex, accident prevention, and religion and morals (separation regional elements health education, education for of church and state) institutional participation, civic services)Figure 1. The curricular organisation regarding Personal and Social Education in theEducation Act (1986)Table 2. The Portuguese education systemCycles Number of Years Grades Ages Compulsory schooling (9 years)1st 4 1st - 4th 6-102nd 2 5th - 6th 11-123rd 3 7th, 8th and 9th 13-15Secondary 3 10th, 11th and 12th 16-18Higher Education 3-6 Polytechnic and University >18to its format, contents, objectives and method- and 9th grades (13, 14 and 15 years old). Theologies (Menezes, 1993). In 1989 four means national citizenship education programmeof putting it into practice were suggested by the addresses areas such as defence of funda-Ministry of Education (Campos & Menezes, mental rights, duties and freedoms, the or-1996, 1998): ganisation of the democratic state and par- ticipation in democratic life. Teachers were• its dissemination throughout the cur- trained to teach these subjects and to de- riculum; velop work with the students in personal and• a non-instructional subject for project de- social education, i.e., to help students to par- velopment (known as the Project Area for ticipate in the school as a democratic institu- the development and implementation of tion by defining and discussing class organi- practical activities), of 110 hours per annum; zation, by discussing school’s rules, and by• specific instruction of 1 hour per week helping them to organize elections to choose (Personal and Social Development), as an the student council representatives. alternative to Moral and Catholic Instruc- tion (agreed to by the Catholic Church); Project development was an important• extra-curricular activities. part of the Project Area. This area was de- fined as “a project for the development and The Project Area included a national citi- implementation of practical activities, with azenship education programme during 7th, 8th focus on real-life projects, giving students 39
  • 32. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalThe introduction of Personal and Social Education on anational level only came into force in 1991opportunities to take on relevant roles” An evaluation carried out in 1992 by the(Campos & Menezes, 1998, p. 111). The Institute for Educational Innovation on Per-project was designed to be carried through- sonal and Social Education showed thatout the year by the students, which chal- teachers, students and parents welcomed thelenged the traditional organisation of schools curricular reform, having observed the pos-and the curricula. Specifically, each class in itive influence of this new subject on teacher-each school had to design a project that the student relationships and the overall devel-students would develop during the year with opment of students (Campos & Menezes,the support and assistance of their teachers. 1996).One of the goals of this was to enhance theautonomy of the students and the teachers in The assessment of the national citizenshipthe learning process (Campos & Menezes, education programme, carried out by the In-1996). The Project Area was interdiscipli- stitute for Educational Innovation in 1993nary, aiming to develop an integrated vision with teachers and board members from theof knowledge, to promote cooperative work schools, showed unanimity in the importanceand to promote the construction of knowl- given to the programme, particularly withedge, connected with the real world, with regard to the encouragement of the activereal problems (social, economic, technolog- participation of students in society.ical, scientific, environmental, artistic andcultural) in a global perspective. Through The programme was criticized in terms ofthis open process, the school could become the difficulty that teachers experienced in in-more open to society and to people, more cluding it in the various subject areas in thepluralist, democratic and inclusive. curriculum, difficulties in accessing course materials such as videos, films and books The introduction of Personal and Social and the fact that insufficient training wasEducation on a national level only came into given to teachers to enable them to handleforce in 1991. It was piloted in 19 schools, controversial topics. In fact, the implementa-and went hand in hand with the national cit- tion experiences of the programme have var-izenship programme which was implemented ied from school to school. Many schools havein these same 19 schools. The teachers were taken a practical approach which often in-aware of the difficulties entailed in imple- volved the participation of the whole schoolmenting the objectives of personal and social community in the discussion and modifica-education across all school subjects due to the tion of school rules and regulations – basedfact that the curriculum focused mainly on on the rights and obligations of everybodythe cognitive aspects. Nevertheless, the teach- within a democratic school – which wereers involved in teaching this new subject wel- then approved and put into practice by thecomed the challenge of developing innovative boards of the various schools (Campos &projects that would be different in each school Menezes, 1996). Some of the projects, con-and in each year (Campos & Menezes, 1996). ceived locally in each school, included:40
  • 33. Country Chapter #4 | Portugal• analysing and debating about The Univer- methods. Some discussions revolved around sal Declaration of Human Rights; defending its transmission through cultural• discussing the political organisation of Por- knowledge and heritage, relating it to an ed- tugal and understanding the roles of polit- ucation in morals and values, such as re- ical parties, the parliament, and demo- sponsibility, justice, goodness and encourag- cratic elections; ing the socialisation of students through• promotion of students’ participation in methods such as discussing dilemmas, the their class as a democratic organization, by introduction of role models representing such promoting and electing student represen- values, and leading by example. Others tatives to the school council; viewed personal and social education within• reflecting on the school’s rules and regu- the school milieu as a place of civic partici- lations and taking responsibility for the pation (the ecological model, centred on con- student’s voice in the school. text), encouraging the aspect of “doing”, that is to say, making the student an active agent For example, in one school in Porto, after in his/her personal and social developmentthe examination of the school rules, students and in transforming the social context inand teachers agreed that some of the rules which s/he acts and interacts (Menezes,were not valid in a democratic organisation, 2007).such as the teachers not respecting thequeues in the school canteen, and some ar- In fact, the development of personal andeas of the school being out of bounds to stu- social education in the education systemdents. A commission made up of representa- seems to have slowed down in the 1990s,tives from the teachers, students, other with only one Personal and Social Develop-personnel and parents revised the school’s ment programme having been approved forregulations, discussed the new proposal for a the 3rd cycle (7th, 8th and 9th grades, that is 13,more democratic school and presented it to 14 and 15 years of age), and one continuingthe school board, which then approved it professional development programme for(Campos & Menezes, 1996). teachers. This has occurred in the context of the increasing emphasis placed on basic skills These activities and practical approaches and evaluation in the curriculum.allowed the students to actively and respon-sibly participate in the life of the school and In accordance with Decree Law 6/2001 ofin society at large. They enhanced students’ 18 January, which defined the curricular re-capacities to deal with life’s problems and to organisation of compulsory education, per-discuss moral and values-related issues. sonal and social education was preserved as a subject area, including three curricular as-The future of personal and social education pects for all students – Civic Education, thein Portugal Project Area and Supervised Study Periods. The 2001 Decree Law seemed, nevertheless, “Knowledge is not useful if it doesn’t to steer more towards Citizenship Education turn us into better people.” (building of identity and development of civic awareness among students) than towards Miguel Santos Guerra (2011) Personal and Social Development, following ‘to the letter’ what is set out in Article 47 of In the 1990s the debate about personal the Education Act, already analysed hereinand social education was characterized by (See Figure 1) (Menezes, 2007).in-depth discussions about its aims and 41
  • 34. Country Chapter #4 | Portugal There are specific textbooks for Civic Ed- • Brainstorming about “What is friendship?”;ucation, which include goals, suggestions and • Discussing moral dilemmas;resources for activities. To give a few exam- • Organization of a debate about aging in theples of the goals outlined in the interpersonal Portuguese population.relationships unit (Santos & Silva, 2009): Examples of Approaches used:Examples of goals: • Brainstorming;• To get to know your peers in your class; • Philips 6-6; (the participants are divided• To promote self-knowledge; into groups of six in order to discuss a sub-• To get to know your teachers; ject, a case study or a problem in 6 minutes)• To understand your rights and duties as a • Role-playing; student; • Role-reversal;• To create empathy in the classroom; • Rotation; (the participants are grouped into• To acquire habits of democratic participa- groups of 4 or 5 people to discuss a subject. tion and the debating of ideas; Each group discusses the subject for 10• To agree rules for the optimal functioning minutes and the elected secretary makes a of the class and to take responsibility for summary of the main ideas. After this, one keeping to the rules; person from each group leaves his/her• To build a self-image according to your group and goes to another group, in an personal values; anti-clockwise direction. Only the secre-• To acquire personal capacities that allow tary remains in each group in order to in- you to behave and act coherently in con- form the newcomers of the main ideas that flict situations; have so far been discussed. Every 10 min-• To be able to deal with the consequences of utes one participant in each group rotates to poor communication; another group and the activity finishes• To learn to express and support your when all the groups return to their initial opinions; composition and come to a final conclusion• To develop skills in the organization and that is presented to everyone) functioning of groups; • Case-study;• To learn the competencies necessary to be • Debate; a good and active citizen. • Wall-journal; (A wall-journal is dedicated to a particular theme or to several themesExamples of activities: at the same time. It is published on the• The reading of excerpts from adolescents’ wall. It includes written texts and graphic published diaries and their discussion in elements, drawings, pictures, photos, and the classroom (small and large groups); images);• Definition in small and larger groups of the • Writing a Prospectus; (This is a flyer that duties and rights of each individual in the usually accompanies a product, stressing class; its main characteristics);• Organization and supervision of the elec- • Writing a Biography; tion of class representatives; • Interview;• Discussion of cases of violence and ag- • Exhibition and public presentation of work gression in the school and in society and created by the students at school. coming up with the reasons for and solu- tions to them; Regarding the future of personal and social• Writing a letter to a friend in trouble, nam- education in the Portuguese education system ing his/her best strengths and qualities; it should be noted that above all “the school42
  • 35. Country Chapter #4 | Portugal“...schools can certainly make a difference, but cannotchange everything... we cannot rely solely on them tocreate more democratic, respectful and pluralist societies”(Campos & Menezes)is a social institution within a larger macro- gies that include participation in and serv-system and therefore inevitably reflects the ice to the surrounding community, diver-hidden agenda of society i.e. the values trans- sifying and transforming the contexts inmitted by society at large, which are not ex- which personal and social education usu-plicit goals of the curriculum, but have an im- ally takes place;pact on schools. This means that schools can • interventions must encourage the involve-certainly make a difference, but cannot ment of teachers, board members, non-change everything. Although schools are in- teaching staff and parents, encouragingvolved in the defence of democracy, dignity partnerships between all these stakehold-and diversity, we cannot rely solely on them ers, as this is the only way to encourageto create more democratic, respectful and the development of ethical values amongpluralist societies” (Campos & Menezes, the students;1998, p. 112). • the interventions must be carried out by trained personnel who continuously sup-The role played by teachers in personal and port the intervention;social education • lastly, they must be subject to systematicThe key ingredients for delivering successful monitoring and evaluation.personal and social education have beenidentified in several studies. They are as fol- It is necessary to prepare teachers tolows (Lopes & Salovey, 2004; Menezes & achieve all of these challenges. The trainingCampos, 2000; Puurula et al., 2001): should include training in reflecting on their practice in order to make change and excel-• interventions need time and continuity. lence possible. In addition to teachers being Episodic, short and non-continuous inter- given the knowledge and skills to teach spe- ventions have proved to be ineffective and cific subjects they should be encouraged to do not bring about change; develop their own solutions and materials,• the interventions must be comprehensive utilizing and adapting best practice in per- (not episodic or specific) and must be in- sonal, social and values education as devel- tegrated within the school curriculum oped by other cultures and countries, care- and/or extra-curricular activities. fully choosing those that are most appropriate• interventions must have a theoretical ba- for their culture and encouraging educational sis, must be adapted to the culture and to research. The areas that are crying out for the child or young person’s age or stage of further research include the curriculum and development. Interventions should in- organisation of schools, the attitudes and clude actual experiences and concrete ex- methods of teachers who are attempting to amples. interventions must include strate- influence the conceptions and development of 43
  • 36. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalTherefore, the deep political, social, cultural, technologicaland economic changes that we are experiencing requireteachers to be prepared to transform their roles... Studentsshould be equipped to face challenges and transformationsduring the development of their careers and their lives ascitizens, not only in their own country but also in Europeand the world at large(Campos, 2006)students in the social, personal and emo- in their classes, encourage inclusion and suc-tional realms (Menezes & Campos, 2000). cess for all, create safe learning environments and offer help with learning processes. Instead In fact, teachers in several countries in of merely transmitting content, they must workEurope perceive the social and affective di- as a team with other teachers and profession-mension of education as a core component of als involved in the learning process, thus mak-their work and professional responsibilities, ing the role of the teacher a less solitary one.and European students, on their part, also Teachers must also extend their work beyondconsider the performance of teachers in this the school gates, and collaborate with parentsregard to be a crucial ingredient of the edu- and other stakeholders in the community, suchcational process (Puurula et al., 2001). as municipal authorities, members of civic as- sociations, and local entrepreneurs. Therefore, the deep political, social, cul-tural, technological and economic changes In short, one of the most significant as-that we are experiencing require teachers to pects of the educational process is related tobe prepared to transform their roles, to offer the feelings, beliefs, attitudes and emotions ofskills for life and citizenship education so the students, to their “emotional literacy”, tothat their pupils are equipped with the abil- interpersonal relationships and social skills,ity to live in multicultural, inclusive and tol- that is, to the non-cognitive aspects of indi-erant societies, are aware of environmental vidual development: in fact, in times of cur-concerns, and will encourage gender equal- ricular transformation, teachers must con-ity within the family, the workplace and so- tinue to concern themselves with thecial life. Students should be equipped to face personal, social, emotional and moral aspectschallenges and transformations during the of the development of their students (Puuruladevelopment of their careers and their lives et al., 2001).as citizens, not only in their own country butalso in Europe and the world at large (Cam- The capacity to work with others in a teampos, 2006). is a key feature of the school of the future. Stu- dents work better in an environment where It is important that teachers have the skills there is not only discipline, but where the re-to deal with ethnic, social and cultural diversity lationships between teachers and students and44
  • 37. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalThe capacity to work with others in a team is a keyfeature of the school of the future. Students work betterin an environment where there is not only discipline, butwhere the relationships between teachers and studentsand among the students themselves are positive andconstructiveamong the students themselves are positive Chance schools are geared towards thoseand constructive. young people, older than 15, who have left school without having completed compulsoryTwo schools demonstrating good practice in primary education. These schools attempt topersonal and social development provide these young people with alternativeIn my search for specific examples from Por- training opportunities and career paths,tugal that were marked by the quality of their (re)inserting them into society and positivelywork in the area of personal and social de- altering the direction of their lives.velopment, including the aspects of moralityand values as part of student development,and where such aspects are seen as being an Case Study: Escola da Ponte2integral part of academic development, I have (The Bridge School)selected two schools that have developed suc-cessful educational projects for children and “Educating is like living, it requires con-teenagers. sciousness of the unfinished, because the time during which I become who I am I shall begin by presenting the older of the along with others (...) is a time of possi-two schools, the Escola da Ponte (The Bridge bilities and not of determinism.”School), a primary school in the municipalityof Porto, founded in 1976, which caters for Paulo Freire (1996)pupils between the ages of 6 and 15 years.Escola da Ponte, due to the importance of its The Escola da Ponte – is located in theinnovative educational programme focused municipality of Porto. Catering for First (6 toon the student as a whole person, has been 10 years old), Second (11 to 12 years old)the subject of many academic studies and and Third (13 to 15 years old) cycles, with apublications. The school has worked in part- total of 220 students, the school uses the fol-nership with several universities. lowing non-traditional educational methods: The second school I have selected, the Es- • The school is organised in the form of acola de Segunda Oportunidade de Matosinhos “team project” in which all students and(The Matosinhos Second Chance School), teachers are engaged;founded in 2008 and the only one of its kind • there are no class or form teachers;in the country, is part of the European net- • pupils are not divided into classes on thework of “second chance” schools. Second basis of their age; 45
  • 38. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalThe refuge of the classroom has been eliminated in favourof shared educational spaces• students work in teams, in mixed groups ect) to run the school, plan activities, and to of students (mixed in terms of age, gender, supervise their own learning and assessment. etc.). The architecture of the building enables the adoption of an integrated school day, allow- Within each group, the management of time ing the use of every space throughout the day,and space allows for opportunities to work in without breaks occurring in the organisationsmall groups, group participation, “mutual of the daily work. This takes place within thelearning and teaching” and individual work. concept of an open school where the class-The refuge of the classroom has been elimi- room is an workshop where students learn allnated in favour of shared educational spaces. types of skills, techniques, habits, and areThe school has thus been designed in an open- trained to discover the world, also known asplan style. Its educational practices are based a cooperative (Freinet) or a laboratoryon the following guiding principles: (Dewey). This model provides all the spaces needed by pupils to share learning, materials,• to promote a range of effective learning communications, presentations, etc. through- activities on the basis of a Human Rights out the day. The concept of having no walls strategy (e.g. promoting activities for frees the students and teachers from the learning and participation in small rigidity of traditional spaces and helps to de- groups); molish other walls (Canário, Matos, &• to guarantee equal opportunities in educa- Trindade et al., 2003). Finally, the goal of the tion and self-realisation to all pupils in the P3 model, working in the spirit of the Active school as citizens with rights and respon- School (where communication, interaction, sibilities; discussion and agreement between teachers• to promote active solidarity and responsi- and students are promoted, where power is ble participation in all educational shared, and where teachers facilitate learning processes3. and students learn to be autonomous), is to favour a variety of ways of learning, both in- The organisational structure of the Escola dividually or in groups.da Ponte, is based on the P3 model. The P3model is a Scandinavian architectural model In order to provide a learning environ-from the 1970s, with open areas and multi- ment in which pupils are able to increaseuse spaces, that facilitate the social integration their knowledge, the work areas are equippedof students and the use of the school by the with many resources – such as books, ency-community. This model, in terms of space, clopaedias, text books, dictionaries, books ontime and modus operandi, requires much grammar, the internet, videos and CD ROMsgreater student participation. Students work – to encourage pupils to use a variety ofwith the teachers (who act more as educa- sources of information. In order to create ational counsellors than as traditional teachers learning environment that facilitates concen-by working together with the students as part tration, attention and collaborative work,of the team, on a common educational proj- background music is played in all areas.46
  • 39. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalStudents work with the teachers... to run the school, planactivities, and to supervise their own learning andassessment In the Escola da Ponte, the division into and Crafts, Visual/Technological Educa-school years or cycles is based on the concept tion and Physical Education)of Core Areas. There are 3 Core Areas: • and Personal and Social Development (Personal Skills Training, Psychology and• Initiation; the education of the students with learning• Consolidation; difficulties and of students with other spe-• Deeper Approach. cial needs, such as gifted students). For further details, see Figure 2. The progression of the students throughout the core areas, instead of school years or cy- The curriculum is made up of 6 subject cles, depends on the teachers’ evaluation of theareas: students in the following areas: how respon- sible the student is, the quality of his/her re-• Languages (Portuguese, English, French lationships and willingness to help others, the and German), degree of persistence shown and concentra-• Individual, Local, and Cultural Identity tion on tasks, autonomy, creativity, the degree (History, Geography and Environmental of participation and pertinence of the student’s Studies), interventions in the daily activities and dis-• Natural Sciences (Physics, Chemistry), cussions, his/her capacity for planning, ca-• Logic-Mathematics (Mathematics), pacity for self-evaluation, self-discipline, the• The Arts (Music Education, Drama, Arts capacity to do research autonomously, to solve Curriculum Languages; Individual, Local and Cultural Identity; Natural Sciences; Logic-Mathematics; the Arts; and Personal and Social Develpment Consolidation Deeper Approach Consolidation of knowledge in Children/Adolescents develop Initiation several areas obtained in the competencies in the several areas Children who enter school for Initiation area. of the curriculum related to the 5th the first time and begin to learn Children should be ready to work and 6th grades (11/12 years old) the rudiments of reading, writing in groups, to search for knowledge, They should be able to manage and counting to plan autonomously and to their time and activities at self-evaluate school autonomouslyFigure 2. The pedagogical organisation of the curriculum and the core areas in Escola da Ponte (The Bridge School) 47
  • 40. Country Chapter #4 | Portugalproblems wisely, the capacity to conceive and • accepts and uses different points of view,develop projects, to analyse problems/situa- works on solving and preventing prob-tions and to make syntheses of the main as- lems from occurring, and when problemspects of these, the capacity to clearly commu- arise tries to solve them with justice andnicate ideas and discoveries, and to use new serenity;technologies. • correctly uses the project work methodology; • uses complex processes of knowledge and All of these constitute a profile of compe- thinking, and analyses what has been pro-tencies that is analysed for each student when duced and the results of interventions;the decision is being made about his/her • is capable of communicating coherentlytransition from the initiation to the consoli- and with clarity;dation area, and from the consolidation area • uses computer software programmesto the deeper approach area. and resources (Excel, Word, e- mail, in- ternet searches, and can present digital The ideal profile of a student ready to leave information).the deeper approach core area includes theattainment and mastery of the following com- As for the management of daily life in thepetencies: school, this is based on a collective approach where all tasks are divided into several• follows and helps to fulfil the responsibil- groups of responsibilities, defined on the ba- ities of the group; sis of the needs of the school.• maintains a good relationship with peers and adults, allowing others to help him/her Several pedagogical approaches and in- and is willing to spontaneously help others struments for groups have been developed to when they are in need of assistance; promote a strong sense of the school as a• overcomes difficulties and obstacles with- community and to encourage students to par- out needing help, and contributes to the ticipate in the life of the school and of the enhancement of the concentration of community, and as a means of promoting his/her peers; social, personal, and emotional development.• takes initiatives autonomously, revealing As a whole, these approaches support the assertiveness in making decisions; work taking place in the school and encour-• innovates, is original and coherent; age responsible and joint independence,• participates actively in the school activities, based on the use of one’s voice as an instru- is capable of listening, participating, ment of citizenship, in the sense of educating searching for consensus, and of presenting to develop active and participative citizens. constructive critiques, Some examples of key approaches are:• makes, develops and meets the goals in his/her individual plan of learning; • The School Assembly. This is a live demon-• corrects his/her failures after analysing stration of participative democracy, re- the work, searching for solutions and flecting the involvement of students in the strategies for overcoming difficulties; organisation and decision-making• follows the school rules, processes. The assembly is a fundamental• searches for information using different part of the school’s mission to develop its sources and means, collects it critically, students to be active and participative cit- and works with it constructively; being ca- izens. The students learn how to get on pable of communicating about his/her with and work with others. The Assembly work; committee is made up of ten members48
  • 41. Country Chapter #4 | Portugal (chair, vice chair, secretaries and board to share their needs and emotions with members) and meets weekly with the en- the teaching body in a safe way; tire school community. The agenda for the assembly is drawn up by the students and • Little box of made-up texts. A place where is posted on the school bulletin board. Min- the children and young people can share utes are taken of every session. Every- things that they have written themselves. thing that is deemed relevant to school life The pieces of writing are read by the is subject to discussion and debate: pre- teachers and may be shared publicly if sentations of individual or group projects, they are important or if they illustrate decision-making, and conflict resolution; something important for the other stu- dents.• Discussions. Which serve as opportunities to develop a critical approach, communi- An extract from a text written by an 8- cation skills and the capacity for synthesis year old female student: – are held whenever necessary. Regular discussions take place every day from “Ways of freedom” 15:00 to 15:30, with the entire core area, As our school tries to be a place where or in each work area. These are meetings we learn how to become a good citizen, which include collective reflection and dis- every fortnight, we have a book, which cussions, preparation of Assembly activi- talks about this theme. The name of the ties, quizzes, presentations of individual or book is “How to become a good citizen, group projects, and educational games; explained to young people and others”, written by the Portuguese poet José Jorge• Rights and Responsibilities. Every year, in Letria. He says that, every day, we do the school assembly, the students decide things related to being a good citizen .He which responsibilities and rights are con- also says that a good citizen has the ca- sidered essential. The students prepare a pacity to guide him or herself by the re- list of responsibilities and rights which is sponsibilities and rights in the Por- then discussed. The duties and rights tuguese Constitution. Solidarity is a way which are considered essential to the of becoming a good citizen. To sum up, needs of the school are then chosen by being a good citizen is to respect the majority vote; others.”• The Help Commission. A group of four stu- • Pieces of Me. This is a space and a time dents is assigned the task of solving the where the students can share important most difficult problems that are presented things about themselves, writing these on to the School Assembly. Two of these stu- a wall, which has been designated for this dents are chosen by the School Assembly purpose or speaking about such topics in and the other two by the teachers; the School Assembly. This approach pro- motes the expression, management and• Secrets’ Box. In this box children and regulation of positive and negative feelings, young people can leave messages, notes, emotions, and thoughts; and requests for help. The purpose of the box is to help the teachers to understand • Personal, Social and Emotional Develop- the students’ needs and problems, and to ment Sessions. The students volunteer to help them become happier people. It is a take part in these sessions at the beginning way of helping children and young people of the school year. They divide themselves50
  • 42. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalThe school offers a curriculum that values both formallearning and “informal” learning into small groups and during the year they different for each person, as every student is organize sessions, with the educational the author of and the actor in his/her edu- counsellor, on subjects such as: drugs, sex- cational path. uality, love, dating, friendship, relation- ships with peers or parents, racism, and Every fortnight each student meets with domestic violence. A variety of resources his/her educational counsellor (who directs are used in the sessions, such as: audio and the educational route of his/her pupils and visual media, news clippings, etc. Fictional ensures that there is a strong connection be- or true stories and dilemmas are used as tween family and school) to plan what they the main lens through which the students wish to learn in the next fortnight (Two- consider and debate the problems, discuss weekly Plan). This plan includes subjects that possible resolutions and the consequences are common to the whole school and which of the decisions, and come to several pos- are undertaken as collective activities (such sible effective and adequate solutions. The as the creation of the assembly) and individ- ability to share and to trust is developed ual subjects that are negotiated with the ed- during the course of the sessions, and in ucational counsellors responsible for that some cases these sessions act as a means subject or skill area. The Two-weekly Plan is of psychological support. the basis for each daily learning plan (Day Plan), which is almost always developed on With regard to teaching, the counsellors the basis of research and exploration, a learn-work alongside the pupils, taking into ac- ing-by-discovery process, where learning tocount the specific needs of each student. The do goes hand in hand with learning to learn.cooperation between educational counsellors The educational counsellor also observes theand the work of students in mixed age groups attitudes and behaviours of his/her pupilsbecomes common practice. The aim is to get and helps them to master everyday learningstudents to create work that values reflection management strategies.and cooperation, demonstrates the capacityfor critical synthesis and investigation and, in The parents are actively involved in sup-addition, also places value on the subjects porting the education of the pupils and thewhich are part of the National Primary Edu- management of the school. Parent-schoolcation Curriculum (e.g. Mathematics, Por- contacts are made whenever necessary viatuguese, Natural Sciences). However it goes the educational counsellor who works along-beyond this. The school offers more than the side, guides and, in collaboration with thenational curriculum. It offers a curriculum other educational counsellors, carries out athat values both formal learning and “infor- daily assessment of his/her pupils’ learning.mal” learning (i.e. those learning experiences There is a Parents’ Association, which is onethat happen spontaneously: learning through of the school’s most important partners. Inteamwork, through participating in the school addition to meetings and activities organisedassembly, etc.). In this way, the curriculum is by the Parents’ Association, monthly meetings 51
  • 43. Country Chapter #4 | Portugalare held between the parents and the teach- the areas of the national examinations, espe-ing body in order to discuss and make deci- cially in reading comprehension and writing,sions that affect school life. in Portuguese, and in mathematical problem solving. Compared to other schools in the This school is founded on values such as region Escola da Ponte had fewer pupils in thesolidarity, a democratic approach, autonomy, fifth and six grades who failed or dropped outresponsibility, liberty and cooperation. In of school.short, the mission of the school is to educateto enable reflection, constructive criticism, Overall, the different evaluations show thatdebate and change. Autonomy is a value that it is possible to obtain favourable results re-pupils acquire as they advance in their learn- garding cognitive, personal, social, and emo-ing. The way that the school is organised is tional capacities by following the Escola dainspired by an inclusive and cooperative phi- Ponte’s approach.losophy which translates into very simple as-pects: we all need to learn, we can all learn There have been approximately 32 un-from one another and s/he who learns, learns dergraduate, masters and doctoral theseshow to be a good citizen in his/her own way. written about this school, as well as manyIn addition to meetings and activities organised by theParents’ Association, monthly meetings are held betweenthe parents and the teaching body in order to discuss andmake decisions that affect school life Several universities and a number of un- internship theses and projects by universi-dergraduate and graduate students have ob- ties from across Portugal. In addition,served and evaluated the Escola da Ponte’s around 30 books, both in Portuguese andapproach to education and have given excel- Brazilian Portuguese, and articles in a widelent feedback about how it functions and how range of journals and magazines with anit is organised. In particular the evaluation re- extensive readership have disseminated theports highlight the school’s emphasis on the school’s successful approach and its socialholistic development of its pupils, the close relevance to the local community and to so-relationship between learning and holistic ciety at large.personal development (i.e. not only cogni-tive/academic development), as well as the The Escola da Ponte takes an implicit ap-positive academic results obtained by the stu- proach to social and emotional education,dents. An external commission appointed by through the whole range of educational ap-the Ministry of Education, in 20034, to eval- proaches that make up its ethos, and seeks touate the Escola da Ponte, produced a report in promote approaches which enhance students’which they concluded that the students of development as socially and emotionally in-Escola da Ponte were superior in almost all telligent citizens.52
  • 44. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalThe Second Chance Schools do not attempt to fit eachpupil into predefined categories and processes. Insteadthey create personalised training plans which are adjustedto the interests, abilities and experience of each studentCase Study: Escola de Segunda Oportunidade Second Chance Education worked to createde Matosinho5 (The Matosinhos Second the conditions to open the school, promotingChance School) the concept among the various players in the educational field. The association developed a “Teaching is not only a way of earning a number of second chance educational activ- living, but is fundamentally a way of ities with young people, including three years contributing to the lives of others.” of international young student exchanges as part of the Arts and Dreams programme6. Miguel Santos Guerra (2011) These activities provided a space for testing some of the approaches and methodologies to Second Chance Education was born out of be used in the new school. The school was fi-the awareness, which since 1995 has been nally opened on 1 September 2008, sup-growing in the European Union, that we must ported by a partnership between the Associ-offer young people who have had negative ation for Second Chance Education, the Cityschooling experiences, the opportunity to at- Council of Matosinhos and the Regional Officetend new schools that work in alternative of Education in the North.ways. The Second Chance Schools do not at-tempt to fit each pupil into predefined cate- The Matosinhos Second Chance Schoolgories and processes. Instead they create per- emphasises its belief in the right of everyonesonalised training plans which are adjusted to to have a second chance to discover that theythe interests, abilities and experience of each have the capacities, the dreams and aspira-student. The strength of the second chance tions to make it in the world and that theymodel lies in its flexibility and the fact that the also have a right to a future. It is not just aeducation and training that is offered is school. It is a social and cultural project thatadapted to the needs of its target population. attempts to intervene at various levels in theThe Escola de Segunda Oportunidade de lives of young people. Key aspects of theMatosinhos was born out of a joint initiative school are as follows:of teachers and other educational profes-sionals who, in 2005 founded the Association • Many other organisations are actively in-for Second Chance Education. The aim of the volved in the school, for example, the In-association was to open a second chance stitute of Employment and Vocationalschool in Matosinhos, in the district of Porto, Training, the local schools, the Centres forPortugal, that would form part of the Euro- New Opportunities (which are units thatpean Association of Cities, Institutions and are responsible for meeting the trainingSecond Chance Schools (E2C Europe). For need of people older than 18 years, whoapproximately four years, the Association for did not complete compulsory schooling), 53
  • 45. Country Chapter #4 | Portugal the Parish Councils, the Health Centres, • the use of artistic education as an instru- the System for Protection of Children and ment for motivation and organisation of Young People, and Business Associations. learning. In addition to the subject areas The school is part of a more widespread outlined above the students can share their policy of urban regeneration and helping skills and knowledge with others outside young people back into society. Portugal, through visits to partner organ-• The school works closely with local busi- isations in Europe. In addition, the prod- nesses and industry, persuading busi- ucts that the students create at school are nesses to incorporate social responsibility sold in the local community, in order to issues into their strategies, encouraging give social meaning and relevance to the them to sponsor school activities, to offer youngsters’ work. Artistic education can be young people training/apprenticeship op- used as a space of learning and training, portunities while they are at the Second but is also a space where trust and skills in Chance school or even offer them jobs relating to others can be developed, a mo- once they have graduated. The school also tivating environment and a more flexible seeks to work with business associations and informal educational offering; and trade unions to make them aware of • the education and training is based on the the future employment needs of these needs and interests of each student. Each young people. pupil develops his/her Individual Training Plan, with the support of the school’s guid- In this way the Matosinhos Second Chance ance professionals;School offers young people between 15 and • students’ progress is closely supervised by25 years of age who have left school without the school tutors, who suggest and negoti-having obtained basic qualifications and skills, ate with each pupil any necessary adjust-an experience of training that is motivating ments or reformulations to their trainingand which is geared towards the develop- plan.ment of personal, social, emotional and vo-cational skills based on the students’ aspira- All young people at the school:tions and abilities. Of central importance isvocational training and the creation of life • take accredited vocational and academicplans. The education offered includes: courses; • participate in cultural, sports, and health• the acquisition of basic skills (literacy, nu- and safety activities, and go on field trips; meracy, and social skills) and practical on- take part in international exchanges; the-job training. The subject areas offered • participate in identical programmes in by the school include: other countries, mainly those organised by other European Second Chance(I) music, theatre, and movement (dance, Schools. physical education),(II) computer software and hardware, Many young people are interested in at-(III) multimedia and web-design, tending the Second Chance School. What at-(IV) arts and wood, ceramic and metal tracts these young people to the programme? technologies, What makes this school different from other(V) cooking, hotels and tourism, schools?(VI) electronics, and(VII) building construction. (I) The school is a social area, a democratic organisation where the opinions of young54
  • 46. Country Chapter #4 | Portugalpeople are taken into account. The school (VII) The school offers a curriculum inhas a relatively flat structure and is not very which vocational and artistic training playshierarchical. There is a strong prevalence of a central part as do both intercultural andhorizontal relationships, students are lis- international exchanges;tened to and participate in school decisions; (VIII) It places key importance on the de-(II) The school is based on a motivational velopment of personal, social and emo-approach that constantly attempts to meet tional skills, and the re-direction of stu-the needs and motivations of young people, dents’ life paths away from socialfostering enthusiasm and providing rea- exclusion;sons to come to school each day in order (IX) The school staff unconditionally ac-to participate in the training activities and cept young people, in terms of the way thatlive more satisfying lives; they speak, they dress, their personal(III) The approach of the school includes styles, what they eat and drink, and theira number of different theories and disci- mood swings;plines: Student-Centred Learning (Carl (X) The school staff are prepared to takeRogers), Unconditional Acceptance, Positive risks and to work in spheres of explo-Discipline (Jane Nelsen), Non-Use of Pun- ration and uncertainty;ishment, Acknowledgement of Mistakes, (XI) The school values the talents of youngLogic and Natural Consequences, Error people, which are often hidden, seeking toCorrection, Attachment Theory (John discover and recognise their potential.Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth), Encourage-ment of Emotionally Corrective Experi- Some facts and information about theences, Modelling (Bandura), The Impor- pupils and the school:tance of the Affective Valence inBehavioural Modelling, Zone of Proximal (I) Almost 100 young people have at-Development (Vygotsky), Assessment, Di- tended the school. At the moment ap-agnosis and Support in Dealing with Special proximately 40 students attend the school;Education Needs, Operant Behavioural The- (II) Some students were assisted in ob-ory, Positive Reinforcement (Skinner); taining Portuguese citizenship through the(IV) The school offers a space for com- Foreign and Borders office;munication, where relationships based on (III) All young people were enrolled on ac-trust and affection are built day by day; credited programmes. About 50 young(V) The school has a team of dedicated, people (50%) took certificates for coursesyoung, and talented professionals that are at the level of the 6th to the 9th grades. Alldevoted to the project; students received vocational training and(VI) The school is structured as an inte- many found jobs. Other pupils were di-grated project, with interventions taking rected towards other double certificationplace on several levels: the individual level training programmes, and mainly returned– cognitive, social, emotional, health; the to ‘regular’ schools to take these;family level – identification and solution of (IV) About 10% of the young peopleproblems in the nuclear family; the socio- dropped out of the training. Nevertheless,community – integration and participation the school still keeps in contact with them;in the local community; the labour level – (V) In the case of a few students atten-training skills and competencies adapted to dance was low and irregular, and al-the labour market. The school has a good most always related to situations of per-public image and makes a positive impact sonal vulnerability and the fragility ofon the community; their support networks, as well as higher 55
  • 47. Country Chapter #4 | Portugal exposure to factors and processes of so- activity, the Youth Event, in the first year of cial exclusion; its membership. The school was active in (VI) A number of mental health disorders founding INFACCT – International Network were detected among the group of stu- for Awareness, Creative Citizenship and dents – cases of Antisocial Personality Dis- Transformation based in Portugal. The order, Depression, Schizophrenia, Learn- school is a partner in many international ing Disabilities, Dyslexia and General projects. This provides the young people Anxiety. All cases were referred to spe- and their teachers with a wide range of op- cialised institutions and were individually portunities for travel and cross-cultural handled by the Support and Guidance exchange. services; (VII) For most of the students, excluding This school is successful in the community the abovementioned extreme cases, the within which it operates. In 2009 it received rate of attendance was high, at around an excellence award for best practice in vo- 75% to 80%; cational training in Portugal from the Por- (VIII) The Matosinhos Second Chance tuguese Ministry of Education. Others are School develops collaborative initiatives keen to replicate what the school is doing. with regular schools, in terms of support- Currently an identical school in Porto is in the ing attendance and progress of pupils at process of being founded and other cities in risk of dropping out; Portugal are interested in creating identical (IX) Young people feel a high level of sat- offerings. Several national and European isfaction with what is offered by the school, studies have selected this project as a case and a strong sense of identification and be- study. The school has also been recognised on longing; a European level, especially by members of (X) The number of incidents and crises the European networks to which it belongs7. has gradually been reduced, resulting in a normally calm and safe school environ- ment; The emergence of social and emotional (XI) A high level of satisfaction among education in Portugal teachers and other professionals involved The focus on personal and social education in in the school was observed which was as- Portugal, especially with regard to the na- sociated with a strong identification with tional curriculum and its intensification in and connection to the school; the 1980s with the publication of the Educa- (XII) The school has an excellent public tion Act (1986), strengthened in parallel image; with the increase in academic and university (XIII) The project is growing and shows research, into the area of two of the “new in- clear signs of dissemination including the telligences”, the social and emotional. In Por- possibility of creating new schools. The tugal the projects which deal with social and school staff have received invitations to emotional education, as opposed to personal participate in seminars, conferences, in- and social education, are more clearly iden- terviews, to write articles and take part in tified with CASEL (the Collaborative for the other forms of dissemination to schools; Advancement of Social and Emotional Learn- (XIV) The school has had a remarkable ing)8 and reflect the principles of many in- impact internationally, at the level of the terventions inspired by North American ap- European Second Chance School network proaches, based on social and emotional (E2C Europe) which entrusted the school learning programmes. with the task of organising its main annual56
  • 48. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalThe 1990s witnessed new developments in the fields ofintelligence and motivation, which broadened thetraditional concepts of what it means to be intelligent andmotivated and added new data to the ingredients forsuccess at school and in society In fact, whether we speak of personal and ited abilities. The tests assume that the indi-social education, closer to values education vidual operates within a more or less de-(which is primarily concerned with the trans- contextualised environment. However, in dif-mission of basic values, such as courage, ferent cultural contexts, the abilities requiredgoodness, etc.) and affective education (pri- and encouraged are different; from the prac-marily concerned with the development of tical and the creative through to the emo-psychological processes which facilitate the tional, well beyond the academic or analyti-acquisition of competencies to deal with adult cal (Sternberg, 2005).life, such as empathy, social-perspective tak-ing, principled moral reasoning, etc.) (Cam- Likewise, the focus of research with regardpos & Menezes, 1998), or of social and emo- to motivation has also changed. Whereas thetional education, all share the belief in the first motivational psychologists focused onplasticity of human personality, which is sub- the activation of behaviour, i.e. that which ini-ject to positive change through learning tiates behaviour, researchers are currently(Mayer & Cobb, 2000). more interested in the type of activities car- ried out by individuals. The first researchers, The 1990s witnessed new developments working in the 1920s, were mainly con-in the fields of intelligence and motivation, cerned with observable actions, whereas re-which broadened the traditional concepts of searchers nowadays are concerned with cog-what it means to be intelligent and motivated nitions and emotions.and added new data to the ingredients forsuccess at school and in society. Such devel- Nowadays, the concept of intelligence as aopments are the natural corollary of the evo- heterogeneous and multifaceted concept islution, over recent decades, of the under- understood by laymen, children, young peo-standing of the concept of intelligence, which ple and adults, who perceive many kinds ofhas moved away from the results of the IQ intelligence, well beyond a merely cognitive-tests and towards emphasising the develop- rational definition. In this way, both the lay-ment of multifaceted intelligences and specific man and the expert have embraced multi-skills and abilities. Along the same lines, the faceted conceptions of intelligence, placingset of abilities assessed by classic intelligence value on attributes considered less traditional,tests is now perceived to account for only a such as social and emotional factors. Intelli-small proportion of the abilities deemed to be gence can be conceived in different ways bytruly relevant to success (Sternberg, 2005). different cultures (Sternberg, 2004).As such, the conventional intelligence testsseem to favour a limited segment of the pop- Educational practices vary from culture toulation, in that they assess specific and lim- culture, encouraging different qualities in the 57
  • 49. Country Chapter #4 | Portugaleducation of children and young people well such effects to other contexts and situations,beyond skills of a mere cognitive-rational beyond those for which the original inter-nature, advocating much broader concepts of vention was designed? These are some of thewhat it means to be intelligent including, questions that are difficult to answer and thatamong others, interpersonal relationship we shall attempt to illustrate by presentingskills, respect for others, the ability to live in one programme of social and emotional in-a family and in society, mutual help and co- tervention carried out as part of a doctoraloperation. Individuals, on their part, when thesis in Portugal. This programme was se-observing models and situations of success lected because it was evaluated and it in-and failure in different aspects of life, espe- cluded an experimental and a control group,cially in the home and at school, can identify as well as a target population of children.those intelligence models worth emulatingand, simultaneously, are able to build im- “Devagar se vai ao longe” (“Slowly butplicit theories on the factors leading to suc- Surely”) Programme in the First Cycle of Pri-cess, which will affect their future perform- mary Education9 (ages 9 to 10)ance (Sternberg, 2000). This programme, under the name of “De-An example of a social and emotional vagar se vai ao longe – Programa de desen-education programme for children volvimento de competências sócio-emo-To paraphrase Zimbardo (2004), we have to cionais no 1º ciclo de ensino básico” (Slowlyfight to put “more psychology into our lives but Surely – Programme for the develop-and more life into psychology”. Nowadays, the ment of socio-emotional competencies inresults of longstanding studies carried out in the first cycle of primary education – forthe field of psychology and similar sciences students between 6 and 10 years old) wasenable us to draw conclusions as to what developed by three researchers, Raquelmust be encouraged and how to do the right Raimundo and Alexandra Marques Pinto,thing in terms of social and emotional edu- from the Faculty of Psychology of the Uni-cation of children and young people. Some of versity of Lisbon, and Luísa Lima of the Uni-the examples that clearly illustrate the im- versity Institute of Lisbon (Raimundo, Mar-portance of research in psychology, more ques Pinto, & Lima, 2010).specifically in the field of education, in im-proving the emotional wellbeing of children This is a universal prevention programme,and teenagers, point to the conclusion that created within a school environment, aimingteam work, which includes the sharing of at developing social and emotional skillsmaterial in learning groups where each per- (specifically social and emotional efficacy,son contributes information that is relevant to understanding, management and expression)the group, has a boosting effect on the ca- among children. It aims to encourage:pacity of each student to listen to what othershave to say. Attention paid to others helps to • self-knowledge and self-control skills toachieve good results (Zimbardo, 2004). achieve success at school and in life; • use of social awareness and interpersonal But how do we choose among the different skills to establish and maintain positiveintervention models in the challenging task of relationships;providing social and emotional education? • demonstration of decision-making skillsWhat are the ingredients of a successful in- and responsible behaviour in personal,tervention? How to benefit the children? How school and community contexts.long do such benefits last? How to transfer58
  • 50. Country Chapter #4 | Portugal The programme was implemented during pupils immediately before the implementa-the 2007/8 academic year with 318 pupils tion of the programme (pre-trial) and afterfrom the 4th grade (175 boys and 143 girls) (post-trial), with follow-up to be imple-from 6 schools. The average age was of 9.3 mented thereafter. The follow-up consisted ofyears and the children were predominantly an evaluation using the same questionnaires,middle class. The programme was based not which were completed by the pupils 6only on the literature in the domain, but also months after the post-trial evaluation. Like-on interviews with teachers and head teach- wise, the teachers also completed pre- anders of schools with regards to the behav- post-test questionnaires, whereas parentsioural and social characteristics of the target only did the post-test. The evaluation of thegroups, as well as the general organisation programme implementation process was alsoand functioning of the classes and schools. carried out by the researcher who imple-The interviews elicited information about mented the programme, by means of weeklygood practice in schools regarding all these recordings of the sessions and through qual-topics. The Slowly but Surely programme in- itative post-test evaluation with the teachers.cluded a total of 21 sessions, each lasting 45to 60 minutes, which were incorporated into Overall, significant benefits were observedthe school curriculum and delivered by a in the intervention groups, especially withpsychologist, in the presence of a teacher. regard to social and emotional skills and psy-The techniques and strategies used included: chological adjustment. The control groups improved very little in terms of emotional• reading stories based on real or fictional awareness and anxiety and their peer rela- cases involving social and emotional is- tionships worsened. Children with below av- sues; erage social and emotional skills and psy-• reflection based on the stories discussed in chological adjustment benefited more from all the sessions; aspects of the programme. In terms of gen-• brainstorming ideas of the most efficient der, boys benefited in terms of self-control strategies to deal with social and emotional and reduced levels of aggression. With regard problems; to the social and economic context, the pro-• modelling and role playing the best atti- gramme had a similar effect on all groups. tudes and behaviours;• feedback (reinforcement of positive be- Evaluation of the contribution of haviour); the programme• pedagogical games; The authors concluded that the programme• teamwork; has the potential to be extended to a larger• training of daily skills, by direct instruction, group of 4th grade pupils, as it proved to be ef- modelling, role-playing and reinforcement fective in the development of social and emo- of positive behaviours and attitudes. tional skills and psychological adjustment. Of the 16 classes that formed part of the My conclusions are that it is important tostudy, 11 comprised the intervention group strictly define the social and emotional di-(N=213 pupils) and 5 comprised the control mensions that will be the target of the inter-group (N=105 pupils). The control groups vention, to use samples from the normal pop-took part in origami activities. ulations as well as samples from populations at social and emotional risk, and, above all, to The evaluation of the efficacy of the pro- question the role of episodic, short and non-gramme included questionnaires handed to continuous interventions, adopting a more 59
  • 51. Country Chapter #4 | Portugalsystemic approach, with the involvement of the performance of pupils throughout thethe family and the various school agents, such year (APM, 1998, in Faria, 2004).as teachers, board members and non-teach-ing staff. In addition, all material related to minor- ity groups that is included in the curriculumIntervention proposals: The path towards a must analyse and consider the inequality inbetter education for all the power of minorities. When we speak ofThe issue of how best to educate for personal minorities we still cannot avoid includingand social transformation poses a challenge women and individuals from disadvantagedwith no easy answers. Nevertheless, the re- social and economic backgrounds and othersults of many studies have shown that, as groups at risk of social and cultural alienationwell as the use of a range of pedagogical (Tisdell, 1993).methods, the development of learning envi-ronments that emphasize the connection be- In addition, it is paramount that we de-tween teaching and learning is fundamental. velop and make use of strategies to encour-That is, environments in which pupils have age the involvement of parents, in order tothe chance to think in an independent and bring school and home life closer together.critical manner and to reach their own con- The role of teachers is critical, as “… like theclusions, i.e., for each pupil to recognise and parents, they act as privileged interpreters oflisten to their own voice (Tisdell, 1993). the objective development of children and teenagers, transmitting beliefs and expecta- Therefore, teaching strategies must in- tions, encouraging and reinforcing behav-clude activities of information research and iours, evaluating skills and helping to developproblem solving, and must diversify the ap- their personal perceptions of competence, inproaches to interaction used in the class- a more or less coherent and adjusted sense”room, creating opportunities for discussion (Faria, 2002, p. 64).among the pupils and encouraging teamworkand project work. In fact, the role of the teacher and his/her personal theories of competence, as systems Teachers must try to use learning situa- of meaning or theories of self with regard totions that associate theory with practice and competence which lead people to think, feelwhich involve different contexts, mainly and behave differently in the same situationsthrough the use of experiences that directly (Dweck, 1999), acquire special relevancerelate to the reality and the lives of the pupils. here. A teacher with more dynamic or mal-In order to achieve this the learning situations leable concepts of competence (as opposed toand contexts must foster reflection and the static concepts) who views competence asinvolvement of all pupils in the learning something that can be developed through ef-process, via the handling of materials and fort, instead of a quality that “dwells within usthe flexible use of textbooks, as important and that we can’t change” (Dweck, 1999, p.sources to stimulate self-learning and a crit- 2) will need fewer strategies to defendical approach. (Association of Mathematics his/her professional image and will spendTeachers – APM, 1998, in Faria, 2004; Tis- less time searching for external explanationsdell, 1993). Furthermore, the evaluation of for the failure of pupils. Such a teacher willknowledge, skills, attitudes and values must learn from setbacks and make a greater ef-be conducted through the use of methods fort to try to resolve problems and challengesother than traditional tests, and be based that arise. In other words, in light of the factmore on learning over time, by recording that the personal theories of teachers affect60
  • 52. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalTeachers must set high standards for all the students, notonly for the high-achievers, and create a nurturingatmosphere for learning, full of genuine affection andconcern for the students, believing in improvement for all(Dweck, 2006)their daily performance at school, those with The greatest challenge of all is how to be-more dynamic concepts will make use of come a dynamic oriented teacher, that is, “astrategies and practices of interaction with teacher who believes in the growth of com-pupils that will encourage the development of petence and talent, being fascinated with thetheir overall abilities through hard work, self- process of learning” (Dweck, 2006, p. 194).respect and respect for others. Therefore, he/she must set high standards for all the students, not only for the high- In fact, personal theories with regard to achievers, and create a nurturing atmospherevarious personal attributes, including com- for learning, full of genuine affection andpetence, form the manner in which individ- concern for the students, believing in im-uals perceive themselves and perceive what provement for all, instead of creating an at-surrounds them in competence-relevant sit- mosphere of judgement (Dweck, 2006). Be-uations (Dweck & Molden, 2005). Conse- sides challenge and love, it is important toquently, these conceptions integrate, influ- work hard and with energy with the students,ence, attract or highlight other personal teaching them to love learning, and to thinkconstructs, such as achievement goals, self- and learn for themselves. But above all, dy-concept, self-esteem, and self-efficacy, all of namic-oriented teachers use teaching to growthem meaningful in achievement situations and to continue to learn along with the stu-and contexts (Faria, 2006). dents (Dweck, 2006). Therefore, everyone can change towards a path “of valued skills The two qualitatively different systems of and knowledge accrued over time and put tomeaning represent two distinct forms of con- use for oneself and others … [towards] a lifeceiving the self – one static and the other dy- of strong commitments and earnest effort”namic – so that the static conception con- (Dweck, 1999, p. 155).ceives the self as a group of static traits, aperception which leads the individual to pur- Moreover, regarding the way in whichsuing performance goals in order to protect teachers understand the external mediatorshis/her self-esteem or his/ her feeling of that affect students, if teachers are well in-personal competence. In the dynamic con- formed about the psychosocial mediators (i.e.ception, the individual perceives the self as a the role of the social, economic and culturalcollection of characteristics and attributes backgrounds of each pupil, the role of thewhich can be developed through his/her own beliefs that live in each family, and the role ofactions, which leads to the pursuit of learn- gender differences) through which the envi-ing goals so as to maintain and promote feel- ronment influences relevant psychological at-ings of personal competence and personal tributes such as competence, it will be possi-value (Dweck, 1991, in Faria, 2006). ble to expect some degree of positive62
  • 53. Country Chapter #4 | Portugalintervention by the teacher, mainly by way of Notesencouragement of more dynamic and more 1flexible concepts and practices. For instance, Pupils in Portugal begin their schooling as of the age of 6; children who are 6 before the 15 Septemberthe teacher’s knowledge of the research evi- of the school year can be registered to start school.dence on gender and socio-economic status Therefore, to know the age pertaining to each gradedifferences in psychological attributes such within the Portuguese education system, you just have to add 6 to the grade in competence, can pave the way towards the 2 I wish to acknowledge the collaboration and wel-adoption of teaching-learning strategies more come offered to me by the principal of the school.suited to these groups. In addition, I would like to especially thank Drª. Ana Moreira, teacher and member of the Board of Es- cola da Ponte, who allowed me to visit the school, Finally, education professionals must also gave me access to several written documents, and participated in the discussion and compilation ofchallenge their own implicit beliefs, repre- this text about the school.sentations and theories with regard to com- 3 Education Project “Fazer a Ponte” (“Making thepetence, analysing how these affect their ac- Bridge”). 4 Commission of External Evaluation of the Projecttions on a daily basis (Faria, 1998, 2008; “Making the Bridge” (2003). Report to the State Sec-Tisdell, 1993). Becoming aware of what retary of Education. Coimbra. In http://www.esco-makes us act in particular way is the first step consulted on the 15th June 2011.towards making the changes required. 5 I wish to acknowledge the collaboration and wel- come offered to me by the principal of the school, Only in this way, will teachers – and the Dr. Luís Mesquita, who allowed me to visit the school, gave me access to several written docu-school – be able to offer all pupils, without ments, and participated in the discussion and com-exception, intellectually stimulating activities, pilation of this text about the school. 6rich and meaningful educational experiences, The Arts and Dreams programme is a European ex- change programme for teachers and students fromenabling everybody to decide on their course the artistic education domain, promoting and sup-of action, now and in the future, in an in- porting visits of teachers and students to partnerscreasingly autonomous, responsible and ef- in Europe (i.e., Spain, the United Kingdom, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Portugal, etc.), for learning, teach-fective way. ing, performing, and innovating in their arts spe- cialism (dance, music, theatre, painting, etc.). 7 Editor’s Note: The chapter on Singapore also in- cludes a case study on a second chance school in that country. 8 Editor’s note: For further information on CASEL please refer to the chapter on the USA in “Social and Emotional Education, An International Analy- sis, Volume 1” (published by the Foundation M. Botin, 2008) 9 I wish to thank Prof. Alexandra Marques Pinto of the Faculty of Psychology, University of Lisbon for providing the bibliography of the programme. 63
  • 54. Country Chapter #4 | PortugalReferences vation and acquisition. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of compe-Barreto, A. (1995). Portugal na periferia do tence and motivation (pp. 122-140). centro: mudança social, 1960 a 1995. New York, N.Y.: The Guilford Press. Análise Social, XXX (134), 841-855. Faria, L. (1998). Desenvolvimento diferencialBarreto, A. (Org.). (2000). A situação social das concepções pessoais de inteligência em Portugal 1960-1999 (vol. II). Lisbon: durante a adolescência (511 pp.). Lisbon: Imprensa de Ciências Sociais. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian e Junta Nacional de Investigação Científica e Tec-Campos, B. P. (2006). Towards European nológica. references for teacher education: Chal- lenges to teacher educators. Educação. Faria, L. (2002). Competência percebida: de- Temas e Problemas, 2, 105-128. safios e sugestões para lidar com a ex- celência. Sobredotação, 3(2), 55-70.Campos, B., & Menezes, I. (1996). Personal and social education in Portugal. Journal Faria, L. (2004). Diferenças cognitivas e mo- of Moral Education, 25(3), 343-357. tivacionais em função do género: das diferenças reais aos estereótipos sexuais.Campos, B., & Menezes, I. (1998). Affective Psicologia, Educação e Cultura, VIII(1), education in Portugal. In P. Lang, J. Katz, 21-36. & I. Menezes (Eds.), Affective education: A comparative review (chap. 10, pp. 107- Faria, L. (2006). Personal conceptions of in- 115). London: Cassell. telligence: Definition, differentiation and emergence as an organizer and integra-Canário, R., Matos, F., & Trindade, R. et al. tive model of other motivational con- (2003). Escola da Ponte. Defender a es- structs. Psicologia, XX(2), 11-43. cola pública. Porto: Profedições. Faria, L. (2008). Motivação para a com-Comissão de Avaliação Externa do Projecto petência. O papel das concepções pes- “Fazer a Ponte” (2003). Relatório apre- soais de inteligência no desempenho e no sentado à Secretária de Estado da Edu- sucesso (95 pp.). Porto: Livpsic/Legis. cação. Coimbra. Disponível em Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogia da autonomia. ument/CAEPonte. Consultado em 15 de Saberes necessários à prática educativa. Junho de 2011. São Paulo: Editora Paz e Terra.Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories. Their role Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. in motivation, personality, and develop- New York: Bantam. ment. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. Grácio, S. (1981). Educação e processoDweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset. The new psy- democrático em Portugal. Lisbon: Livros chology of success. New York, NY: Bal- Horizonte. lantine Books. Lopes, P. N., & Salovey, P. (2004). Toward aDweck, C. S., & Molden, D. (2005). Self-the- broader education. In H. J. Walberg, M. C. ories: Their impact on competence moti- Wang, R. J. E. Zins, & P. Weissberg (Eds.),64
  • 55. Country Chapter #4 | Portugal Building school success on social and Santos Guerra, M. (2011). Entrevista com emotional learning (pp. 79-93). New Miguel Santos Guerra: a vida do profes- York: Teachers College Press. sor é apaixonante. A Página da Educação, 192, 8-17.Mayer, J., & Cobb, C. (2000). Educational policy on emotional intelligence: Does it Sternberg, R. J. (2000). Implicit theories of make sense? Educational Psychology Re- intelligence as exemplar stories of suc- view, 12(2), 163-183. cess: Why intelligence test validity is in the eye of the beholder. Psychology, Pub-Medina Carreira, H. (1996). As políticas so- lic Policy, and Law, 6, 159-167. ciais em Portugal. Lisbon: Gradiva. Sternberg, R. J. (2004). Culture and intelli-Menezes, I. (1993). A formação pessoal e so- gence. American Psychologist, 59, 325- cial numa perspectiva desenvolvimental- 338. ecológica. Inovação, 6, 309-336. Sternberg, R. J. (2005). Intelligence, compe-Menezes, I. (2007). Evolução da cidadania tence, and expertise. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. em Portugal. In Actas do Encontro para a Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence Cidadania e Culturas de Formação (pp. and motivation (pp. 15-30). New York: 17-34). Lisbon: Escola Superior de Edu- The Guilford Press. cação. Stoer, S. (1986). Educação e mudança emMenezes, I, & Campos, B. (2000). Values in Portugal. 1970-1980, uma década de education: Definitely “Your feet are al- transição. Porto: Afrontamento. ways in the water”. In M. Leicester, C. Modgil, & S. Modgil (Eds.), Moral educa- Tisdell, E. J. (1993). Feminism and adult tion and pluralism: Education, culture, and learning: Power, pedagogy, and praxis. In values (vol. 4, pp. 205-215). London: S. B. Merriam (Ed.), An update on adult Falmer Press. learning theory (nº 57, pp. 91-103). San Francisco, C.A.: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Puurula, A. et al. (2001). Teacher and stu- dent attitudes to affective education: A Valente Rosa, M. J. V., & Chitas, P. (2010). European collaborative research project. Portugal: os números. Lisbon: Fundação Compare, 31(2), 165-186. Francisco Manuel dos Santos.Raimundo, R., Marques Pinto, A., & Lima, L. Zimbardo, P. G. (2004). Does psychology (2010). “Devagar se vai ao longe”: avali- make a significant difference in our lives? ação da eficácia de um programa de American Psychologist, 59(5), 339-351. competências sócio-emocionais no 1º ci- clo do ensino básico. Presented at the 7th National Symposium of Psychology Re- search. Braga: Escola de Psicologia da Universidade do Minho.Santos, C., & Silva, C. (2009). Formação cívica. Um guia prático de aprendizagem. Porto: Edições ASA. 65
  • 56. Australia
  • 57. From Crisis to Confidence:The Development of Social and Emotional Education in AustraliaJennifer M. GidleyAbstractThis paper seeks to offer a broad, Australian perspective on innovative approaches to educa-tion that may facilitate the social and emotional education of children. The paper begins witha brief overview of the unique history of education in Australia including insights into the strongpassion and commitment of Australians for freedom of choice and diversity of educational ap-proaches. This is followed by a discussion of the youth mental health crisis during the 1990s,which it is argued, has precipitated the Australian government’s current strong commitmentto social and emotional education. The paper then traces several phases of development of so-cial and emotional education in Australia, before providing an overview of many kinds of ap-proaches, including both explicit, curricular programmes and implicit, contextual and wholesystem approaches. Three case studies are then discussed: a whole system approach (Steinereducation system), a whole population approach (all Australian five-year olds) and a targetedprogramme (for those experiencing grief and loss). The first is a national project to developan Australian National Steiner Curriculum, which attempts to include the important featureof social and emotional education as part of its broader philosophy within the larger projectof the development of the first Australian National Curriculum. The second case is the Aus-tralian Early Development Index—a whole population project to monitor the social and emo-tional wellbeing of all Australian five year old children; Thirdly, Seasons for Growth is specif-ically aimed at children and young people experiencing grief and loss.Dr. Jennifer Gidley is a psychologist, educator and futures researcher. She works as a Re-search Fellow in the Global Cities Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, andis President of the World Futures Studies Federation. Jennifer has researched and publishedwidely in the area of educational futures, including co-editoring/authoring: The University inTransformation (2000); Youth Futures (2002) and Futures in Education (2004) as well asdozens of refereed journal articles and book chapters. Jennifer co-designed, developed andinstructed the online component of the Masters in Strategic Foresight at Swinburne Univer-sity, Melbourne (2003-2006) and also founded and pioneered a Steiner school in rural Aus-tralia between 1984 and 1994. She lives in Melbourne and works globally in the areas of ed-ucational and cultural transformation. 69
  • 58. Country Chapter #5 | Australia1. Historical Context for Social and 1848 government and non-governmentEmotional Education in Australia schools both existed.3 However, by the 1860s, “legislation was passed in each of the Aus-1.1 Australian Education. A relatively short tralian colonies, which effectively abolishedhistory of formal schooling State assistance to schools that were not under government control” (Wilkinson, Caldwell, Sel- If you lived in the country in the 1800s, leck, Harris, & Dettman, 2007). you might be lucky enough to have a small, one room school house on land In 1901 the six independent colonies be- donated by a local farmer. In the city, if came six states and two territories federated you could not afford to attend one of the under the Commonwealth of Australia.4 From schools set up by the various churches, 1901 until 1964 the only funding non-gov- you would most probably be tutored by ernment schools received came from State the wife of the local doctor, lawyer, mag- and Territory Governments. Until very re- istrate or other professional. No stan- cently, the states and territories were also dard for education existed. Education largely responsible for establishing and run- was only available to the wealthier mid- ning public schools and determining curric- dle and upper classes, who could afford ula and policies, albeit with some financial to pay tuition. support from the Commonwealth govern- ment.5 In 1964 the Australian government Marion McCreadie (2006)1 began to also provide some capital funding for non-government schools. This was fol- Australia has a rather unique history, com- lowed in 1970 by the introduction of addi-pared to other Anglo-European countries, tional recurrent funding, which, by 1973,when it comes to the development of formal was set at the rate of 20 per cent of the costschooling. A brief illustration follows because of educating a child in a government school.6the history provides important background Based on the latest data available (2006):context for understanding the diversity of Aus- “81.1 per cent of total expenditure on Aus-tralian schooling today. Notwithstanding Aus- tralian schools was from governmenttralia’s long indigenous history of 40,000 years sources, compared to the OECD average ofor more, when it comes to the history of formal 90.3 per cent. Australia ranked the fourtheducation, one needs to keep in mind that Aus- lowest of the 25 OECD countries for whichtralia has only existed as a nation for just over data was available.”7a century. Prior to 1901, when it became theCommonwealth of Australia, the large is- 1.2 Diversity of Schooling in Australialand/continent was made up of six colonies op- Australians have continued to express theirerating relatively independently of each other. strong commitment to freedom of choice inLittle formal schooling existed during the first schooling as evidenced by the gradual growth ofcentury of European settlement in Australia. As the (only partially funded) non-governmentnoted in the opening quotation, what did exist schooling systems in addition to the (fullywas a potted mixture of Church schools and funded) government schooling system. Fur-small isolated country schools on donated land thermore, over the last few decades the non-with limited resources. The Catholic Church government schooling system, which previ-was quite prominent in those early years as an ously had largely consisted of Catholic schoolseducation provider and the ten Catholic schools and a few other religious schools, began to di-in Australia by 18332 received some govern- versify. The early 1970s was a crucial point inment support, as did other church schools. By the furthering of these developments. Coincid-70
  • 59. Country Chapter #5 | Australiaing with the introduction of some Common- In terms of overall number of schools, thewealth government recurrent funding8 to non- proportion of government schools has alsogovernment schools, the National Council of In- been steadily falling for almost fifty years. Independent Schools (NCIS) was established in 1962, government schools made up 79% of all1970, significantly changing Australia’s educa- schools in Australia, with Catholic schoolstional landscape. This organization, which is making up 18% and other non-governmentnow named the Independent Schools Council of schools less than 4 %. As of writing this chap-Australia (ISCA) has been consistently com- ter, the proportion of students attending themitted to the core values of “independence, au- three sectors of Australian schools comprise oftonomy and the provision of choice and diver- government schools (66%), Catholic schoolssity in schooling” for forty years.9 During that (20%) and independent schools (14%).forty year period, the independent sector—thatis, schools that were neither government The significance of this shift towardsschools nor part of the Catholic schooling sys- greater diversity and philosophical independ-tem—has grown from “400 schools and ence will be discussed further below for its114,000 students, four per cent of total school relevance to social and emotional education.enrolments” to “1,100 schools and over half amillion students… 16 per cent of total school en- 2. Why Social and Emotional Educationrolments” in Australia.10 in Australia? In a somewhat parallel development the While most young people in AustraliaAustralian Bishops Commission for Catholic are doing well, there are areas whereEducation held a conference in 1974 to es- further gains in health and wellbeingtablish the National Catholic Education Com- could be achieved, particularly amongmission (NCEC).11 At that time, there were young Indigenous Australians, young1,730 schools, which made up 18% of all people in regional and remote areasAustralian schools. Of interest is that the and young people suffering socioeco-number of Catholic schools has remained nomic disadvantage.fairly constant in the intervening years. As of2010, “there are approximately 1,700 (Australian Institute of Health and Wel-Catholic schools in Australia, with an enrol- fare, 2007, p. x)ment of almost 704,000 students – that’s20% of all Australian school students.”12 The most important driver behind the in- troduction of social and emotional education In summary, the proportion of students at- in Australia has arguably been the revelationtending government schools in Australia has a couple of decades ago that a major mentalbeen gradually falling. Even since 1995, the health crisis had arisen among Australianproportion of students attending government young people. In the intervening period thereschools has fallen from 71% to 66% in 2010. has been a gradual shift from focusing on theOver the same period independent schools crisis itself to working with protective factorshave gradually increased their share of the and prevention. This development is de-students. Between 1995 and 2005 “the num- scribed in the next two sections.ber of students enrolled in Independentschools has increased by 46% (or 135,300 2.1 The Crisis of Youth Mental Illnessstudents) compared with Catholic schools in Australia(11% or 65,200 students) and government Young people who become depressed, suici-schools (2% or 38,200 students).”13 dal or fatigued in response to the hopeless- 71
  • 60. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaAustralians were shocked during the 1990s when nationalfigures were released showing that Australia had one of thehighest rates of male youth suicide in the western worldness that confronts the world are living sym- Mental disorders were the leading con-bolic lives. Their struggles with meaning are tributor to the burden of disease and in-not just personal struggles. They are trying to jury (49%) among young Australianssort out the problems of society, and their aged 15–24 years in 2003, with anxi-sufferings, deaths and ruptures are not just ety and depression being the leadingpersonal tragedies but contributions to the specific cause for both males and fe-spiritual dilemmas of the world. (Tacey, males. (Australian Institute of Health2003, p. 176) and Welfare, 2007, p. 23) Australians were shocked during the Based on levels of psychological distress as1990s when national figures were released measured using the Kessler 10 (K10) scale—showing that Australia had one of the high- “a 10 item questionnaire asking about feel-est rates of male youth suicide in the western ings such as nervousness, hopelessness, rest-world. The high and apparently growing rates lessness, depression and worthlessness”—itof youth suicide, particularly affected young was found:males aged 15 to 24. Research began inearnest and numerous interventions were In 2004–05, the proportions of youngdeveloped across the health, education and males and females aged 18–24 yearscommunity sectors, from help-lines, to pro- reporting high or very high levels offessional development of doctors and teach- distress were 12% and 19% respec-ers, to community awareness, to national tively, an increase from 1997 when theschool programmes. A series of reports have corresponding proportions were 7% andbeen produced since the late 90s, providing 13% respectively. (Australian Institutecrucial data on the mental health and well- of Health and Welfare, 2007, p. 24)being of young Australians to provide a firmbase from which to develop policies, inter- From within this broad picture, the reportventions, and educational programmes. notes: “Depression, anxiety and substance use disorders are the most common mental dis- The Australian Institute of Health and Wel- orders, accounting for 75% of the burden gen-fare (AIHW) has produced a series of na- erated by all mental disorders” (Australiantional statistical reports on young people aged Institute of Health and Welfare, 2007, p. 25)12–24 years (1999, 2003 and 2007). In (citing Andrews & Wilkinson 2002). Unfor-their most recent report Young Australians: tunately, there are no current figures for inci-their health and wellbeing 2007 a major area dence of these or any other of the more spe-of concern with respect to my interests in this cific psychological disorders, the most recentchapter was the finding that: data being from 1997. What the 1997 figures showed was disturbing but also instrumental72
  • 61. Country Chapter #5 | Australiain the shift to a more positive focus on pro- In 2008, the Australian Research Alliancemoting social and emotional wellbeing in Aus- for Children and Youth (ARACY) Reporttralia in more recent years. It is reported: Card14 on the wellbeing of young Australians was published. It provided a comprehensive In 1997, just over one in four young picture of the health and wellbeing of young people aged 18–24 years (an estimated people, revealing that Australia lags behind 481,600 young people) experienced many other developed nations. With respect to anxiety, affective or substance use dis- its broad overall measure of the mental health orders. Rates were similar for males of young Australians, the ARACY Report and females—27% for males and 26% found that Australia ranked 13th of 23 OECD for females. (Australian Institute of countries. However, with respect to young in- Health and Welfare, 2007, p. 26) digenous Australians, the rank dropped to 23rd of 24 OECD countries (Australian Re- Other concerning and interrelated find- search Alliance for Children and Youth, 2008,ings included the following: p. 4). With respect to a more subtle measure of social and emotional wellbeing, such as• Over 47,000 hospital admissions for men- sense of belonging, one of the indicators found tal disorders in 2004–05. Over half of that nine out of every 100,000 young people these were for psychoactive substance use, “feel awkward and out of place at school” com- schizophrenia and depression; pared with only five out of 100,000 in Swe-• Over 7,000 hospital admissions in 2004– den—the best international result. Indigenous 05 for an injury caused by assault among Australians fared even worse with 17 in young people aged 12–24 years—a rate of 100,00 feeling out of place at school (Aus- 203 per 100,000; tralian Research Alliance for Children and• Injury (including poisoning) continues to Youth, 2008, p. 9). be the leading cause of death for young people, accounting for two-thirds of all It is perhaps not surprising that when deaths of young people in 2004. Inten- young Australians were surveyed in 2010 tional self-harm (suicide) accounted for about what they most valued, they placed 27% of all injury deaths; family relationships and friendships as the• 25% of young people in 2004–05 were top two items. This was the case for both overweight or obese; genders and all age groups. About three• Almost one-third (31%) of young people quarters of respondents highly valued family drank alcohol in amounts that put them at relationships and about 60% valued friend- risk or high risk of alcohol-related harm in ships (Mission Australia, 2010). the short term, and 11% at risk of long- term harm; Although the rates of youth suicide in Aus-• Young adults (those aged 18–24 years) tralia have stopped increasing and leveled accounted for 20% of the total prison pop- out, the number of young Australians who ulation in 2006, and there were over “die from intentional self-injury” is still one of 9,000 12–17 year olds under juvenile jus- the highest among OECD countries. The tice supervision in 2003–04; ARACY Report Card (2008) reported that the• One in three (34%) clients of agencies... “intentional self-injury death rate for young providing assistance to homeless people people aged 15-24 years (not counting in- were aged 12–24 years in 2004–05. digenous young people who are counted sep- (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, arately)” is 10 in 100,000. Of interest, from 2007, p. xi-xii, 32) the perspective of this project, as it is funded 73
  • 62. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaWhile the likely causative factors and the potentialpreventative factors for psychological distress, self-harmand violence among young people are complex and multi-faceted, the ARACY Report cites school context aspotentially being either a risk factor or a protective factor.It is the recognition of the importance of protective factorsthat led to the positive turn to social and emotionalwellbeing research, policy and practice in Australiaby the Foundation Botin, a Spanish Founda- ment of a person’s quality of life, givention, is that according to these figures Spain understanding of her social context. (p.has the lowest rate among OECD countries (4 viii)15in 100,000). Given that there is also a con-tribution from Finland in this volume it is in- In 2006 Australian government ministersteresting to note that: “Indigenous Australians from several departments concerned withhave a rate of death from self-injury (18 in health, education, and community and dis-100,000) that is second only to Finland.” ability services, undertook a major feat of interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral collabo- While the likely causative factors and the ration. They developed and endorsed whatpotential preventative factors for psycholog- they called a “Headline Indicator16 priorityical distress, self-harm and violence among area for social and emotional wellbeing.” Theyoung people are complex and multi-faceted, term wellbeing has become the new buzz-the ARACY Report cites school context as word for a broad based, more holistic con-potentially being either a risk factor or a pro- ceptualisation of human health, following intective factor. It is the recognition of the im- the footsteps of the shift in psychology fromportance of protective factors that led to the clinical models to positive psychology ap-positive turn to social and emotional wellbe- proaches. Because of the multi-dimensionaling research, policy and practice in Australia. nature of social and emotional wellbeing, fur- ther work was commissioned. The Social Pol-2.2 The Positive Turn to Social and icy Research Centre (The University of NewEmotional Wellbeing South Wales) was selected to undertake this research “to conceptualise and identify the The main (negative) focus of research most important aspects for children’s health, into [Social and Emotional Wellbeing] development and wellbeing.” An extensive SEWB is on mental illness, depression, research report has been compiled compris- anxiety, self-esteem, and so on. The de- ing two major parts: the conceptualization of velopment of positive psychology has social and emotional wellbeing, and the de- attempted to remedy this with a focus on velopment of indicators to appropriately personal strengths, and the enhance- monitor its development.1774
  • 63. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaHamilton and Redmund point out that in addition to themore static notions of wellbeing of applied researchers,there are also the more dynamic theories of well-becoming—which tend to arise from the morephilosophical and theoretical literature that regardswellbeing as a culturally defined and ever-changingrelational process(Hamilton & Redmund, 2010, pp. 23-24) While this major social research project at- ceptualisation (Hamilton & Redmund, 2010, p.tempted to focus on both these aspects, this x). In an attempt to cohere the philosophicalchapter will primarily draw from the former. and theoretical work they considered, Hamil-The two critical components the authors em- ton and Redmund conclude with the followingphasised with respect to this conceptualiza- conceptualisation:tion of social and emotional wellbeing werethe importance of linking it to wider concepts [W]hereas for younger children issues ofof wellbeing and the need to address concern competency and dependency raise ques-that any monitoring will take into account tions about who is qualified to speak forbroader issues about society such as creating them, and to what extent their own“the good life.” voices should be heard, for older chil- dren and young people, issues of identity The researchers and authors of the report, through significant transitions can raiseMyra Hamilton and Gerry Redmund, drew questions about how a state of wellbeingfrom several approaches to “philosophy and can be captured in a fast-moving dy-social theory (proposed by Martha Nussbaum, namic environment. For both childrenLen Doyal and Ian Gough, and Sarah White) to and young people, Bronfenbrenner’selaborate on the key components of what Ar- ecological model speaks to the impor-istotle called ‘the good life’ — the search for hu- tance of the whole child, and supports toman wellbeing” (Hamilton & Redmund, 2010, some extent the interdependence of dif-p. viii). The researchers note that these theo- ferent dimensions of wellbeing… (Hamil-ries are all consistent with ‘whole child’ ap- ton & Redmund, 2010, p. 18).proaches and also point to “the social essencein humanity — that wellbeing is not an indi- With respect to the more applied approachvidual statement, but is solidly situated in a to social and emotional wellbeing, it issocial context” (p. viii). Furthermore they also noted –as discussed above– that there are bothprioritise three important issues: the principles “negative” and “positive” approaches. Whileof positivity, an aim toward universality, and the negative approaches focus on mental illfinding ways to pay attention to the views of health, risky behaviours and underachieve-children and young people as part of their con- ment, they list the positive features of social 75
  • 64. Country Chapter #5 | Australiaand emotional wellbeing in children and young arisen from the Collaborative for Academic,people as including: “resilience, attentiveness, Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL) proj-confidence and social skills, and positive affect ect, co-founded in 1994 by Daniel Golemanand self-concept including happiness, self- and others (Goleman, 1997). This approachworth, sense of belonging, and enjoyment of is strongly skills-based with the primary em-school” (Hamilton & Redmund, 2010, p. 21). phasis on children learning and acquiringThey also add that for young people, the fol- several core competencies identified bylowing factors may also be seen to contribute: CASEL researchers and practitioners. These“civic action and engagement, trust in and tol- core competencies include: self-awareness,erance of others, social competence, and life self-management, responsible decision-mak-satisfaction” (p. 21). ing, relationship skills and social awareness. They have been adopted as essential compo- Several issues remain contestable in the nents in both the Australian government ed-conceptualisation of social and emotional ucation projects: MindMatters: Leading Men-wellbeing in children and young people. No- tal Health and Wellbeing—initiated in 2000tably, Hamilton and Redmund point out that and serving Australia’s high schools; andin addition to the more static notions of well- KidsMatter: Australian Primary Schools Men-being of applied researchers, there are also tal Health Initiative—piloted in 2007 and cur-the more dynamic theories of well-becom- rently being expanded.18ing—which tend to arise from the more philo-sophical and theoretical literature that re- It is important however not to be restrictedgards wellbeing as a culturally defined and to the prescriptive, curriculum based ap-ever-changing relational process (Hamilton & proaches to “social and emotional learning” ofRedmund, 2010, pp. 23-24). CASEL and other programmes which focus only on learning particular skills. In the Finally, in a manoeuvre that places the broader contextual territory of “social andnotion of social and emotional wellbeing emotional education” that includes family andwithin the realms of both developmental psy- community enculturation, the work of thechology and education—when developmen- Botin Foundation in Santander, Spain, cantally conceived—they note: “the terms social provide some important guiding parameters.19and emotional wellbeing and social and emo-tional development are sometimes used in- The development of theories, policies andterchangeably” (Hamilton & Redmund, 2010, practices related to social and emotional well-p. 16). being of young Australians appears to have followed several phases. From the late 90s2.3 Current Understanding of Social there was a lot of discussion focused on theand Emotional Education in Australia mental illness and at risk behaviours of youngAs Christopher Clouder pointed out in the in- people. Much of this discourse was about ring-troduction to the first report in this series, so- ing alarm bells. This was followed by a grad-cial and emotional education can be viewed ual shift towards focusing on the positiveas both a curricular intervention or in a view—of identifying protective factors as wellbroader, more contextual way that involves as risk factors. This led on to the recognitionthe whole school and even the parents and of the need to conceptualise what social andwider community (Clouder, 2008, p. 37). emotional wellbeing might actually look like.With respect to the curricular aspect, the Arising from this positive turn some very sig-main approach to conceptualization of social nificant educational programmes were devel-and emotional education in Australia has oped and implemented in schools to deal with76
  • 65. Country Chapter #5 | Australiathe issues of mental illness—especially by pro- nizes the importance of “social and emo-moting protective factors. Programmes such as tional development.”20MindMatters grew out of the realisation that • The Australian National Curriculum is partthe issues are too complex and multi-faceted of the Australian government’s nationalto be dealt with only by specific targeted pro- agenda for school reform begun in 2007.grammes and shifted the emphasis further to This new curriculum from Kindergarten tomore holistic conceptualizations (e.g. whole Year 12 is the responsibility of the Aus-child, whole school). Very recently, particularly tralian Curriculum, Assessment and Re-over the last two to three years, various policy porting Authority (ACARA). It will be dis-documents have emerged from a range of cussed in more detail under case studies.Australian government departments, focus-ing on the importance of social and emotional 3. Overview of Social and Emotionalwellbeing in whole education systems—not just Education in Australiaas curricular add-ons. This section provides a broad overview of some of the key social and emotional educa- New Australian government educational tion initiatives that are operating in Australia.policies focusing on social and emotional The first sub-section describes major curric-wellbeing, include: ular and whole school initiatives developed and implemented by the Australian govern-• The Melbourne Declaration on Educational ment that explicitly identify and include social Goals for Young Australians (2008), which and emotional education theories and prac- promotes the idea that children and young tice. The remainder of this section offers a people should be successful learners, con- broad sample of several other initiatives that fident and creative individuals, and active are less curriculum-based and prescriptive and informed citizens; and also that chil- but nevertheless fall into the broad social and dren’s and young people’s social, eco- emotional education domain—including some nomic, ethnic or indigenous backgrounds family and community initiatives. should not be seen as determining their future place in society. 3.1 Explicit SEE Approaches: Curricular and• The National Education Agreement” (Coun- Whole School Interventions cil of Australian Governments 2008), By “explicit SEE approaches” I am referring to which emphasises the importance of social the prescriptive, curriculum based ap- inclusion for all young Australians. proaches to “social and emotional learning” of• Investing in the Early Years (2009), which CASEL and other programmes which focus prioritises: “a focus on the whole child, primarily on learning particular skills. across cognitive, learning, physical, social, emotional and cultural dimensions and 3.1.1 MindMatters: Leading Mental Health and learning throughout life” (Council of Aus- Wellbeing (2000 - current) tralian Governments, 2009, p.4). In a sur- As mentioned above the Australian govern- prising and innovative move—given the ment has developed a number of school- context of a “high-achievement oriented” based initiatives in response to the significant society—the new Early Years framework mental health issues of young Australians. which “has a strong emphasis on play- The most established and probably best based learning as play is the best vehicle known is MindMatters, which is funded by the for young children’s learning providing Australian Government Department of Health the most appropriate stimulus for brain and Ageing and is in its tenth year of imple- development.” The Framework also recog- mentation in Australian Secondary Schools. 77
  • 66. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaMindMatters was developed as a primary pre- MindMatters Professional Development.vention strategy aimed at promoting and pro- Over 120,000 school-based or school-re-tecting the mental health and wellbeing of all lated participants have attended MindMattersmembers of the school community. It takes a professional development sessions sincewhole school approach. 2000. Sessions have been attended by staff from: MindMatters is a resource package thatadvocates a comprehensive whole-school ap- • 86.8% of state schools nationallyproach including professional development of • 73.3% of independent schools nationallyteachers. Throughout Australia, over 80% of • 88.9% of Catholic schools nationally.schools with secondary enrolments have sentstaff to the free MindMatters training. Mind- MindMatters has been extensively evalu-Matters provides curriculum resources for ated over ten years since its introduction inuse in the classroom, as well as materials to 2000.21 A multi-faceted evaluation over sev-help schools create a caring and supportive eral years showed that MindMatters can be aenvironment and develop productive part- powerful catalyst for positive change innerships with their community, including schools.families and the health sector. One of its aimsis to enhance the development of school en- 3.1.2 KidsMatter: Australian Primary Schoolsvironments where young people feel safe, Mental Health Initiative (2007 - current)valued, engaged and purposeful. Following on from the established success of MindMatters in Australian secondary schools, This is extended, where necessary, to help the Australian Government Department ofschool communities to develop strategies to Health and Ageing developed a parallel ini-enable a continuum of support for students tiative for implementation in Primary Schoolswith additional needs in relation to mental around Australia. This second major initia-health and wellbeing. tive, KidsMatter, was developed in partnership with several other key organizations: be- Among other items, the kit includes mod- yondblue: the national depression initiative,ules on bullying, suicide prevention, enhancing the Australian Psychological Societyresilience, loss and grief, and diversity. Of par- and Principals Australia and is supported byticular interest to my focus in this chapter is the Australian Rotary Health. KidsMatter Pri-that one of the aims of MindMatters is to “de- mary began as a pilot project from 2007-velop the social and emotional skills required to 2008 with 101 participant schools nation-meet life’s challenges.” Drawing from the five ally. Approximately 300 additional schoolscore competencies identified by CASEL, Mind- became involved during the 2010 schoolMatters uses a slightly adapted framework of year.  Partnerships are currently underwaythree “social and emotional learnings”: with school systems in every state and terri- tory to support the rollout of KidsMatter Pri-• Self-awareness and self-management; mary to more schools across the country.• Social awareness and relationship skills; The Australian government has recently and committed an additional $18 million to en-• Responsible decision-making. able KidsMatter Primary to be expanded to a further 1700 primary schools by June 2014. They also note the importance of “spiritualunderstandings”, illustrating the MindMatters The rationale for the development and im-“whole student approach.” plementation of KidsMatter is firmly based in78
  • 67. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaThere is a solid body of evidence indicating that helpingchildren develop social and emotional skills, includingresilience, leads to better mental health. In addition, ifchildren experiencing mental health difficulties areidentified early and supported, they will be less likely tohave poor mental health outcomes as adults(KidsMatter)the analysis presented above with respect to A closer look at Component 2: Social andthe high incidence of mental health issues Emotional Learning indicates that it drawsamong young Australians. heavily on the five core competencies iden- tified by CASEL. “It is estimated that one in seven chil- dren of primary school age have a men- • Self-awareness, tal health difficulty, the most common • Self-management, difficulties being depression, anxiety, • Responsible decision-making, hyperactivity and aggression. There is a • Relationship skills, and solid body of evidence indicating that • Social awareness. helping children develop social and emotional skills, including resilience, It has imported the SEL Framework from leads to better mental health. In addi- CASEL as a basis for its programmes. tion, if children experiencing mental health difficulties are identified early 3.1.3: Social and Emotional Learning23 in and supported, they will be less likely to Queensland Government State Schools have poor mental health outcomes as The Queensland State Government Depart- adults.”22 ment of Education and Training also has a strong focus on social and emotional learning. Of particular relevance is that one of the Unlike the Federal government whole schoolfour key components of the programme is programmes, MindMatters and KidsMatter,social and emotional education. The four core the Queensland Government does not providecomponents of KidsMatter are: any particular programmes. Rather it offers an introduction on its website to social and• Component 1: A positive school community emotional learning, again based on the• Component 2: Social and emotional learn- CASEL approach. However, it also makes an ing (SEL) for students additional valuable contribution to the Aus-• Component 3: Parenting support and ed- tralian resource pool by providing a guide to ucation social and emotional learning. This document• Component 4: Early intervention for stu- includes a comprehensive listing of commer- dents experiencing mental health difficulties. cially available programmes for social and 79
  • 68. Country Chapter #5 | Australiaemotional learning being operated in Aus- young people. Reach Out is run by the Inspiretralia. In addition to MindMatters and Kids- Foundation., there are numerous other commer-cially available programmes that can be National Advisory Group on Body Image:accessed from the Queensland government The Advisory Group will help to develop a newwebsite.24 Voluntary Industry Code of Conduct on Body Image and provide advice to the Government3.2 Implicit Approaches to Whole School, on young Australians’ concerns about negativeFamily and Community Contexts body image and the impact that it has on them,By implicit SEE approaches I mean the their friends and the community. Seven out ofbroader contextual territory of “social and ten high school girls consistently choose anemotional education” that includes holistic ideal figure that is thinner than their own, andeducational styles, and family and community only 16 per cent of young women say they areenculturation. happy with their body weight. Broader Cultural Pedagogical tionalAdvisoryGrouponBodyImage.aspxpractices that facilitate Social and Emotionaleducation in the broader community Social Inclusion Board: The AustralianBeyond Blue. National Depression Initiative: Social Inclusion Board was established inbeyondblue is a national, independent, not- May 2008. It is the main advisory body to thefor-profit organisation working to address is- government on ways to achieve better out-sues associated with depression, anxiety and comes for the most disadvantaged in ourrelated substance misuse disorders in Aus- community and to improve social inclu-tralia. sion in society as a whole. ges/default.aspx The Inspire Foundation: The InspireFoundation was established in 1996 in di- Parenting Australia: Parenting Australia is anrect response to Australia’s then escalating online support community for pregnantrates of youth suicide. It combines technol- women and families with babies and childrenogy with the direct involvement of young under five. to deliver innovative and practicalonline programmes that prevent youth sui- Raising Children Network: The Australiancide and improve young people’s mental parenting website: comprehensive, practical,health and wellbeing. Their mission is to expert child health and parenting informationhelp millions of young people lead happier and activities covering children aged 0-15lives. years. 3.2.2 Social and Emotional Education at the Reach Out, Australia: Reach Out is a web- Margins of Societybased service that aims to inspire young peo- Indigenous Cultural Festivals and Wellbeing25ple to help themselves through tough times, In recognition of the disadvantage and alien-and find ways to boost their own mental ation experienced by a high proportion of In-health and wellbeing. Their aim is to improve digenous youth, many of whom may aspire toyoung people’s mental health and wellbeing be university students, RMIT University Globalby building skills and providing information, Cities Research Institute has initiated a proj-support and referrals in ways that work for ect called “Globalizing Indigeneity: Indigenous80
  • 69. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaCultural festivals are one of the few consistently positivespaces for indigenous communities to assert a moreconstructive view of themselves both intergenerationally,and as part of their struggle for respect as distinct culturesin the broader national communityCultural Festivals and Wellbeing in Australia As a brief case example, the Croc Festi-and the Asia-Pacific”, which aims to work at val “is a sister event of the Rock Eisteddfodthe deeper levels of empowerment that are of- Challenge, a subsidiary of the Global Rockten invisible. The project received Australian Challenge, which engages young people inResearch Council linkage grant funding in countries around the world in drug-free2008 to partner with the Telstra Foundation performing arts events” (Phipps & Slater,Limited. The project examines the relationship 2010). The first Croc festival, initially calledbetween Indigenous Australian Festivals and Croc Eisteddfod Festival, was held in Weipa,the health and wellbeing of indigenous youth West Cape York, Far North Queensland, inand community. July 1998, involving 350 students from seventeen schools from across Cape York The rationale for such a project is that In- and the Torres Strait (Croc Festival). Bydigenous communities in Australia (and else- 2007, there were seven sites around thewhere) suffer from extreme disadvantage. country with an estimated 19,000 studentsNorthern Australia and many other places in participating. It aimed to inspire and en-the region, face a demographic time bomb of courage Indigenous and non-Indigenousalienated, self destructive and culturally dis- students and communities to celebrateoriented youth. This manifests as violence in youth and culture and in particular to cele-places like Wadeye, Palm Island and Port brate indigenous forms of culture and theMoresby. Cultural festivals are one of the few diversity among them (Phipps & Slater,consistently positive spaces for indigenous 2010). It is claimed that the festival builtcommunities to assert a more constructive self-esteem and social skills and a sense ofview of themselves both intergenerationally, identity and belonging among indigenousand as part of their struggle for respect as young people, thus contributing to their so-distinct cultures in the broader national com- cial and emotional development.munity. Cultural festivals also provide a rarespace for novel intercultural accommoda- This RMIT indigenous festival projecttions to be negotiated on indigenous terrain, thereby goes beyond the neoliberal rationalefor example, the Croc Festival, held in multi- of providing mere access to Indigenous stu-ple sites around Australia, the Dreaming Fes- dents in order to increase Indigenous par-tival, held annually in Woodford, Southern ticipation in the national economy, and be-Queensland; and the Garma Festival, North yond mere social justice issues of equity andEast Arnhem Land. participation. Rather it has the potential to 81
  • 70. Country Chapter #5 | Australiaempower and indeed transform Indigenous they associate with hopefulness and ‘the fu-students and their relationship with RMIT ture’. The results of these activities and in-University by deeply honouring their partic- terviews were the basis for an exhibition atular ways of knowing as expressed in their the Migration Museum, South Australia. Theown cultural festivals. More details of how exhibition, entitled Hope, was part  of thethese festivals operate as a collaborative 2008 Adelaide Festival of Arts. The projectevent between indigenous communities and was undertaken at the Hawke Research In-the university can be found in the full report stitute for Sustainable Societies and was anof this project.26 Australian Research Council funded Linkage Project 2006–2008.27 The importance of In summary the report found that “Festi- hope in the prevention of youth suicide hasvals are important to Indigenous communi- been well-documented and it is consequentlyties for their contribution [to] Indigenous an important key feature to be cultivated incommunity wellbeing, resilience and capac- contextual approaches to social and emo-ity. They increase individual and community tional education.self-esteem and cultural confidence, developlocal leadership, social, cultural and eco- STREAT. Social Enterprise for Homelessnomic initiatives, open creative spaces of Young People, Melbourneindividual and collective opportunity, and STREAT = Street youth + street food + streetprovide a focus for governments and other culture. Inspired by their concern for theservice providers to better engage commu- 100 million young people who live or worknity needs and aspirations.” (Phipps & on the world’s streets, STREAT is a socialSlater, 2010, p. 86). enterprise providing homeless youth with a supported pathway to long-term careers inRefugees and Asylum seekers. Hope Project the hospitality industry. They run street cafesin South Australia in Melbourne where the young people getThe project “Doing social sustainability: the their hospitality training. The food is inspiredutopian imagination of youth on the mar- by street hawker food from around the world.gins” aimed to find out how young people on STREAT believes large intractable socialthe margins of society imagine the future problems like youth homelessness and dis-and what hope means to them. The premise advantage are not acceptable and work to-of the project was that the utopian imagina- wards a creative, large-scale response. Theirtion of marginalised young people can con- food service social enterprise is dedicated totribute to the development of two key themes providing a supported pathway to longfor social sustainability: hope and the future. term  employment for young people whoThe project conducted research in alternative have been living on the street or at risk of be-education schools in South Australia in late ing on the street. They combine wrap-around2006 and early 2007. The schools cater for social support with industry training and em-males and females that may be ‘at risk’, un- ployment opportunities in their street to cope in mainstream education, and As a social enterprise all of their commercialhave problems with violence, substance activities are dedicated to generating funds toabuse or with the juvenile justice system. The address areas of acute social need. As such,young people were aged between 14 and 17. they model a different way of doing business:The researchers talked with students in class, innovative and responsible market engage-encouraged them to draw, interviewed them ment that resolves large-scale issues whileand gave them a camera to take some pho- meeting a known consumer need.tographs of places, people and things that82
  • 71. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaThe importance of hope in the prevention of youth suicidehas been well-documented and it is consequently animportant key feature to be cultivated in contextualapproaches to social and emotional education STREAT social enterprise28 is based on the Following on from my research on thefollowing five values: evolution of consciousness and educational approaches that support it, I have identified• Discover. We believe in lifelong learning  a dozen or more postformal educational ap-• Create. We tackle problems with imagina- proaches—or postformal pedagogies—which tion and passion although not explicitly focusing on social• Nourish. Our meals nourish customers and emotional education, are contributing to and youth the broader, more holistic education of the• Connect. We bring ideas, individuals and child that is so necessary in the fragmented communities together world of the 21st century. Somewhat para-• Sustain. We strive for sustainability in all doxically, many of these alternative ap- our activities proaches to education are quite independent of each other, and often seemingly unaware In summary, this project is a very good ex- of other quite similar approaches. My inter-ample of how young people how can be en- est is to map these different approaches,couraged to learn important social and emo- explore relationships among them, and re-tional skills they clearly did not have, through flect this back to them.a naturalistic, contextual setting, rather thanthrough the contrivance of social skills pro- In previous research I identified the theo-grammes, which would be unlikely to be ef- retical relationships between several themesfective in these cases. arising from the evolution of consciousness discourse and a diversity of postformal edu-3.2.3 Postformal Pedagogies cational discourses (Gidley, 2007, 2009).As noted in the earlier section on the history Four core pedagogical values emerged fromof education, Australian people have always the intersection between these two clusters:prized freedom of choice and diversity in ed- pedagogies of love, life, wisdom and voice.ucation. This has led to the large and grow- Although there is considerable overlap anding proportion of independent schools in interpenetration between and among the coreAustralia, many of which operate from a spe- pedagogical values and the postformal educa-cific philosophy, approach or niche orienta- tional approaches, the latter have been clus-tion. In addition to the explicit social and tered under the pedagogical value that theyemotional education initiatives discussed appear to most strongly support (See Table 1).above, several educational approaches deal This clustering can be viewed as a type of del-implicitly with social and emotional education icate theorising29 to be distinguished fromin a broader, more contextual manner. formal categorisation into discrete territories 83
  • 72. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaTable 1. Postformal Pedagogies Supporting four Core Pedagogical ValuesPostformal educational approaches supporting the Pedagogy of Love[Educational styles that emphasise care, contemplation, empathy, love and reverence]Holistic and integral education Includes broad, eclectic holistic education and also specific integral/integrative approaches (Bronson & Gangadean, 2006; Miller, 2000; Stack, 2006).Social and emotional education There are primarily two types: explicit, conceptual, curricular approaches and implicit, contextual, relational (Refer to chapters in this volume).Spiritual and transformative education Diversity in spiritual values, non-denominational, and also contemplative and other transformative approaches to learning (Glazer, 1994; Hart, 2001a).Postformal educational approaches supporting the Pedagogy of Life[Educational styles that support shifts from static concepts to living thinking]Imaginative education Imagination is an important dimension in bringing concepts to life, and thus supporting the development of vitality in thinking (Egan, 1997; Nielsen, 2006).Ecological education and sustainability Approaches grounded in ecological perspectives, environmental awareness, respect for natural surroundings and sustainability (Jardine, 1998; Orr, 1994).Futures and foresight education Encouraging foresight, long-term thinking, and imaginative visioning of preferred futures, not merely perpetuating the past (Gidley, Bateman, & Smith, 2004; Hicks, 2002).Postformal educational approaches supporting the Pedagogy of Wisdom[Educational styles that stimulate creativity, complexity and multiperspectivality]Wisdom in education There are specific educational theories addressed to the cultivation of wisdom (Hart, 2001b; Sternberg, 2001).Complexity in education Educational approaches that draw from and embrace the science and philosophy of complexity (Davis, 2004; Morin, 2001).Creativity in education Beyond creativity as an “add-on” in education, and recognizing creativity as a fundamental educational underpinning (Neville, 1989; Sloan, 1992).Postformal educational approaches supporting the Pedagogy of Voice/Language[Encouragement of sensitivity to linguistic, cultural and paradigmatic contexts.]Aesthetic and artistic education Approaches that cultivate aesthetic sensibility through exposure to and participation in a wide range of artistic activities (Abbs, 2003; Read, 1943; Rose & Kincheloe, 2003).Postmodern and poststructuralist pedagogies Integrating the contributions of continental, especially French, philosophy in identifying the politics of voice and marginality (Elkind, 1998; Peters, 1998).Critical, postcolonial and global pedagogies Further enhancing awareness of dominant political voices and the rights of marginal cultures and sub-cultures to have a voice (Freire, 1970; Giroux, 1992).84
  • 73. Country Chapter #5 | Australia Wisdom Education Complexity Creative Education Education Futures Holistic-integral Education Wisdom Education Imaginative Postformal Spirituality Life Love Education Pedagogies Education Ecological Voice Social-Emotional Education Education Aesthetic Critical Education Pedagogies Postmodern Poststructuralist PedagogiesFigure 1. Postformal Pedagogies and the Core Pedagogical Values of Love, Life, Wisdom and Voiceas one might see in formal analysis (See also 4. Case Study 1: Social-EmotionalFigure 1). Education within a Whole System More information about these ap- 4.1 The Australian National Steinerproaches can be found elsewhere (Gidley, Curriculum Initiative2007a, 2008, 2009). While it is beyond thescope of this paper to discuss these ap- The Australian Curriculum recognisesproaches in detail, the first case study below the entitlement of each student tois based on the holistic, integral approach of knowledge, understanding and skillsSteiner education. that provide a foundation for success- ful and lifelong learning and partici- 85
  • 74. Country Chapter #5 | Australia pation in the Australian community.30 through nurturing a sense of reverence for (p. 9) life, feelings of wonder and awe, and a love of learning (Gidley, 2009; Nielsen, 2004). As a foundation for the new Australian Na- A social and emotional dimension is implicittional Curriculum, recent strategic policy doc- across the approach: the students know and un-uments emphasise the importance of the whole derstand the content, but as their feelings havechild. As a major goal for education it has been been touched by the learning process, they alsoclearly stated that: “children and young people care about the phenomenon under observationshould be successful learners, confident and and are more likely to awaken to the ethical di-creative individuals, and active and informed mension of the learning experience. Guided bycitizens.”31 The Australian National Curriculum the perspectives that Nel Noddings (2003,allows for four possible alternatives: 2008) emphasizes in her writings on the ped- agogies of care and happiness, Steiner educa-• National Steiner Curriculum tion promotes the practice of ‘looping’ whereby• National Montessori Curriculum ideally one teacher stays with the same class• International Baccalaureate Curriculum through the middle period of childhood (7 to 14• University of Cambridge International Ex- years). The continuing relationship between aminations32 the child and the class teacher, as well as the regular communications with parents, enables The remainder of this sub-section will fo- the teacher to continuously assess the child’scus on the recent process of development of work in a discrete yet accurate way, and to un-the National Steiner Curriculum, in particu- derstand individual strengths and weaknesses.lar how it works within the national curricu- The teacher is able to monitor the child’slum guidelines to bring through the important progress along a continuum, covering aca-emphasis on social and emotional education. demic, developmental and social aspects, ratherIt should be noted here that information on than relying heavily on formal testing. Thethese alternative curricular approaches is not Steiner approach recognises the spiritual di-yet widely available. mension of the child, and draws on the diverse literary traditions associated with the leading re-4.2 Holistic education integrating social and ligions of the world to inform the festival cele-emotional needs brations and the rich narrative elements of theOriginally developed in Germany in the early curriculum. Daily learning experiences also in-20th century by Rudolf Steiner (1861 – clude teamwork, collaboration and conflict res-1925), there are now some 1,000 au- olution to encourage citizenship.tonomous, non-systemic and non-denomi-national schools and around 1,600 kinder- 4.3 Relevance of Steiner Pedagogy for thegartens in the world today. In keeping with 21st Centuryother holistic approaches Steiner education Steiner education in Australia is part of a di-cultivates and integrates the cognitive-intel- verse and active international movementlectual, physiological, psycho-emotional and that has an implicit global orientation. Re-ethical-spiritual dimensions of the developing spect for differing linguistic, religious andchild. The nurturing of each child’s individual cultural groupings is embedded in the edu-potential is therefore valued within the cational perspectives. In Australia curricu-‘whole’ context of society and in relation to lum content includes Indigenous and Asianthe ever wider local, national and global material as aspects of cultural inclusion,spheres of activity. It provides an implicit so- which is an important part of social andcial and emotional education of children emotional education.86
  • 75. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaSome of the characteristic features of the changingeducational landscape that resonate with the Steinereducational approach include attention to creativity,complexity, imagination and spiritual awareness Building on experiential, phenomenologi- garten to Class Twelve (ages 5 to 17 approx-cal, and evidence-based research in the areas imately) and also informs the method byof imaginative education and social and emo- which the curriculum is delivered to differenttional education Steiner educators are now age groups. Three main stages of childhoodworking alongside mainstream researchers development are identified (Steinerin these and other related fields. Some of the 1907/1996) based on observations and re-characteristic features of the changing edu- search relating to the physiological, socialcational landscape that resonate with the and emotional and cognitive growth changesSteiner educational approach include atten- that take place in the life of the child. A coretion to creativity, complexity, imagination and aspect of the pedagogy aligns the areas ofspiritual awareness. There is also an ex- cognitive (thinking), emotional (feeling-af-panding interest among educators in theories fect) and physical/behavioural (willing) de-of holism, pluralism, multiculturalism and velopment to the three main stages of child-humanism (Gidley 2009; Slaughter, 2004). hood: adolescence (14-21 years old), childhood (7-14 years old) and early child- Over the last twenty years, educational fu- hood (0-7 years old).33 The introduction oftures researchers have identified key com- skills and knowledge is therefore based on aponents of a 21st century education that will concept of child-readiness (see Elkind (1981,better prepare young people for the com- 1998) and age-appropriate education.plexities and uncertainties of the future. Aus-tralian research with Steiner-educated stu- As a pioneering, yet well-established, de-dents demonstrated that many of these velopmental pedagogical approach Steiner ed-features form core aspects of Steiner educa- ucation equips students to meet the complextion (Gidley, 1998, 2002). needs of the 21st century. A range of recent research articles can be found on the websites The Steiner educational approach identi- of the Waldorf Research Educators Networkfies developmental change at work in both (WREN, Steiner Educationpsychological processes and cultural life. A Australia (SEA, and thecore feature of the Steiner approach rests on academic journal Research on Steiner Educa-the understanding that the course of growth tion (RoSE The designof each child into adulthood recapitulates as- of the new National Steiner Curriculum in-pects of the developmental pathway of hu- corporates relevant elements of the identifiedmanity through history (Steiner, developmental stages of thinking and learning1923/1996; Gidley, 2009). This philosoph- into the educational framework (Mazzone,ical orientation provides a framework for in- 1993; Nielsen, 2004, Gidley, 2007, 2008,tegrating curriculum content from Kinder- 2009). In meeting this objective the education 87
  • 76. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaTable 2. Alignment of Australian National Curriculum with Steiner Education Australian National Australian Steiner Core Pedagogical Principles Curriculum Guidelines Curriculum Guidelines of Steiner Education SKILLS HANDS -SKILLS, HEART- LIFE (VITALITY). Pedagogy of Life Translating theory into . Knowledge transformed Process, discovery, movement, practical application into experience. ecological awareness. Bringing learning to life imaginatively. UNDERSTANDING UNDERSTANDING -HEAD- LOVE (WARMTH). Pedagogy of Love Confident and creative Confident and creative Warmth, care, relationships, community, individuals individuals sense of belonging, reverence, connectedness. KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE WISDOM (LIGHT). Pedagogy of Wisdom Successful Learners Powerful Learners Multi-modal learning modes, multiple intelligences, versatility, creativity and complexity. ACTIVE and MORAL CAPACITY BALANCE (EMBODIED VOICE) INFORMED CITIZENS Pedagogy of Voice Active and Informed Citizens Students finding their own authentic voice, integration, balance through deep knowing.encompasses a deep ‘understanding and ac- 2009) and values education (Lovat et al.,knowledgment of the changing nature of 2009). My own educational futures researchyoung people as learners and the challenges identifies educational approaches that supportand demands that will continue to shape their the development of higher stages of thinkinglearning in the future’ (The Shape of the Aus- and learning (Gidley, 2009) through four coretralian Curriculum, May 2009, p.6). pedagogical values: love, life, wisdom and voice (See Table 1 and Figure 1). These four core4.4 Alignment of Steiner Educational values have been utilised in the framing of theGuidelines with the Australian National Steiner Curriculum to provide con-National Curriculum ceptual bridges between Steiner education andSince its origins in the early 20th century the Australian National Curriculum Guidelines.Steiner pedagogy continues to strive towardsthe building of a conceptual bridge to connect The table below illustrates the alignmentthe fields of science, art and the humanities, between the four main categories of the na-morality and spirituality (1923/2004). tional curriculum guidelines (skills, under-Steiner educational philosophy resonates standing, knowledge and active and in-strongly with research in the areas of imagi- formed citizens) and their application in thenative education (Egan, 2007; Nielsen, 2004) context of the Steiner curriculum, via handsand social and emotional learning (Clouder, (skills), heart (understanding), head2008), and with contemporary educational (knowledge) and moral capacity (active andtheories that emphasise care and happiness informed citizens). These interrelated cate-(Noddings, 1992, 2003), the role of the arts in gories are used in the National Steiner Cur-learning (Eisner, 2003; 2008), the impor- riculum design as templates for content de-tance of spirituality (Glazer, 1999; de Sousa, scription and subject curricula.88
  • 77. Country Chapter #5 | Australia5. Case Study 2: Social and Emotional • Communication skills and general knowl-Development within a Whole Population: edge.Australian Early Development Index (AEDI)The Australian Early Development Index It is noteworthy for this research that two(AEDI) is a whole population measure of of the five measures (social competence andyoung children’s development, funded by the emotional maturity) relate to social and emo-Australian Government Department of Edu- tional wellbeing. However, all five domainscation, Employment and Workplace Relations. are regarded as being closely linked to theThe AEDI is conducted by the Centre for predictors of good adult health, educationCommunity and Child Health, Royal Chil- and social outcomes.dren’s Hospital, Melbourne and a key re-search centre of the Murdoch Children’s Re- For the purposes of this chapter, I willsearch Institute, in partnership with the briefly expand on the two most relevant do-Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, mains, how they are measured, and what thePerth.35 overall population sample indicated. In 2009, for the first time, the AEDI was Editor’s note: Results of the Canadian EDI (Early De- velopment Index) are discussed in the chapter “Social andcompleted nationwide, with as many as 98% Emotional Education in the Canadian Context” in this In-of five-year olds having been assessed by ternational Analysis.their teachers, using the index. This has pro-vided a unique snapshot of the early child- 5.1 Social Competence Domainhood development outcomes of Australian This domain measures children’s overall so-children. Between 1 May and 31 July, infor- cial competence, responsibility and respect,mation was collected on 261,203 children approaches to learning and readiness to ex-(97.5 per cent of the estimated national five- plore new things (See Table 3). Bear in mindyear-old population). This involved 15,528 that these criteria are designed to evaluateteachers from 7423 Government, Catholic five-year-olds.and Independent schools around Australia.Although the development index was first 5.2 Emotional Maturity Domaintrialled in British Columbia, Canada, Aus- This domain measures children’s pro-socialtralia is the first nation in the world to un- and helping behaviour, anxious and fearfuldertake such a massive project. behaviour, aggressive behaviour and hyper- activity and inattention. The AEDI involves collecting informationto help create a snapshot of children’s devel- A brief summary of the findings for theopment in communities across Australia. overall evaluation suggest that approximatelyTeachers complete a 95-item checklist for 75% of all Australian five year-olds are ‘oneach child in their first year of full-time track’ with their development in these twoschooling (five-year olds). The checklist domains. However, almost 10% are in themeasures five key areas, or domains, of early developmentally vulnerable range and a fur-childhood development: ther 15% are developmentally at risk (See Table 5).• Physical health and wellbeing;• Social competence; As a population measure, the AEDI places• Emotional maturity; the focus on all children in the community,• Language and cognitive skills (school- examining early childhood development based); across the whole community. It is argued that 89
  • 78. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaTable 3: Adapted from AEDI Social Competence Domain36 Children developmentally Children on track vulnerable Overall social Have average to poor overall social Have excellent or good overall social competence skills, low self-confidence, and are development, very good ability to get rarely able to play with various along with other children and play with children and interact cooperatively. various children, usually cooperative and self-confident. Responsibility Only sometimes or never accept Always or most of the time show respect and respect responsibility for actions, show for others, and for property, follow respect for others and for property, rules and take care of materials, accept demonstrate self-control, and are responsibility for actions, and show rarely able to follow rules and take self-control. care of materials. Approaches to Only sometimes or never work neatly Always or most of the time work neatly, learning and independently, are rarely able to independently, and solve problems, follow solve problems, follow class routines instructions and class routines, easily and do not easily adjust to changes in adjust to changes. routines. Readiness to Only sometimes or never show Are curious about the surrounding world, explore new things curiosity about the world, and are and are eager to explore new books, rarely eager to explore new books, toys or unfamiliar objects and games. toys or unfamiliar objects and games.Table 4: Adapted from AEDI Emotional Maturity Domain Children developmentally Children on track vulnerable Pro-social and Never or almost never show most of the Often show helping behaviours including helping behaviour helping behaviours including helping helping someone hurt, sick or upset, someone hurt, sick or upset, offering to offering to help spontaneously, and help spontaneously, and inviting others inviting others to join in. to join in. Anxious and Often show most of the anxious Rarely or never show anxious behaviours, fearful behaviour behaviours; they could be worried, are happy, and able to enjoy school, unhappy, nervous, sad or excessively and are comfortable being left at school. shy, indecisive; and they can be upset when left at school. Aggressive Often show most of the aggressive Rarely or never show aggressive behaviour behaviours; they get into physical fights, behaviours and do not use aggression as kick or bite others, take other people’s a means of solving a conflict, do not have things, are disobedient or have temper tantrums, and are not mean temper tantrums. to others. Hyperactivity Often show most of the hyperactive Never show hyperactive behaviours and and inattention behaviours; they could be restless, are able to concentrate, settle to distractible, impulsive; they fidget and chosen activities, wait their turn, and have difficulty settling to activities. most of the time think before doing something.90
  • 79. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaTable 5: AEDI Results for Social Competence and Emotional Maturity Number of Average Developmentally Developmentally On track children* score# vulnerable at risk 0 – 10 Below the 10th Between the Between the Above the 50th percentile 10th and 25th 25th and 50th percentile percentile percentile % % % %Social 245,356 9.2 9.5 15.2 22.8 52.6CompetenceEmotional 244,363 8.7 8.9 15.5 25.4 50.2Maturityby moving the focus of effort from the indi- sponse to community concerns about the im-vidual child to all children in the community plications of a burgeoning divorce rate ona bigger difference can be made in support- children in Australia, but also to redress theing efforts to support optimal early childhood lack of support available to children adjustingdevelopment. to death in their families (Graham, 1996a; Graham, 1996b; Graham, 2002a; Graham,6. Case Study 3: Social and Emotional Education 2002b). The SfG programme involves smallas a Targeted Programme: Seasons for Growth group, like-to-like peer learning processesfor Children experiencing Grief and Loss37 (facilitated by an adult), creating a space for children to ‘have a say’ and providing an in- Experiences of loss and grief (separa- vitation to learn and practise new ways of tion, divorce, death, illness, disability, mi- thinking and responding to changes in their gration, adoption, etc.) feature signifi- families. The emphasis is on understanding cantly in the lives of many children and the effects of change, loss and grief, whilst young people. In Australia, for example, developing skills in communication, decision- 24% of 18-24 year olds report that their making and problem-solving through a peer parents had divorced or separated be- support network so as to help restore self fore they turned 18 years of age and 5% confidence and self-esteem. experienced the death of a parent dur- ing their childhood (Australian Bureau of SfG is an eight-week group programme Statistics, 2008)… Common emotional (usually 4-7 children with an adult ‘Compan- responses such as sadness, anxiety, ion’), with a ninth ‘Celebration’ and two sub- anger, resentment, confusion, guilt and sequent ‘Reconnector’ sessions (ranging from loyalty tensions (Graham, 2004; Worden, 40-60 minutes each). There are five SfG ‘Lev- 1991; Worden, 1996) need to be heard, els’: three for primary school-aged children acknowledged and respected. (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11-12 years) and two for secondary school-aged young people The Seasons for Growth (SfG) programme (13-15 years and 16-18 years). Each SfGis a research based Kindergarten to Grade 12 Level has a sound curriculum structure and in-curriculum intervention that aims to pro- corporates a wide range of age-appropriatemote the social and emotional wellbeing of creative learning activities including art, mime,children and young people (aged 6-18 years) role-play, stories, discussion, playdough, mu-who have experienced significant change in sic and journaling. Children’s learning is gen-their lives, usually as a result of death, sepa- erated through respectful conversations, facil-ration or divorce. It was developed in re- itated (but not dominated) by an appropriately 91
  • 80. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaAs the name of the programme [Seasons for Growth]suggests, it uses the imagery of the four seasons toillustrate that grief is cyclical, and is not a linear journeywith a clear endtrained adult ‘Companion’, whose role requires vulnerability, the programme assists themthem to have the skills to listen to children and not only in understanding what happenshear their voices but also to support them to when significant change and loss occurs indiscover and negotiate who they are and their their lives but, importantly, how they mightplace in the world. best respond to this. The grief theory underpinning the pro- As the name of the programme suggests,gramme is based on Worden’s ‘tasks’ (Wor- it uses the imagery of the four seasons to il-den, 1991; Worden, 1996), a conceptualisa- lustrate that grief is cyclical, and is not a lin-tion of grief which is significant in that it ear journey with a clear end.  Each of thesignals a shift from passivity to action/re- eight weekly sessions explores a conceptsponsibility in managing one’s experience, theme such as “I am Special”, “Life Changeshence more closely reflecting notions of chil- like the Seasons” and “My Story is Special”.dren’s competence and agency—or self-di- Each theme interweaves the imagery of onerection. In acknowledging the complex in- of the seasons and one of Worden’s fourterplay between children’s agency and ‘tasks’ of grief: Autumn To accept the reality of the change/loss Summer Winter To emotionally relocate To experience the the person pain of grief Spring To adjust to an environment in which the person/object is no longer presentFigure 2. Seasons for Growth and Worden’s Four ‘Tasks’ of Grief92
  • 81. Country Chapter #5 | Australia The Seasons for Growth programme was raising pre-service teachers’ self-reporteddesigned and first implemented fifteen years understanding and confidence. Plans are un-ago and has gone through several research- derway to develop material for primary andbased iterations and developments. Although early childhood teacher education.SfG is primarily used in schools, it can also beused with adults. Since its launch in 1996, the In addition to such pre-packaged profes-programme has reached over 150, 000 chil- sional development it is important to re-dren and young people across five countries. member our own personal social and emo- tional development. The core aims of Seasons for Growth arethe development of resilience and emotional 8. Concluding Reflectionsliteracy to promote social and emotional well- In conclusion, I would like to briefly draw at-being.38 However, it should not be regarded tention to the big picture context of why it isas providing (or substituting for) therapy in today that social and emotional educationcircumstances of grief and loss. Multiple in- needs to be “added” to most existing educa-dependent evaluations have consistently con- tional approaches. Why is it not part of edu-cluded that the SfG programme has a strong, cation already? How did education become sopositive effect on children and young peo- fragmented? My research over the last decadeple.39 has indicated that the initial impulse for mass public education in, for instance, Germany7. Teacher Education relating to Social and over two hundred years ago was actuallyEmotional Education quite holistic. It was initiated by Humboldt, inIn addition to the many school-based mental collaboration with German idealists and ro-health and wellbeing approaches, the Re- mantics such as Goethe, Hegel, Schelling andsponse Ability40 initiative supports the pre- Novalis. These 18th century philosopher-po-service education of teachers. Response Abil- ets were inspired by the notion of the holis-ity is another initiative of the Australian tic development of the human being and theGovernment Department of Health and Age- on-going evolution of consciousness. How-ing, and is implemented by the Hunter Insti- ever, after the deaths of these leading Ger-tute of Mental Health in partnership with uni- man philosophers, by the middle of the 19thversities and tertiary educators around century the idealist-romantic educationalAustralia. Response Ability provides free project was largely hijacked by the gradualmulti-media teacher education resources to influence of the British Industrial Revolution,higher education institutions and offers on- so that schools increasingly became traininggoing practical support to teacher educators. grounds to provide fodder for the factories.The project team also distributes information While it is acknowledged that England, likethrough meetings, conferences and publica- Germany, had its share of romantic poetstions. The multi-media Response Ability ma- such as Blake, Coleridge, Wordsworth, toterials use problem-based learning to help name a few, their presence did not seem toteachers develop practical skills. Topics in- influence educational thought in the way thatclude promoting resilience and identifying the German romantics influenced the shap-young people who need additional support. ing of educational philosophy in continentalThe existing resources focus on secondary Europe. The educational thought that devel-teacher education and are used at around oped in England from the 17th century until90% of Australian campuses offering relevant the late 19th century was dominated by con-programmes. Evaluation data show that the cerns about “practical problems of the cur-Response Ability materials are effective in riculum, teaching methods and school or- 93
  • 82. Country Chapter #5 | Australiaganisation” (Curtis and Boltwood, 1953) in • They educate for the past, for forms ofcontrast to the more idealistic educational understanding that are becoming out-philosophy of German and Swiss educators moded and are no longer adequate for thewho were pre-eminently concerned with the complexity of 21st century life on a fragiledevelopment of the whole human being, ‘bil- planet (Gidley, 2007b; Morin, 2001);dung’. The more pragmatic, utilitarian model • They support the status quo: valuing sci-of school education that developed in England ence over literature, maths over art, intel-was picked up in the USA. Notwithstanding lect over emotion, materialism over spiri-the different philosophies, theories and meth- tuality, order over creativity (Finser, 2001;ods within mainstream formal education, Glazer, 1994).there is a tacit industrial era template onwhich most contemporary educational insti- Prior to the Industrial Revolution, whichtutions are based that has been the main in- embedded these modernist ideas into the so-fluence on mass education for at least one cio-cultural fabric of Western society, educa-hundred and fifty years (Dator, 2000). tion for children was not a formal process, even in the Western world. Children were en- The modernist phase of formal school ed- culturated by their extended families and cul-ucation is trapped within industrial, mecha- tures and only the children of the wealthy—nistic and technicist41 metaphors. Its en- who could afford private tutors—or whotrenchment hinders the development of the wished to become clerics, had any ‘formal’whole person and the appropriate develop- education. Thus, education of children hasment of new ways of thinking suitable for the undergone two phases, roughly aligned withcomplexity of our times. Industrial era edu- macro-phases of socio-cultural developmentcational practices limit cultivation of other (see Table 6 below):ways of knowing, such as social and emo-tional, in several ways: • An informal phase which lasted from the beginnings of early human culture to the• They fragment and compartmentalise Industrial Revolution, knowledge in ways that many young peo- • A formal phase of mass education of chil- ple find meaningless (Eckersley, Cahill, dren in schools, modelled on factories. Wierenga, & Wyn, 2007; Gidley, 2005).• They privilege one way of knowing (cog- By contrast, early 20th century educational nitive) over significant others, such as aes- contributions of Steiner (1909/1965) and thetic, contemplative, emotional, imagina- Montessori (1916/1964) in Europe, fol- tive, intuitive, kinaesthetic, musical, inter- lowed by Sri Aurobindo42 in India, pointed to and intra-personal and social (Egan, the educational possibilities that support the 1997; Gardner, 1996; Nielsen, 2006; development of the whole child. A driving Noddings, 2005). force underlying their educational approaches• They privilege the neoliberal business was the idea of the evolution of consciousness model of education as commodity over all that embraces more spiritual perspectives. other orientations (Giroux, 2001; Stein- berg & Kincheloe, 2004). A plurality of educational alternatives to• They encourage the transmission of dead- the factory model has arisen since then and ening, stale concepts rather than evoking has been discussed elsewhere (Gidley, a process of awakening mobile, living 2007a, 2008). I refer to these as postformal thinking (Deleuze & Conley, 1992; White- pedagogies drawing from 1) the idea of head, 1916/1967). “postformal reasoning” put forward in the94
  • 83. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaTable 6: Socio-Cultural, Political and Educational Phases Prehistory to 18th 18th to 20th 20th to 21st Century Century Century and BeyondSocio-Cultural Pre-modern Modern Post-modernPhasesPolitical City-states Nation-states Global-planetaryPhasesEducation Informal family/tribal Formal schooling, Pluralism of postformalPhases enculturation, or mass education, pedagogies, integral, elite tutoring factory-model planetary sensibilitylast few decades by adult developmental psy- on which I relied heavily for this case study.chologists who identify one or more stages of For the Seasons for Growth programme, I ac-reasoning beyond Piaget’s formal operations; knowledge the originator and developer of2) the educational research building on crit- the programme, Professor Anne Graham, Di-ical theory and postmodernism which is re- rector, Centre for Children and Young People,ferred to as post-formal education or post- Southern Cross University, and also Sallyformality; and 3) my own transdisciplinary Newell for the evaluation of the programmepostformal approach in which I bring these from which the text of my case study wastwo discourses together via the term “post- largely extracted. For the AEDI initiative, I ac-formal pedagogies.” Postformal pedagogies knowledge the support and encouragement ofwill be further discussed in a later section. Professor Jill Sewell, Paediatrician, Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne. Based on these insights, I suggest that ed-ucation—at least in much of the Anglophone43world—is in a transition from formal to post-formal (see Table 6). Social and emotionaleducation is an essential component of thisimportant transition. Finally, to speculate on the long-term fu-tures of social and emotional education, I be-lieve that the movement towards more holis-tic, ecological education approaches willcontinue, thus reducing the need in the longerterm for specific curricular programmes.9. AcknowledgementsI wish to acknowledge the important contri-butions of several persons, particularly withrespect to the three case studies. For theSteiner National Curriculum initiative, I ac-knowledge the significant contribution ofBronwyn Haralambous to the draft document 95
  • 84. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaNotes found at: cacion-responsable_educacion.htm 20 For more information on the Early Years Learning1 The Evolution of Education in Australia by Marion Framework of the Australian Government Depart- McCreadie (2006). http://www.historyaus- ment of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, see [History of] Catholic schools. http://www.catholi- childhood/Policy_Agenda/Quality/Pages/Ear- lyYearsLearningFramework.aspx3 “Government and Non-government Schooling.” 21 Reports are available for reading at the MindMatters Australian Social Trends, 2006. Australian Bureau website. of Statistics. tion/evaluation_-_landing.html viousproducts/9FA90AEC587590EDCA2571B000 22 For more information about KidsMatter, see the of- 14B9B3?opendocument ficial website: The Australian States are Victoria, New South 23 By Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) I am Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Aus- specifically referring to skills taught according to the tralia and Tasmania, while the Territories are approach developed by the Collaborative for Aca- Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Ter- demic, Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL) ritory. project, co-founded in 1994 by Daniel Goleman5 This would be similar to what might be referred to and others (Goleman, 1997). This is in contrast to as central government funding in other national what I refer to as Social and Emotional Education contexts. (SEE) in this paper, which both includes the teach-6 Australian Government Funding for Schools Ex- ing of social and emotional learning skills and goes plained. Parliament of Australia. 17th November, beyond it to include broader, contextual and holis- 2010. P. 3. tic approaches referred to above as implicit ap- proaches. SchoolsFunding.pdf 24 Ibid. p. 24. tection/sel/commercial-programs.html8 See note 8 above. 25 For more information on the current situation with re-9 “1970-2010: Forty Years in Review.” Independ- spect to social and emotional wellbeing of indigenous ent Schools Council of Australia (2010). young people in Australia, please see the following link: v i e w / Ye a r % 2 0 i n % 2 0 R e v i e w % 2 0 1 9 7 0 - ics/health/social-and-emotional-wellbeing/ 2010%2040%20Years%20in%20Review.pdf 26 Ibid. 27 National Catholic Education Commission. About search/utopia/default.asp NCEC. 28 29 I coin the term delicate theorising in reference to tion=com_content&view=article&id=64&Itemid=56 Goethe’s delicate empiricism (Holdrege, 2005; Rob-12 Ibid. Insight: Catholic Education in Australia, 2010. bins, 2006).13 “Government and Non-government Schooling.” 30 For more information on new Australian National Op. cit. Curriculum, please see:14 The ARACY Report Card was developed with the sup- port of UNICEF Australia and the Allen Consulting lum.html and/or Group. ARACY is chaired by child health expert Pro- fessor Fiona Stanley. grams/SmarterSchools/Pages/_NationalCurricu- licationDocuments/REP_report_card_the_wellbe- lum.aspx ing_of_young_Australians_A5.pdf 31 See Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for15 Young Australians. This declaration was launched 2007_071%20(2).pdf by the Australian Education Ministers in 2008.16 Children’s Headline Indicators are nationally agreed measures for children’s health, development and sources/National_Declaration_on_the_Educa- wellbeing. Australian Institute of Health and Wel- tional_Goals_for_Young_Australians.pdf fare. 32 For more information, see ACARA, Annual Report17 The report on the ‘Conceptualisation of social and 2008-2009. emotional wellbeing for children and young people, and policy implications’ is available at the following ACARA_AnnualReport_08-09.pdf link. 33 While not regarded as hard and fast rules or cate- Name=Social_and_emotional_wellbeing_indi gories, these developmental stages are well sup-18 For more information about KidsMatter, see the ported by research. following link: 34 Waldorf Research Educators Network (WREN) re- cial-and-emotional-learning/ search papers on Steiner pedagogy can be found at:19 More information about these parameters can be
  • 85. Country Chapter #5 | Australia agogy.html Steiner Education Australia (SEA) re- References search section: cles/328 Research on Steiner Education (RoSE) journal: Abbs, P. (2003). Against the flow: The arts, postmodern culture and education. Lon-35 The AEDI is also endorsed as a national progress measure of early childhood development in Aus- don: RoutledgeFalmer. tralia by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG). Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008) Family36 March_2011_Reissue_final.pdf Characteristics and Transitions, Australia,37 This section is largely extracted from a recent eval- 2006-07 (Report Number: 4442.0), ABS uation of the programme by researchers at the (accessed February 2010 via Centre for Children and Young People (CCYP), Southern Cross University (SCU), Lismore, Aus- tralia. @nsf/mf/4442.0), Canberra. sons+for+Growth38 More information about the Seasons for Growth Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. programme can be found at Good Grief: (2007). Young Australians: Their Health Growth/ChildrenYoungPeoplesProgram/tabid/65 and Wellbeing 2007. Canberra, ACT, /Default.aspx Australia: Australian Institute of Health39 See Evaluating the Seasons for Growth Program: and Welfare. sons+for+Growth40 Australian Research Alliance for Children play=183492 and Youth. (2008). Report Card: The41 Technicism is an over reliance or overconfidence in technology as a benefactor of society. Taken to the Wellbeing of Young Australians. Canberra, extreme it is the belief that humanity will ultimately ACT, Australia: Australian Research Al- be able to control the entirety of existence using liance for Children & Youth. technology.42 Sri Aurobindo’s spiritual philosophy was developed through his spiritual collaborator, The Mother. Bronson, M. C., & Gangadean, A. (2006).43 I am not sufficiently informed to comment on the ((circling)) the /square/: Reframing in- trends in European and other non-Anglo nations, except that in the so-called developing world, there tegral education discourse through deep is a strong, modernist, political and economic move- dialogue. ReVision, 28(3), 36-48. ment to transplant the formal factory-model of schooling into these diverse cultures. There is also a postcolonial critique of this neo-colonialist agenda Centre for Community Child Health & (Gidley, 2001; Inayatullah, 2002; Jain & Jain, Telethon Institute for Child Health Re- 2003; Jain, Miller, & Jain, 2001; Visser, 2000). search (2009) A Snapshot of Early Child- hood Development in Australia: Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) National Report 2009, Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. Clouder, C. (2008). Introducing Social and Emotional Education. In C. Clouder (Ed.), Social and Emotional Education. An Inter- national Analysis. Santander, Spain: Fun- dacion Marcelino Botin. Curtis, S. J., & Boltwood, M. E. (1953) A Short History of Education. London, UK: Uni-98
  • 86. Country Chapter #5 | Australia versity Tutorial Press. Gidley, J., Bateman, D., & Smith, C. (2004). Futures in education: Principles, practiceDator, J. (2000). The Futures for Higher Ed- and potential. Melbourne: Australian ucation: From Bricks to Bytes to Fare Thee Foresight Institute. Well! In S. Inayatullah & J. Gidley (Eds.), The University in Transformation: Global Gidley, J. (2005). Giving Hope back to our Perspectives on the Futures of the Univer- Young People: Creating a New Spiritual sity. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey. Mythology for Western Culture. Journal of Futures Studies: Epistemology, Methods,Davis, B. (2004). Inventions of teaching: A ge- Applied and Alternative Futures, 9(3), 17- nealogy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum 30. Associates. Gidley, J. (2007a). Educational Imperatives ofDeleuze, G., & Conley, T. (1992). The Fold: the Evolution of Consciousness: The In- Leibniz and the Baroque. Minneapolis: tegral Visions of Rudolf Steiner and Ken University of Minnesota Press. Wilber. International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 12(2), 117-135.Eckersley, R., Cahill, H., Wierenga, A., & Wyn, J. (Eds.). (2007). Generations in Dialogue Gidley, J. (2007b). The Evolution of Con- about the Future: The Hopes and Fears of sciousness as a Planetary Imperative: An Young Australians. Melbourne, VIC: Aus- Integration of Integral Views. Integral Re- tralian Youth Research Centre and Aus- view: A Transdisciplinary and Transcul- tralia 21. tural Journal for New Thought, Research and Praxis, 5, 4-226.Egan, K. (1997). The Educated Mind: How Cognitive Tools Shape our Understand- Gidley, J. (2008). Evolving Education: A Post- ing. Chicago: The University of Chicago formal-integral-planetary Gaze at the Press. Evolution of Conscious ness and the Edu- cational Imperatives. Unpublished PhDElkind, D. (1998). Schooling the postmodern Dissertation Southern Cross University, child. Research Bulletin, 3(1). Lismore.Finser, T. M. (2001). School Renewal: A Spir- Gidley, J. (2009). Educating for evolving con- itual Journey for Change. Great Barring- sciousness: Voicing the emergenc-y for ton, MA: Anthroposophic Press. love, life and wisdom. In M. Souza, de, L. J. Francis, J. O’Higgins-Norman & D. ScottFreire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. (Eds.), The international handbook of ed- New York: Herder and Herder. ucation for spirituality, care and wellbeing (pp. 533-561). New York: Springer.Gardner, H. (1996). Probing more Deeply into the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Giroux, H. A. (1992). Border crossing: Cul- NASSP Bulletin, 80(583), 1-7. tural workers and the politics of educa- tion. New York: Routledge.Gidley, J. (2001). ‘Education for All’ or Edu- cation for Wisdom? In M. Jain (Ed.), Un- Giroux, H. A. (2001). Stealing Innocence: folding Learning Societies: Deepening the Corporate Culture’s War on Children New Dialogues. Udaipur: Shikshantar. York: Palgrave Macmillan. 99
  • 87. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaGlazer, S. (Ed.). (1994). The Heart of Learn- Holdrege, C. (2005). Editorial to goethe’s deli- ing: Spirituality in Education. New York: cate empiricism Janus Head, 8(1), 12-13. Jeremy P. Tarcher / Putnam. Inayatullah, S. (2002). Youth Dissent: Multi-Goleman, D. (1997). Emotional Intelligence: ple Perspectives on Youth Futures. In J. Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. New Gidley & S. Inayatullah (Eds.), Youth Fu- York, NY: Bantam. tures: Comparative Research and Trans- formative Visions (pp. 19-30). Westport,Graham A. (2004) Life is like the seasons: Connecticut: Praeger. responding to change, loss, and grief through a peer-based education program. Jain, M., & Jain, S. (Eds.). (2003). McEduca- Childhood Education 80:317. tion for All? Udaipur: Shikshantar.Graham A.P. (1996a) Seasons for Growth: Jain, M., Miller, V., & Jain, S. (Eds.). (2001). Primary School Series Mary McKillop Unfolding Learning Societies: Deepening Foundation, North Sydney. the Dialogues (Vol. April 2001). Udaipur, Rajasthan, India: The People’s Institute forGraham A.P. (1996b) Seasons for Growth: Rethinking education and Development. Secondary School Series Mary McKillop Foundation, North Sydney. Jardine, D. W. (1998). To dwell with a bound- less heart: Essays in curriculum theory,Graham A.P. (2002a) Seasons for Growth: hermeneutics, and the ecological imagi- Primary School Series. 2nd ed. Mary nation. New York: Peter Lang Publish- McKillop Foundation, North Sydney. ing.Graham A.P. (2002b) Seasons for Growth: Miller, J., P. (2000). Education and the soul: Secondary School Series. 2nd ed. Mary Towards a spiritual curriculum. Albany, McKillop Foundation, North Sydney. NY: State University of New York Press.Hamilton, M., & Redmund, G. (2010). Con- Mission Australia. (2010). National Survey of ceptualisation of social and emotional Young Australians 2010: Key and Emerg- wellbeing for children and young people, ing Issues. Sydney, Australia: Mission and policy implications. Sydney, NSW, Australia Transform Australia: Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales. Morin, E. (2001). Seven Complex Lessons in Education for the Future. Paris: UNESCO.Hart, T. (2001a). From information to trans- formation: Education for the evolution of Neville, B. (1989). Educating psyche: Emo- conscious ness. New York: Peter Lang. tion, imagination, and the unconscious in learning. Melbourne: Collins Dove.Hart, T. (2001b). Teaching for wisdom. En- counter: Education for Meaning and So- Newell, S. & Moss, A. (2011). Supporting Chil- cial Justice, 14(2), 3-16. dren Through Change, Loss and Grief: An Evaluation of the Seasons for Growth Pro-Hicks, D. (2002). Lessons for the future. Lon- gram. Prepared for Good Grief (Australia): don: Routledge. Sydney.
  • 88. Country Chapter #5 | AustraliaNielsen, T. W. (2006). Towards a pedagogy of Stack, S. (2006). Integrating science and soul imagination: a phenomenological case in education: The lived experience of a sci- study of holistic education. Ethnography ence educator bringing holistic and integral and Education, 1(2), 247-264. perspectives to the transformation of sci- ence teaching. PhD Curtin University ofNoddings, N. (2005). Caring in Education. Technology, Perth, Western Australia. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieved from Steinberg, S., & Kincheloe, J. (Eds.). (2004). lio/noddings_caring_in_education.htm Kinderculture: the Corporate Construc- tion of Childhood. Boulder, Colorado:Orr, D. (1994). Earth in mind: On education, Westview Press. environment, and the human prospect. Washington D.C: Island Press. Sternberg, R., J. (2001). Why schools should teach for wisdom: The balance theory ofPeters, M. (Ed.). (1998). Naming the multiple: wisdom in educational settings. Educa- Poststructuralism and education. West- tional psychologist, 36(4), 227-245. port, CT: Bergin & Garvey. Tacey, D. (2003). The spirituality revolution:Phipps, P. & Slater, L. (2010). Indigenous The emergence of contemporary spiritu- Cultural Festivals: Evaluating Impact on ality. Sydney: Harper Collins. Community Health and Wellbeing. Mel- bourne, Australia: Globalism Research Visser, J. (2000). Rethinking Learning: Im- Centre, RMIT University. plications for Policy, Research and Prac- tice. In M. Jain (Ed.), Unfolding LearningQueensland Government. (n.d.). Guide to so- Societies: Challenges and Opportunities. cial and emotional learning in Queens- Udaipur: Shikshantar: The People’s Insti- land state schools. Brisbane, Queensland: tute for Rethinking Education and De- Department of Education, Training and velopment. the Arts. Whitehead, A. N. (1916/1967). The Aims ofRead, H. (1943). Education through art. Lon- Education. New York: Free Press. don: Faber and Faber. Wilkinson, I. R., Caldwell, B. J., Selleck, R. J.Robbins, B. D. (2006). The delicate empiri- W., Harris, J., & Dettman, P. (2007). A cism of goethe: Phenomenology as a History of State Aid to Non-Government rigourous science of nature. Indo-Pacific Schools in Australia. Canberra, ACT: A Journal of Phenomenology, 6(Special Edi- Project funded by the Department of Ed- tion ), 13. Retrieved from ucation, Science and Training.Rose, K., & Kincheloe, J. (2003). Art, culture Worden J.W. (1991) Grief Counselling and and education: Artful teaching in a frac- Grief Therapy (2nd Edition). 2nd ed. tured landscape. New York: Peter Lang. Springer, New York.Sloan, D. (1992). Imagination, education and Worden J.W. (1996) Children and Grief: our postmodern possibilities. ReVision: A When a Parent Dies Guildford Press, New Journal of Conscious ness and Transfor- York. mation, 15(2), 42-53. 101
  • 89. Finland
  • 90. Multi-Level Promotion of Social and Emotional Well-Beingin FinlandMarja KokkonenAbstractThis chapter introduces the reader to the present academic and psychosocial situation of Finnishchildren and adolescents, and focuses on the initiatives being taken to improve the social andemotional well-being of the young people of Finland. The chapter starts with describing theFinnish school system and explores the presumed reasons for the high level of academicachievement, taking into account Finnish society’s positive attitude towards education, the prin-ciples of educational equity, equality, and integration, the national curriculum, and the high levelof pre-primary and teacher education which all play a significant role. From governmental,commercial and research-based approaches to social and emotional education, four examplesare described in more detail. The initiatives are the following: a physical activity-based inter-vention in northern Finland to improve kindergarten children’s social and emotional skills; theschool-based intervention MUKAVA where social and emotional education is provided as partof the integrated school day; a nation-wide school-based anti-bullying programme called KiVa;and a study module on mental well-being for health education in schools. The selected casestudies represent both skill-based and more contextual perspectives, and they show how so-cial and emotional education has been found to be important for children of various ages aswell as for the adults working with them. To conclude, I discuss the current delights and fu-ture concerns of social and emotional education (SEE), and suggest how Finland could moveforward towards its social and emotional education (SEE) goals.Marja Kokkonen (PhD in Psychology, MA in Sport Sciences) is a Senior Lecturer at the Facultyof Sport and Health Sciences at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. In the domains of person-ality and developmental psychology and sport and exercise psychology, she has been interestedin the role of personality traits, emotional skills, and emotional intelligence in both psycholog-ical and physical health, and health-related behaviour. Her specialist topics in teaching for var-ious audiences (student teachers, teachers, coaches, health care professional, IT-specialists etc.)are concerned with social and emotional skills as an occupational resource, emotions as partof working life and the emotional development of children. 105
  • 91. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandIntroduction This chapter aims to offer a general picture of the current status of the social and emo- What Makes Finnish Kids So Smart? tional well-being of Finnish children and ado- (The Wall Street Journal, February 29, 2008) lescents, and of the Social and Emotional Ed- ucation (SEE) approaches that are designed to Why do Finland’s schools get the best make the future of the Finnish youth brighter. results? After a brief overview of the presumed rea- (BBC World News America, April 7, 2010) sons for the high academic achievement of In Finland’s Footsteps - If We’re So Rich Finnish children and adolescents, I will turn and Smart, Why Aren’t We More Like Them? to their psychosocial well-being (or the lack (The Washington Post, August 7, 2005) of it) that clearly speaks to the need for SEE initiatives. Next, I present four research- Thoughts for the week: Why Finland is based case studies covering different age best for education groups (i. e children at kindergarten, school (The Times, August 8, 2009) children, and teachers). Finally, I discuss the current delights and future concerns of SEE, These are examples of the headlines from and suggest how Finland could move for-well-known journals and newspapers that ward with its SEE goals.have flattered the Finns over the past tenyears. Even greater praise was lavished on The Finnish educational system and otherthe Finns in August 2010 by Newsweek explanations of the high academic successwhich ranked Finland as the world’s best achieved by Finnish studentscountry. The headlines and the rankings The academic success of Finnish studentsmostly reflect the findings of the Programme has been explained by a number of inter-for International Student Assessment (PISA), twined cultural and educational factors, suchan internationally standardized comparative as the Finnish culture, the structure of thesurvey of academic performance, coordi- educational system and its comprehensivenated by the Paris-based Organisation for pedagogy, research-based teacher education,Economic Cooperation and Development and autonomous and inclusive school prac-(OECD). Based on the academic perform- tises (Välijärvi, 2003). Sometimes Finland isance of 15-year-olds studied worldwide in believed to achieve academically due to the2000, 2003, 2006, and most recently in geographical, socio-historical and cultural2009 Finland has established its place characteristics of the country: i.e. a smallamong the top countries/economies in read- number of inhabitants (5.4M), cultural ho-ing, mathematics, and science. Also, the In- mogeneity (fewer than 156.000 foreigners),ternational Civic and Citizenship Education a remote location and strange languageStudy (ICCS) by the International Associa- (Välijärvi, Kupari et al., 2007), harsh natu-tion for the Evaluation of Educational ral conditions (Hautamäki et al., 2008), aAchievement, exploring the ways in which strong sense of national solidarity (Sahlberg,youngsters are prepared to undertake their 2007), people traumatized by the bloody civilroles as citizens, showed that the civic war in 1918, an authoritarian, obedient andknowledge of 14-year-old Finns is out- collectivist mentality (Simola, 2005), a ratherstanding. Regardless of their minimal inter- secularized society but with a prevailingest in politics and societal issues, they re- Lutheran work ethic (Kupiainen, Hautamäki,ceived the top score, with Denmark, in the & Karjalainen, 2009) together with a ten-2009 study of 38 countries (Schulz, Ainley, dency to appreciate self-reliance, pre-Fraillon, Kerr, & Losito, 2010). dictability and hard work more than fun or106
  • 92. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandMore often, the high academic achievement of Finnishchildren and young people is recognized as being due tothe general philosophy behind and the everyday practicesof the Finnish educational system, which is perceived asbeing one of the best performing education providers inthe world (OECD, 2007)happiness (Crittenden & Claussen, 2000). transport to school if the child lives over 5 kmMore often, though, the high academic from school. In all schools, except in generalachievement of Finnish children and young upper secondary education, text books andpeople is recognized as being due to the gen- other resources are also provided.eral philosophy behind and the everydaypractices of the Finnish educational system The principles of educational equity and(see Figure 1), which is perceived as being equality can also be seen in the low nationalone of the best performing education rate of homeschooling, and the co-educa-providers in the world (OECD, 2007). tional and inclusive nature of Finnish schools. Although compulsory education does not re- In Finland, education is a civic right. The quire pupils to attend school, and can beFinnish education system is based on a phi- legally completed by studying at home, thelosophy of equity and equality. The structure Finnish Home Educators Association esti-of the education system is as follows: There mates that the number of homeschoolers isare over 3 200 basic schools (basic education less than 300. In comparison, the basicincludes both primary and lower secondary schools had 546 400 pupils in 2010 (Statis-schools for children between the ages of 7 to tics Finland). Most pupils attend medium-16 and lasts for 9 years). In addition there sized schools of 300-499 pupils, rangingare about 750 upper secondary schools (vo- from rural schools with fewer than ten pupilscational and general education; which lasts to urban schools with over 900 pupils. Ac-for 3 years, from age 17 to 19). Higher ed- cording to the Quality criteria for basic edu-ucation is provided by 16 universities and cation (2010) by the Ministry of Educationnumerous polytechnics. In practice, equity and Culture, the recommended maximumand equality mean that basic education, up- number of children in each school class isper secondary education, and universities are 20–25 but this is not compulsory; for in-publicly funded by both the state and local stance there will be 33 first-graders in myauthorities, and are thus accessible, free of son’s class this autumn.charge, to all pupils and full-time students, ir-respective of where they live in Finland, their In Finland’s co-educational and inclusivefinancial situation, gender, or native language educational system there are neither schools(Education and Science in Finland, 2008). nor special programmes for gifted children,Free hot school lunches served daily and or single-gender schools. There are only veryhealth and dental care are provided in both few private schools (mostly faith-based orbasic and in upper secondary schools, as is Steiner schools). To found a private school 107
  • 93. Country Chapter #2 | Finlandrequires a political decision by the Council of ment problems (e.g. problems with reading,State. When founded, they are part of the writing, or mathematics) are entitled to re-formal education system, and their activities medial teaching alongside regular educationare closely monitored and strictly regulated: in the regular classroom. Teachers are paidtuition fees cannot be charged and student for the hours of extra tuition they provide toadmissions have to be based on the same students with learning difficulties. There arecriteria as the corresponding municipal also special education teachers, whose workschools. Private schools are given a state is partly inclusive, but also entail segregativegrant comparable to that given to a munici- elements. They attend regular classes to teachFinland’s decision to aim at inclusive education withintegrated, heterogeneous teaching groups seems to workpal school of the same size, and children that students with problems in a certain subject orattend private schools (fewer than3%; subjects, or they offer students the possibil-Kumpulainen, 2010) must be given all the ity of studying in small groups or individuallysocial entitlements that are offered to the a few times a week (Takala, Pirttimaa, & Tör-students of municipal schools. mänen, 2009). If absolutely necessary for the child, he or she may be assigned the status of Finally, every student must be given equal a special needs student via professional as-opportunities for learning within the school. sessment and be placed in a special educationIn practice this means the integration of spe- class in his/her initial school or in a specialcial needs education within regular education school (about 2 % of students attend separate(Välijärvi, Kupari et al., 2007). Screening of special education institutions; Välijärvi, Ku-at-risk children for various learning difficul- pari et al., 2007).ties starts before compulsory schooling inpre-primary education and continues Finland’s decision to aim at inclusive ed-through the lower grades in basic education. ucation with integrated, heterogeneousA student’s right to special needs education teaching groups seems to work. Firstly,and student counselling (e.g. guidance in Finnish children in basic education rarelystudy skills and planning of post-compulsory repeat a grade (2% of pupils; Education instudies) is stipulated in Finnish law. Schools Finland, 2008), (although it is arguable thatare obliged to provide remedial teaching for at times repeating a grade would be in thethose students who have difficulty following interest of the child). Secondly, there is ev-regular classroom teaching. In autumn 2009, idence of a uniform PISA performance.8.5% of comprehensive school children re- Means for the lowest and highest perform-ceived special education (Official Statistics of ing percentiles in PISA have been generallyFinland, 2010). Although each student with the highest in Finland among all countriesspecial learning needs (i.e. a disability, illness, participating in PISA, the share of poorlydelayed development, or an emotional disor- performing students has been small and theder) has an individual teaching and learning effects of the status of students and schoolsplan, students with minor learning or adjust- on students’ PISA performance have been108
  • 94. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandEven the weakest Finnish students have excellent relativeacademic performance compared to the students in manyother countries, and students’ social and economicbackground has hardly any impact on their performanceminimal (Hautamäki et al., 2008). This and 42 % of basic school graduates moved onmeans that even the weakest Finnish stu- to upper secondary school and vocational ed-dents have excellent relative academic per- ucation and training, respectively, while 2%formance compared to the students in many continued their studies in voluntary additionalother countries, and that students’ social and basic education (Kumpulainen, 2010). Uppereconomic background has hardly any impact secondary education consists of academicallyon their performance. The preliminary re- oriented general education and vocational ed-sults of PISA 2009 show, however, that the ucation and training. General upper second-differences between schools seem to be ary education is based on courses with nogrowing (Sulkunen et al., 2010). specified year-classes. By choosing their courses the students can differentiate their Another advantage of the Finnish education upper secondary education to some extent, forsystem is that a Finnish child does not usually example, to be more language-oriented orstart compulsory schooling until the age of 7. science-oriented. Some upper secondaryIt takes 9 years (190 school days per year, 4 schools specialise in a certain subject, such as- 7 hours per day) for a child to effectively sports, art or music. Other schools may offercomplete compulsory basic education (see Fig- special sport and art streams. General upperure 1). Between the ages of 7 and 12 (classes secondary education commonly takes 3 years1- 6), children are taught by a classroom to complete, and ends with a matriculation ex-teacher. Typically the class teacher teaches the amination consisting of four compulsory tests,same class for at least two and sometimes which provides eligibility for further practi-even four consecutive years. Between the ages cally oriented polytechnic and more research-of 13 and 16 (classes 7 - 9), children are oriented university studies that are free oftaught by more specialized subject teachers. charge to full-time students. In 2009, fewer than 1% of 9th graders Pre-primary Educationwere not awarded the basic education certifi- However, the current academic achieve-cate, the admission requirement for general ments of Finnish students rest partially onupper secondary education. In 2008, 51% the education that Finnish children receiveThe current academic achievements of Finnish studentsrest partially on the education that Finnish childrenreceive before they start school 109
  • 95. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandTHE FINNISH EDUCATION SYSTEMISCEDClassification Doctoral degrees 6 Licentiate-degrees Universities Polytechnic Master’s degrees master’s degrees Polytechnics 5A 4-5 Work experience 3 years Polytechnic Bachelor’s degrees bachelor’s degrees Universities Polytechnics Special vocational 4 qualifications* Vocational Further vocational Matriculation examination qualifications* qualifications* 1-3 3 General upper secondary schools Vocational institutions * Also available as apprenticeship training 2 1-9 y Basic education, 7-16 years-old Comprehensive schools 1 0 Pre-primary education, 6 years-old Duration in years ISCED classification 1997 0 Pre-primary education 1-2 Primary education or lower secondary education 3 Upper secondary education 4 Post-secundary non-tertiary education 5 First stage of tertiary education 6 Second stage of tertiary education110
  • 96. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandPre-primary education is aimed at preparing children forcompulsory primary education, and includes play-basedexercises and activities in pairs and small groups thatpromote children’s initiative and positive outlook on life.There is no stress on academicsbefore they start school. Since 2001, all chil- mends that a pre-primary teaching groupdren have had the right to participate, free of only includes 13 children, but if there is an-charge, in voluntary pre-primary education other trained adult in addition to the teacherduring the year preceding compulsory the class may include up to 20 children (andschooling. In 2009, 56 985 children (99.4 in practice sometimes even more).% of the entire age group) received pre-pri-mary education provided by schools Teacher Education(12  580) and by day care centres The high educational level of teachers, one(44 405) (Finnish National Board of Edu- clear explanation for the academic achieve-cation). (Pre-primary education covers only ments of students in Finland, is not limited tothe year before going to school (ages 6-7), pre-primary education. Important landmarksbut day care is available from ages 1 to 7). in Finnish teacher education include the es-Almost 70% of the children also attended tablishment of the first professional chair ofday care in 2009. education at the University of Helsinki in 1852 and the founding of the first teacher Each municipality is obliged to offer pre- training college for the education of elemen-primary education. It is aimed at preparing tary school teachers in Jyväskylä in 1863. Inchildren for compulsory primary education, 1974, teacher education for basic schoolsand includes play-based exercises and activ- was reassigned to the universities (Kansanen,ities in pairs and small groups that promote 2003). Since then, a qualified class teacherchildren’s initiative and positive outlook on and subject teacher in basic education in Fin-life. There is no stress on academics in pre- land must have a Master’s degree (300 ECTS)primary education. Pre-primary teachers from a university. There are also strong ex-usually have either a kindergarten teacher pectations for teachers to model the impor-qualification (Bachelor’s degree from a uni- tance of life-long learning (Innola & Mikkola,versity or a polytechnic) or a class teacher 2011), and to undertake continuing profes-qualification (Master’s degree in Education). sional development throughout their careersThe fact that pre-primary teachers are well (Westbury, Hansen, Kansanen, & Bjorkvist,qualified to monitor children’s development 2005). Education providers, usually local au-means that they are able to notice and inter- thorities, have an obligation to provide teach-vene when there are any early signs of learn- ers with a minimum of three days of contin-ing difficulties. Pre-primary education usually uing professional development (free oflasts for a minimum of 700 hours per year charge) every year (Education and Science inand a maximum of 4 hours per day. The Finland, 2008).Ministry of Culture and Education recom- 111
  • 97. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandFigure 2 “My 6-year-old son Joona currently attends pre-primary school at the same kindergarten where my 3-year-old daughter Neela attends day care.” The academic status of teacher education physical education. Most often these studentsand the possibility of continuing on to doc- are women; 73% of the teachers in basictoral studies have contributed to the popu- education are female (Ojala, 2011). Thelarity of the teaching profession. Stringent teaching profession is also very appreciatedadmission requirements and demanding en- and respected in Finnish society; primarytrance examinations send out a message to school teachers used to be called ‘the candlesthe potential students of how intellectually of the nation’. Parents trust their children’sstimulating teacher education will be. The teachers, and there is a positive attitude to-acceptance rate for class teacher students wards education in Finnish society, whichwas 12 % in 2010 (Karhu & Väistö, 2011), makes teaching socially rewarding. However,which is the same or even lower than for concern has been expressed about the signsmedicine or law. The aim is to draw into the that have been observed more recently withteacher education programmes the most mo- regard to the decreasing appreciation oftivated, committed, and multi-talented stu- school teaching. The anti-school subculturesdents, who are good not only at academic that are visible in the media might be havingsubjects but are strong in the arts, music, and a negative influence on the attractivenessA qualified class teacher and subject teacher in basiceducation in Finland must have a Master’s degree froma university112
  • 98. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandThe academic status of teacher education and thepossibility of continuing on to doctoral studies havecontributed to the popularity of the teaching professionand the image of the teaching profession and of schools, but not by means of obligatory(Innola & Mikkola, 2010). and comprehensive national testing during compulsory education. To evaluate how well The research-based teacher education, in- the students have learned the content of thecluding educational theory, subject didactics, study unit in question, teachers can, for ex-educational research, and guided teaching ample, set their own exams based on thepractice in both the university practice learnt content, take advantage of the examschools and in field schools, equip student papers included in the teaching materials ac-teachers to deal with everyday life at school companying most text books, use portfolios(see Välijärvi, Kupari et al., 2007 and Niemi and students’ self-evaluation - which I see as& Jakku-Sihvonen, 2011 for more details ill-advised due to the possibility of negativeabout teacher education). Teachers are self-evaluation and discouraging experiences.trusted and given great freedom in teaching. Testing students’ intelligence or cognitive ca-There is no separate school inspectorate and pacities is seen as irrelevant to students’state authority inspection visits to schools learning and motivation. On the contrary,have been abandoned. Teachers are not su- standardized tests would presumably gener-pervised by principals, who typically tend to ate undue stress in students, which is partiallybe administrators rather than pedagogical why the only externally standardized test thatleaders. Instead, teachers may choose their is administered is the national matriculationown teaching methods, textbooks and other examination, which students take at the endteaching materials, and plan their own les- of upper secondary school.sons as long as they adhere to the NationalCore Curriculum for Basic Education. This Beyond Academics: The Psychosocialcurriculum forms the basis for both the mu- Well-Being of the Finnish Youthnicipal curriculum and, ultimately, the Finnish students have unquestionably beenschool’s own curriculum, which includes the among the best PISA performers for the en-teachers’ work plans. The teachers even pre- tire decade, but the whole picture is not aspare the school curriculum cooperatively with rosy as it seems. In December 2010 thethe principal(s) and other school staff, and Finnish Minister of Education and Sciencehave a say in the school budgets. Henna Virkkunen claimed in an interview for a French news agency Agence France-Presse The culture of trust and pedagogical au- (AFP) that PISA does not measure the biggesttonomy –and the more general learning phi- challenges faced by Finnish schools, such aslosophy which emphasizes learning– is also the relatively high number of suicides amongreflected in valuing teachers’ and ’principals’ young people and the levels of poor mentalprofessionalism in judging the progress of health. Although the suicide rate has gener-students’ learning. Assessment of student ally decreased, suicide is still the leading causeachievement is the responsibility of teachers of death in the age group of 15 to 24 years, 113
  • 99. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandThere is no separate school inspectorate and stateauthority inspection visits to schools have been abandonedand the suicide rate for that age group is burnout (14% of girls, 12 % of boys). Also, aamong the highest in the world. A recent 16-year population-based time-trend studystudy of 901 suicides committed in Finland on 8-year old children’s psychiatric prob-from 1969 - 2008 by persons under 18 lems showed that self-reported depressiveyears of age showed, firstly, that the youngest symptoms among girls increased from 1989suicide victims were 8 years of age, and sec- to 2005 (Sourander, Niemelä, Santalahti, He-ondly, that after the year 1990 the youth lenius, & Piha, 2008).suicide rates decreased for males, but in-creased in females (Lahti, Räsänen, Riala, There is also evidence that the social well-Keränen, & Hakko, 2011). In 2005, 31 being of school-aged Finns might not be asyoung people in the age range of 10 to19- good as it might seem at first sight. Theyears-old committed suicide (3.1 % of all sui- school environments are also an issue. In acides in Finland; Uusitalo, 2007), and ac- sample of 784 adolescents, aged 12-17,cording to the statistics of the World Health there was a 12-month prevalence of 3.2%Organisation (WHO), three boys between the for social phobia, and 4.6% for sub-clinicalages 5 – 14 committed suicide in 2007 (3% social phobia. These adolescents were alsoof all the suicides in Finland). A longitudinal impaired in their academic and global func-study looking at the prevalence of and factors tioning. Social phobia was comorbid withassociated with suicidal behaviour among other anxiety disorders (41%) and depressive580 adolescents showed that 14% of girls disorders (41%), and 68% of socially phobicand 7% of boys reported suicidal thoughts or adolescents reported having been bullied bypreoccupations at age 16. Emotional and be- peers. The prevalence rose and the genderhavioural problems at age 8 were correlated ratio shifted to female preponderance with anwith suicidal thoughts and behaviour 8 years increase in age (Ranta, Kaltiala-Heino,later (Sourander, Helstelä, Haavisto, & Rantanen, & Marttunen, 2009). In a sampleBergroth, 2001). of 985 children emotional and social loneli- ness seemed to be relatively stable, although The School Health Promotion study, car- 10-year-old boys seem to experience moreried out in all secondary schools, upper sec- emotional loneliness than girls of the sameondary schools and vocational schools since age (Junttila & Vauras, 2009). As for the1995, also highlights some forms of psycho- social environment in the schools, the 2003logical ill-health in Finnish adolescents that PISA study showed that 15-year-olds’ schoolseem to be increasing, especially in girls (Lu- engagement and satisfaction were below av-opa, Lommi, Kinnunen, & Jokela, 2010). In erage (Kupari & Välijärvi, 2005) and thatthe academic year 2008-2009, 16% (21 % of there were groups of students who weregirls, 11 % of boys) of the 14-16-year-old strongly disengaged from school, learning,respondents (8th and 9th graders) suffered and social relationships. Although teachersfrom daily tiredness, 13 % (18% of the girls, are addressed by their first names and un-8 % of the boys) were moderately or severely necessary hierarchy is avoided, problematicdepressed, and 13 % experienced school peer and teacher relationships and feelings of114
  • 100. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandThere is evidence that the social well-being of school-agedFinns might not be as good as it might seem at first sightunfairness and of not being accepted were students. As for bullying, 4% of the schoolspresent in Finnish schools (Linnakylä & Ma- reported that a pupil had been bullied by alin, 2008). For example, during health edu- teacher. Individual cases of bullying betweencation classes almost 20 to 25 % of 15-year- students were recorded by 64% of the schoolsold students do not dare to express their (7% of the schools had reported the bullyingviews and feel that teachers are not interested incidents to the police; (Rimpelä, Fröjd, &in their opinions (Aira, Välimaa, & Kannas, Peltonen, 2010). Although Finnish students2009). The result of the World Health Or- - like students in other Nordic countries - re-ganization (WHO) collaborative cross-na- port the lowest prevalence of bullying otherstional study called the Health Behaviour in (Craig et al., 2009), 8% of 14-16-year-oldsSchool-Aged Children 2006 revealed that (10% of the boys, 7% of the girls) get bulliedalthough students’ perceptions of their school at least once a week at school (Luopa et al.,environment were quite positive, a remark- 2010). For the general public, the home-ably large proportion of the students reported made bomb which exploded in a shoppingnegative attitudes towards school (Haapasalo, centre in 2002 (claiming 7 victims), and theVälimaa, & Kannas, 2010). Along these lines, school shootings in 2007 (which claimed 9the School Health Promotion study in 2008- victims) and 2008 (11 victims) suggest that2009 has shown, in addition, that, regardless Finnish school-aged children are crying outof the positive changes that have taken place for help. This leads to the conclusion thatduring the past decade, a substantial propor- changes to the school environments also needtion of 14 to16-year-old students did not to be school at all (6 %; 3 % of girls and 8% ofboys), considered their school workload as In the light of several comparative stud-being too heavy (39%) and that the working ies, the Finnish compulsory education sys-climate was problematic (28-28%; Luopa et tem has proved to be quite a success. Despiteal., 2010). The negative school climate in the educational glory, a number of FinnishFinnish schools is positively related to symp- children are experiencing problems in theirtoms suggestive of burnout among both com- emotional and social lives. At approximatelyprehensive and upper secondary school stu- the same time that the basic education sys-dents (Salmela-Aro, Kiuru, Pietikäinen, & tem was established in Finland in the lateJokela, 2008). 1960s, pioneering researchers at the uni- versities became increasingly interested in Finally, the results of a study conducted by children’s social and emotional behaviour. Athe National Institute of Health and Welfare decade later, the first battles to address(THL) in 2009 in 2865 comprehensive Finnish children’s psychosocial ill-health be-schools, covering 67% of all the pupils in gan. In the next section I will describe thecomprehensive schools, revealed serious in- angles from which the psychosocial well-dicators of violence in 74% of the schools. being of the Finnish children and youth hasTeachers had been both threatened (reported been 20% of the schools) and harmed (13%) by 115
  • 101. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandPromotion of psychosocial well-being for feeling better instead of achieving moreamong Finnish children and youth: has recently been reflected in the argumentGovernmental, commercial, and that by enhancing students’ social and emo-research-based approaches tional skills the occupational well-being andThe attempts to improve the social and emo- job satisfaction of teachers would be in-tional well-being of Finnish children and creased (Kokkonen, 2005, 2010).youth have been threefold: governmental,commercial, and civic-scientific. In Finland, In addition to the general mission and aimseducation is generally the responsibility of the that essentially value students’ psychosocialMinistry of Education and Culture, with which well-being and optimal development, the na-the Finnish National Board of Education tional core curriculum for basic education(FNBE) develops educational aims and core also specifies more detailed learning objec-contents. Fundamentally, the basis for en- tives and core contents of cross-curricularhancing children’s psychosocial well-being themes and individual subjects. In basic edu-can be found in the national core curricula for cation, one particular cross-curricular themepre-school and basic education. According to that should be implemented in all subjects,the Core Curriculum for Pre-School Educa- namely ‘Growth as a person’, shares manytion 2010, pre-primary education aims to objectives and core contents with SEE, such asmonitor and support preschoolers’ physical, the identification and management of emo-The national starting point for social and emotionaleducation in Finland is less the promotion of academicachievement than the well-being of the children andadolescentspsychological, social, cognitive, and emotional tions and the observation and interpretationdevelopment and to prevent any conceivable of aesthetic experiences. More specifically,problems. As for basic education, an oppor- health education (an independent subjecttunity for holistic growth, learning, and the since 2001) aims to develop students’ cogni-development of a healthy sense of self-esteem tive, social, functional and ethical capacities,is emphasized, and the focus is very much on as well as their ability to regulate their emo-pupil welfare. The National Core Curriculum tions. Psychological and social growth andfor Basic Education 2004 states that pupil development (e.g. self-esteem, tolerance) aswelfare, including basic learning prerequi- well as resources and coping skills (e.g. in-sites, and children’s physical, psychological, teraction skills, emotions and their expres-and social well-being, is the concern of sion) are among the core contents of healtheveryone in the school community. Conse- education. Already student teachers seem toquently, the national starting point for SEE in view health education, among other things, asFinland is less the promotion of academic a context for delivering theoretical knowl-achievement than the well-being of the chil- edge (focus on learning facts), a means ofdren and adolescents. The strong argument promoting students’ knowledge with regard to116
  • 102. Country Chapter #2 | Finlandself-regulation (focusing on critical and con- The national core curriculum works as ascious reflection on ways of behaving and national framework on the basis of which thefeeling), and a context for personal growth local curricula – the municipal curriculum(Paakkari, Tynjälä, & Kannas, 2010a). When and the curriculum of each individual schoolit comes to teaching methods, there is great - are formulated. Local administration of ed-confidence in both theoretical knowledge (on ucation is the responsibility of the local au-which the examination questions are based) thorities (municipalities) or joint municipaland practical, functional exercises generating boards, who give a great deal of autonomy topersonally meaningful experiences. Along the schools and, ultimately, to their autonomoussame lines, in student teachers’ understand- teachers. Therefore, the implementation ofing, teaching of health education can be seen SEE depends largely on the activity and mo-as transferring both knowledge and skills and tivation of the local schools and their (teach-supporting holistic personal growth ing) staff. Since the mid- 1980s, Finnish(Paakkari, Tynjälä, & Kannas, 2010b). Cre- schools have collaborated closely with nu-ating an encouraging, safe, and accepting at- merous non-governmental, civic organisa-mosphere and a feeling of community in the tions which have provided schools with com-classroom is also essential. Furthermore, the mercial tools for enhancing children’s socialcore subjects of religion/ethics, music, vi- and emotional skills and capacities. As ansual arts, crafts, and physical education all in- example of this skill-based approach, sinceclude learning objectives that are social and 1982 the Evangelical Lutheran Associationemotional in nature, for example, the appre- for Youth in Finland ( of others, tolerance, being responsible have offered teachers, parents, and childrenand considerate, cooperation, and emotional various interaction and human relationsexpression. training imported from the U.S.A, such as Youth, Parent, and Teacher Effectiveness Conceptually, it is noteworthy that the na- Training based on the work of Dr. Thomastional core curriculum uses words such as Gordon. The Christian Association of Boys‘capacities’ and ‘skills’ and defines teachers’ and Girls in Finland ( has organ-tasks as being to guide and help students, and ised Aggression Replacement Training (ART)to support their personal growth and devel- developed by Dr. Arnold P. Goldstein. The as-opment. This choice of words reflects the sociation Children of the Station (www.ase-concept of learning as an individual and mu- has aimed to develop a per-tual process of building knowledge and skills sonal and living interaction between adultsand of individual and collective meaning and young people since 1990. One of theirmaking that requires each student’s own pur- activities is to provide training, lectures andposeful activity. In my opinion, the general teaching materials for the teaching of copingpreference in Finland for the concept of and emotional skills, such as the Australianlearning instead of education, also in the con- childhood anxiety and depression preven-text of the promotion of social and emotional tion programme FRIENDS. Teachers, par-well-being, is due to the wish to approach ents, and other adults working with childrenthings from the students’ perspective. In ad- and youth have been trained by the Associ-dition to this child-centredness, as a contrast ation of Finnish Lions Clubs using the Lionsto adult-centredness, the preference for the Quest since the beginning of 1990s ( of learning is linked to a strong em- The Second Step programme, devel-phasis on seeing students as active, inde- oped by the American organisation, Com-pendent learners, not as passive absorbers of mittee for Children (, hasinformation provided by educators. been available in Finnish for kindergarten 117
  • 103. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandIn addition to basic research on social and emotionalbehaviour conducted in Finland as early as the 1960s, thepast decade has seen many collaborative applied andintervention studies. The aim of these studies has been toenhance the social and emotional well-being of school-aged children in a more contextual and holistic way, thatis, involving the whole school, families, and the widercommunityteachers, pre-primary educators, class teach- gagement in scientific research. As a nation,ers and the like since 2005 (see Finland is very ‘pro-research’, and for more in- Finnish kindergartens and schools are usuallyformation). Kindergarten teachers teach chil- delighted to be able to participate in and sup-dren from 1–6 who attend day care, but pre- port various scientific projects. In Finland,primary educators mostly teach children scientific studies do not generally have to bebetween 5 and 6 (the year before formal approved by school boards, and the projectsschooling). can be implemented as soon as the principal has given his or her permission, and the par- Following the first written, national SEE ents of the participating students have signedprogrammes (e.g. the book by Pulkkinen, the informed consent. In addition to basicHeikkinen, Markkanen, & Ranta, 1977), research on social and emotional behaviourmore and more original Finnish social and conducted in Finland as early as the 1960s,emotional education programmes have been the past decade has seen many collaborativemade available, such as Tunnemuksu (Pelto- applied and intervention studies. The aim ofnen & Kullberg-Piilola, 2005), a programme these studies has been to enhance the socialfor enhancing the identification, acceptance, and emotional well-being of school-aged chil-expression, and regulation of emotions of 4 dren in a more contextual and holistic way,– 9-year-olds, and Steps of Aggression (Cac- that is, involving the whole school, families,ciatore, 2008), an age-appropriate, staged and the wider community. Very often theset of teaching materials to explore aggres- studies have been planned and carried out bysion and anger, and to prevent aggressive Finnish universities or other research insti-behaviour in children and young people un- tutes, such as the National Institute for Healthder the age of 25. and Welfare operating under the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, typically In addition to the utilisation of the skill- in collaboration with civic organisations.based commercial SEE programmes often of- Some of the most important supporters of thefered by civic organisations, there has been SEE projects have been the Ministry of Edu-the third way for kindergartens and schools cation and Culture, the Finnish Nationalto enhance the social and emotional well- Board of Education (FNBE), the Academy ofbeing of children: active and voluntary en- Finland, and civic organizations such as the118
  • 104. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandFinnish Association for Mental Health pay attention to forms of play and physical(FAMH), the Mannerheim League for Child activity that can enhance children’s self-es-Welfare (the largest child welfare organiza- teem and self-image, offer experiences oftion in Finland), the Association of Finnish joy and opportunities to express feelings,Local and Regional Authorities, and Finland’s learn to take other children into considera-Slot Machine Association. Many of these or- tion, and to regulate their own behaviour andganisations have contributed to the four se- emotional expression.lected case studies that I will now review inmore detail. The selected cases are from a In the 8-month intervention conducted inwide geographical spread, represent both 2003 – 2004 in the northern towns of Ka-skill-based and more contextual approaches, jaani and Sotkamo, physical activity was cho-and target various age groups from kinder- sen as a way to enhance the social and emo-garten children to health educators working tional skills of 3 to 4-year-olds. Thewith children and adolescents. intervention was inspired by the recommen- dations of the Collaborative for Academic,Case Study 1: Promoting kindergarten Social, and Educational Learning (CASEL;children’s social and emotional skills, and thus focused on skillsthrough physical exercise such as connecting with others, cooperationIn Finland, the role of language, artistic ac- during pair and group work, helping others,tivities and experiences, and the possibilities apologising spontaneously, waiting one’sfor versatile interaction with different people turn, and listening to instructions, feedback,are considered central to the development of and the opinions of their playmates. An ex-preschoolers’ social and emotional skills perimental group of 31 children (15 girls(Core Curriculum for Pre-School Education and 16 boys from five kindergartens) and a2010). In addition, the recommendations for control group of 10 children (6 girls and 4physical activity in early childhood education boys from three kindergartens) participated(2005) that constitute a part of the National in the study. Prior to the intervention theCurriculum Guidelines on Early Childhood kindergarten teachers received ten hours ofEducation and Care in Finland (2003) also training (5 x 2 hours) on how to enhanceTable 1. Timetable and the contents of the physical exercise sessionsTIMING CONTENT/THEMESeptember 2003 Become acquainted with others through exercise and playOctober 2003 Ball games with different balls, cones, goals, combined with musicNovember 2003 Different exercise equipment (bean bags, swimming rings, ropes, scarves, skipping ropes etc.)December 2003 Exercise with music, traditional gamesJanuary 2004 Balancing acts and exercise with apparatus and various equipment; rubber bands, ropes, milk canisters, cloths etc.February 2004 Imagination and creativity with unusual equipment: teddy bears, newspapers etc.March 2004 Creative exercise, emphasis on rhythms and musicApril 2004 Ball gamesMay 2004 Adventurous exercise in nature, emphasis on endurance, jumping skills, orienteering, and respect for nature; wandering in the woods, outdoor activitiesJune / August 2004 Swimming and summer sports (e.g. football, the Olympic Games); emphasis on bodily awareness, respect for nature 119
  • 105. Country Chapter #2 | Finlandand observe kindergarten children’s social tion. The results show that the kindergartenand emotional skills. In 22 physical exercise staff considered the following as being im-sessions the kindergarten teachers used, for portant for the development of children’s so-example, traditional games, ball games, gym- cial and emotional skills through physical ed-nastics, creative exercises, and different ex- ucation sessions: listening to the children andercise equipment once a week in order to en- taking their views into account, children’shance the selected skills (see Table 1 on page sense of belonging to a group, encourage-17 for the session contents). ment and support for children, including per- sonal feedback for each child, and goal-di- Each session included four phases: warm- rected activities. Furthermore, preparation ofing up, actual training of the social or emo- physical education sessions in advance, goaltional skill(s), cooling down, and closing dis- internalisation, the available pre-plannedcussion. For example, during the warming up programme, and cooperation between all theof the ball games session children were adults involved (commitment, shared re-moved around creatively in time to the mu- sponsibilities, sticking to the timetables) weresic. When the music stopped, one child at a regarded as central day care centre activitiestime told the others what body part had to by the interviewed kindergarten teacherstouch the floor. In this way the children (Takala, Oikarinen, Kokkonen, & Liukkonen,learned the names of the body parts, to wait 2011).their turn, and to listen to instructions. Dur-ing the actual training phase, the teacher For the kindergarten staff, the uppermostthrew different balls onto the floor, and chil- discomfort and a factor that might have haddren had to work collaboratively to collect the a negative impact on the children’s learningballs back into a huge bag. In addition, the was the general busyness and lack of time inteacher rolled a ball to each child, one at a the kindergarten. Moving the necessarytime, and the children had to wait their turn. equipment from one building to another,Afterwards the children lay down on the adopting the content of the physical educationfloor, and the teacher rolled a soft ball over session and tailoring it to the needs of the ed-the children in a calm way, to relaxing back- ucator’s own group of children also createdground music. At the end of the ball games extra work. One children’s nurse fretted oversession, the whole group discussed their ex- the fact that following the contents of theperiences and the importance of the trained pre-planned programme, which was part ofskills (waiting one’s turn, cooperation) using an ongoing investigation, made it impossiblepictures with animal figures and the children for the educator to go back to those exercisesdescribed their own feelings and self-evalu- that the children liked the best. However, sheated their own success. The kindergarten was pleased to see that participating in theteachers evaluated the children’s skills during study also enriched other kindergarten ac-the physical exercise sessions using a four- tivities and improved the quality and quantitypoint observation form at the beginning of of the children’s observations. In her opinion,the research period and six months later children became more helpful outside of the(Takala, Kokkonen, & Liukkonen, 2009). physical exercise sessions (in free play), more accurate at identifying their emotions The kindergarten staff (4 kindergarten and giving reasons for their own emotionalteachers and two children’s nurses) were reactions. For these reasons and others she32-52 years old and their working experi- has kept the programme alive in her kinder-ence ranged between 4 and 26 years. They garten.were interviewed twice during the interven-120
  • 106. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandCase Study 2: The Integrated School Day opmental continuity and the accumulativesub-project in the school-based intervention role of emotional and behavioural regulationprogramme MUKAVA in individuals’ social and psychological func-The acronym, MUKAVA, is derived from the tioning. The findings of the JYLS have beenFinnish words ”muistuttaa kasvatusvastuusta”, applied to school settings through MUKAVA.which means, “to remind Finnish adults of MUKAVA focused on the students and theirtheir responsibility for raising and educating social and emotional development at varioustheir children”. ‘Mukava’ is also a Finnish ad- educational levels, as well as the relation-jective meaning ‘nice’. The MUKAVA pro- ships between the seven experimentalgramme which took place from 2002 to schools and the communities around them.2005 ( was de-signed and directed by psychology professor In the MUKAVA programme, the empha-Lea Pulkkinen, an expert on children’s social sis was placed in varying degrees on the child,behaviour since the 1960s, from the Uni- on the school as a learning environment, andversity of Jyväskylä, in Central Finland. The on the relationship between the school andmain objectives of the programme, which the surrounding community, in seven sub-The reorganization of the school day made it possible tooffer to school children not only compulsory lessons, butsupervised rest periods, free play, and goal-orientedleisure activities in clubs and hobby groupswas aimed at facilitating the growth of socially projects. There were two sub-projects thatcompetent individuals, were: 1) to decrease aimed to support children’s social and emo-the amount of time pupils spend without adult tional development: 1) A kindergarten proj-supervision in the mornings and the after- ect that enhanced the development of kinder-noons; 2) to enhance the personal growth garten children’s social skills, and 2) A Healthand socio-emotional development of the stu- Education project that supported the begin-dents, and 3) to strengthen the “social capi- nings of health education, a new individualtal” of the school and the students. school subject since 2001, by actively com- menting on the core contents of the subject The MUKAVA programme was rooted in and supporting the broader definition ofthe ongoing Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of health as a physical, mental, and social state.Personality and Social Development (JYLS), in The project provided teaching materials andwhich the same individuals have been stud- teacher training, workshops and further ed-ied from the age of 8 to age 50. The JYLS was ucation on the role of emotions, their identi-initiated at the University of Jyväskylä by Lea fication and regulation in health and well-be-Pulkkinen in 1968 as her doctoral disserta- ing, and the applicability of social andtion (Pitkänen, 1969; Pulkkinen, 2006, emotional education to different school sub-2009) and has provided evidence on devel- jects. Two other sub-projects focussed on the122
  • 107. Country Chapter #2 | Finlandschool as a learning environment: 3) The (SITRA), an independent public fund pro-Integrated School Day (ISD) implemented moting the welfare of Finnish society undervarious practices for integrating extracurric- the supervision of the Finnish Parliament.ular activities into the school day, and 4) A The core of the matter in the ISD was the re-Teacher Education project that developed organizing of the structure of the school dayteachers’ basic and continuing education with to provide more scheduling flexibility by giv-regard to children’s social and emotional de- ing up the half-day school structure that wasvelopment. The local community was brought inherited from the German and Swiss schoolcloser to the everyday life of the school models. The reorganization of the school daythrough three sub-projects: 5) The Introduc- made it possible to offer to school childrention to Working Life Project facilitated the not only compulsory lessons, but superviseddevelopment of students’ social skills relevant rest periods, free play, and goal-orientedto working life, offered students the oppor- leisure activities in clubs and hobby groupstunity to work at work places outside the organized in cooperation with several pro-school for a time, and developed information fessions (Table 2; Pulkkinen, 2004). Thetechnologies to coordinate activities between idea was to provide solutions to the typical sit-schools and employers, 6) A Volunteering uation of each family with working parents;project which supported volunteering in the the 7-8-year-old children typically comecommunity, and 7) The Home-School project home from school after four hours of study-that strengthened cooperation between the ing, whereas their parents come home 4 to 5home and school (for further details see hours later. Alternatively, the children spendPulkkinen, 2004). several hours alone at home in the mornings before going to school. Although the MUKAVA project officiallyended in 2005, its impact can still be seen in In practice, optional, adult-supervised ac-Finnish society. The Integrated School Day tivity groups of self-organised recreation(ISD) has been the most visible and influen- and indoor and outdoor activities as well astial of all the MUKAVA sub-projects. It was clubs with goal-oriented activities (e.g. mu-funded by the Finnish Innovation Fund sic, cooking, sports, arts and crafts, movies,Table 2. A traditionally structured and the Integrated School Day (modified from Pulkkinen& Launonen, 2005, 18)Typical, non-integrated school day Integrated School DayHours 1. day Grades 1 - 6 Grades 7 - 97-8 Activity Groups >> Clubs8-9 1. lesson Studying Studying >> Clubs9-10 2. lesson 1.lesson Studying Studying10-11 3. lesson 2.lesson Studying11-12 4. lesson 3. lesson Lunch Lunch12-13 4.lesson Activity Groups >> Clubs Studying >> Clubs13-14 Studying Studying >> Clubs14-15 Studying >> Clubs15-16 Activity Groups >> Clubs16-17 123
  • 108. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandTeachers of the experimental schools reported decreasedbullying, increased school enjoyment, and improvedcollaboration between the school and the home allresulting from the integrated school day (Pulkkinen &Launonen, 2005)drama) led by teachers, youth workers, and Feedback from two principals of theother qualified instructors were available MUKAVA experimental schools in Jyväskyläbefore school, during lunch break, between confirms that many of the MUKAVA prac-lessons and after the end of the regular tices are still alive today. According to theschool day. Teaching at school was delayed principal of Keljo School, founded in 1896,for one hour (starting at 9 instead of at 8). the morning activities are still available toIn addition to the free lunches, that have the schools’ 7 to 12-year-old students. Com-been offered to Finnish students for over 60 pulsory education starts at 9 o’clock, but theyears, the integrated school day extended children can come to school an hour be-the lunch hour from 20 minutes to one forehand to read, draw, finish their home-hour, and students were offered free snacks work, or just socialize with friends under thein the afternoons. The seven experimental watchful eye of one staff member. Theschools which had in total about 2000 stu- school has also stuck to the longer break atdents and 160 teachers were advised to be lunch time, another characteristic of the in-more flexible and creative with their sched- tegrated school day. Unfortunately, financialules and to try to match their teaching reasons have forced the school to let theschedule to students’ parents’ working hours school tutor who had previously been paid(Pulkkinen, 2004). As a result, school chil- by the MUKAVA project, go. She had beendren did not have to remain unsupervised able to reach out – mostly because she wasbefore their parents came back from work. not a teacher - to the underachievers, im-The recent findings of the MUKAVA pro- migrants, and other children at risk. Two ofgramme show that the 9- to 10-year-olds the downsides were that the introduction ofwho chose not to participate in the pro- the programme begun in May after thegramme had more internalizing problem school year (due to the late decision ofbehaviours (social anxiety and depressive SITRA to support the programme), report-symptoms) than those children who had ing and data collection were found to beparticipated in the extracurricular activities rather burdensome, and at the start, the(Metsäpelto, Pulkkinen, & Tolvanen, 2010). parents were under the misapprehensionTeachers of the experimental schools re- that children’s attendance at clubs andported decreased bullying, increased school hobby circles was compulsory. In spite ofenjoyment, and improved collaboration be- these challenges, the principal was very em-tween the school and the home all resulting powered by the monthly meeting of thefrom the integrated school day (Pulkkinen & steering group, and appreciated the possi-Launonen, 2005). bility to share and discuss experiences with the other principals, and the leader and the124
  • 109. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandTable 3. The best and the most difficult aspects about the Integrated School Day (principals’opinion)The best things in the ISD The most difficult things in the ISDA wide variety of extracurricular activities Time management and lack of timeStudents’ loneliness reduced Providing information and papers to teachersVersatile school day Tight schedules in which to return the questionnairesPhysical activities and practical exercises Getting in touch with the parent (classes 7-9)were nice changes in otherwise theoreticalschool workIncreased school enjoyment Another principal was green with envyEducational possibilities for principals Financial administrationand teachersDeep discussions and experiences within Learning to collaborate equally with new partnersthe school had broadened teachers’ viewsA challenge for the principal Problems in building the collaborative network due to the structure and hierarchy of the municipalityThe presence of the school tutor Commitment of the partners outside the schoolNetworking with the surrounding Spreading a school-centred operations model in thecommunity, collaboration school’s home towncoordinating teacher of the programme. The school and led to a more comprehensive ap-MUKAVA programme also made it possible proach to students’ well-being. For example,for children of different ages to work to- students’ leisure time activities and health is-gether in a communal manner, across the sues were openly discussed in meetings be-grade boundaries and offered theoretical tween the form master/mistress and the stu-bases for some of the school practices that dent’s parent. During the MUKAVAhad been planned or intuitively used before programme, there were as many as 50 clubsthe launch of the programme. and hobby circles available to students after the school day. Nowadays, the school has ac- The principal of Kilpinen Comprehensive tively looked for other sources of funding toSchool, founded in 1960, believes that along pay for the clubs and hobby circles. Quite awith the MUKAVA programme, the teachers number of the sport and music clubs stillstarted to adopt a more holistic, student-ori- function with the help of funds from the lo-ented view of learning. In his own words: cal Centre for Economic Development, Trans- port and the Environment. The principal ap- “Previously our teachers could have preciated the teacher training, workshops come for a coffee break after a class and and further education concerning social and sighed ‘Oh dear, the students are not emotional well-being that was offered, but felt learning anything, even though my les- that the role of the principal as a key figure son was great! After the MUKAVA, our in the implementation of the programme was teachers began to ask themselves ‘What overemphasised every now and then. Meet- could be done with the class to make the ings with the programme workers and the learning easier for them?’ “ principals of the other experimental schools (steering group meetings), together with re- According to the principal, MUKAVA deep- porting duties, were occasionally too timeened the co-operation between home and consuming for him. 125
  • 110. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandTheoretically, KiVa aims to change both the behaviour ofthe bully and the behaviour of the onlookers whosechanged behaviour (from assisting or encouraging thebullying to objecting to the bullying and supporting thevictim) is expected to make bullying less sociallyrewarding to the perpetrator Interview and questionnaire data was col- the early 1990s (e.g. Salmivalli, Lagerspetz,lected annually from all the principals of the Björkqvist, Österman, & Kaukiainen, 1996).experimental schools. Table 3 brings to- KiVA was developed at the University ofgether some of the best and most difficult Turku in collaboration with the Departmentaspects of the ISD from the perspective of of Psychology and the Centre for Learningthe principals (modified from Pulkkinen & Research and with funding from the MinistryLaunonen 2005, 133). of Education and Culture. In the develop- mental and experimental phase of the pro- The ISD turned out to be an initial phase in gramme (2006-2009), 234 basic schoolsthe reforms to school children’s voluntary (117 experimental schools, 117 controlmorning and afternoon activities, and af- schools) with 30 000 students participatedfected the law so that since 2004 it has been in the evaluation of KiVa. Currently, aroundmandated that local authorities have to or- 2500 Finnish comprehensive schools (aboutganise supervised, voluntary extracurricular 80 % of all comprehensive schools in themorning and afternoon activities for 7-9- country) have started implementing theyear-olds and for special needs children of KiVa programme.any age in basic education. In the spirit of theMUKAVA programme, the purpose of these Theoretically, KiVa aims to change bothdiverse, supervised activities is to support the behaviour of the bully and the behaviourfamily life and school education and promote of the onlookers whose changed behaviourchildren’s well-being and emotional and eth- (from assisting or encouraging the bullying toical growth (Education and Science in Fin- objecting to the bullying and supporting theland, 2008, 22). victim) is expected to make bullying less so- cially rewarding to the perpetrator. Theoret-Case Study 3: KiVa, a school-based ical knowledge about bullying and related is-anti-bullying programme sues, exercises, and the reflection of one’sKiVa, another Finnish adjective meaning own social behaviour are all seen as crucial‘nice’, is also an acronym of the expression components in preventing bullying. In prac-“Kiusaamista vastaan” (“against bullying”; tice, the programme has three different KiVa is an anti-bullying velopmentally appropriate versions for stu-programme originating from psychology dents between the ages of 7 and 9, 10 andprofessor Christina Salmivalli’s pioneering 12, and 13 and15, and a number of univer-work on bullying as a group phenomenon in sal and what the developer’s term ‘indicated126
  • 111. Country Chapter #2 | Finlandactions’ to reach its aim (Salmivalli, Kärnä & interview and a follow-up interview). ThePoskiparta, 2010a, b). The universal actions discussions are meant to be settling and car-of the programme include student lessons, an ing in nature, focused on the shared concernanti-bullying computer game (which ap- for the victim, and aiming at the concrete res-peared to be popular especially among the olution of the situation. The victims, the bul-girls and the bullied), and a virtual learning lies, and prosocial, high-status classmatesenvironment. There are ten double lessons, prone to support the victims are also en-consisting of 20 hours in total, given by a gaged in group conversations. The teachingclass teacher over the course of one school manuals and instruction provide detailed in-year. The lessons include discussion (e.g. on formation (also given in training days andrespect, group communication, group pres- school network meetings concerning the gen-sure, assertiveness, the mechanisms and con- eral implementation of the KiVa programme)sequences of bullying), group work (e.g. about how to carry out the discussions.practicing different ways to help the victim),short films about bullying, and role-play ex- In addition to a variety of concrete actionsercises that are designed to raise awareness and versatile materials for students, teachers,of the role that the group plays in maintain- and parents, KiVa also devotes time to theing bullying, to increase empathy towards evaluation of the effectiveness and the im-victims, to promote children’s strategies to plementation of the programme, and to thesupport the victim and their self-efficacy to collection of feedback for refining the pro-do so, and to increase children’s coping skills gramme. Consequently, the recent results ofwhen victimized. For the 7-year-olds only, the programme have been bright. Already inthe identification of different emotions, based 2009, at the end of the developmental andon facial expressions, voice, or the context of experimental period of the programme, KiVathe event, is taught. The programme also in- received the first prize in the European Crimecludes two modern information technology Prevention Award (ECPA). The programme isapplications for providing knowledge, skills, currently being translated into English and aand motivation to change one’s behaviour: an number of research groups in various coun-Anti-Bullying Computer Game for 7 - 12- tries, including the U.S.A and the Nether-year-olds, and a virtual learning environ- lands, have shown interest in the KiVa pro-ment called KiVa Street for 13-15-year-olds. gramme, because effectiveness studies ofThe three components of the computer game, KiVa have consistently revealed positive ef-which are called “I Know” , “I Can” and “I Do”, fects on self-reported bullying and peer-re-mirror the assumption typical of other ported victimization (Kärnä el al., 2011).Finnish social and emotional interventionsi.e. that learning facts, learning skills, and Regardless of the enthusiasm for the im-making use of the knowledge and skills in plementation of the programme and its ap-real life situations are all needed to achieve parent popularity, Professor Salmivalli, one ofgood results. the creators of the programme and a mother of 10- and 13-year-old children, recalls a The indicated actions take place when few challenges. Firstly, time and effort wereacute cases of bullying appear. In each school, needed in the planning phase to ensure thatthere is at least one team of two to three the topics of the student lessons were in ac-teachers or other staff members that handle cordance with the national core curricula.each bullying incident by holding discussions. Secondly, parents and teachers seemed toThe KiVa team interviews individually both have their suspicions about the effectivenessthe victim and the bully/bullies twice (a first of the programme. Parents were additionally 127
  • 112. Country Chapter #2 | Finlanddispleased with the fact that they were ex- education, is designed to be incorporated intocluded from the small group discussions health education lessons and cover both socialwhen their child had proved to be either the (e.g. empathy, assertiveness) and emotionalvictim or the bully. However, in the Karamzin skills (e.g. talking about worries, getting fa-School consisting of 450 students, aged 7-12, miliar with emotions and recognizing and ex-these challenges have not been present. In- pressing them) among other topics relevant tostead, the special education teacher and a mental well-being. The central idea in themember of one of the KiVa teams in her programme is that mental health is the basisschool reported fearing that they might be of people’s well-being. Well-being, on theoverwhelmed with cases of bullying when other hand, is seen as a resource that can bethe programme was first implemented in her learned and strengthened through both theo-school in the autumn of 2008. Additionally, retical knowledge and exercises.the so-called shared concerns method in-volving discussions with parties on all sides of A total of 30 two-day mental well-beingthe bullying incident was unfamiliar. Her ex- teacher training courses for health educa-periences, though, have been solely positive. tion teachers in basic education will be heldThe estimated number of bullying cases that during 2009–2011, in co-operation with thehas been communicated to the KiVa team by Ministry of Education and Culture. The train-either the class teacher, parents, or the school ing course supports and increases teachers’health nurse has been ten per year, and the awareness and competence in mental healthstudent discussions have been full of positive issues and methodological know-how (indi-surprises; sometimes the bully comes up with vidual and group assignments, story- and ac-his or her own ideas for making the victim tion-based scenarios, discussions, literary andfeel better, and in some cases the victim has film assignments, exercise book assignmentsrecognized his or her own role in the bully- etc.). It also provides guidance on the use ofing incident. The special education teacher the teaching materials (folder, picture cards,also appreciated the carefully planned and playing cards, a computer game, lecture DVD,supervised implementation of the KiVa pro- themed lecture series to be used in parents’gramme, and the active and supportive in- evenings at school) which are handed out tovolvement of the principal, who has also al- the participants, free of charge, during thelocated sufficient working hours for the KiVa training course. During the pilot phase of theteam’s activities. Most importantly, the num- teaching materials, teachers were free to ex-ber of victim-reported bullying cases has periment with new exercises and applica-dropped by two-thirds. tions. In one of the pilot schools, 13-year-old students were shown a slide about factorsCase Study 4: Knowledge about skills promoting mental well-being, and werefor maintaining mental well-being and asked to write a rap about mental well-being,educational tools for health education or the lack of it, in relation to everyday life.The Finnish Association for Mental Health has The following rap, written by three girls, wascompiled, in close cooperation with the Finnish selected for inclusion in the package of teach-National Board of Education, a resource-ori- ing materials (Hannukkala & Törrönen,ented comprehensive school course for the 2009; see www.mielenhyvinvoinninope-enhancement of mental well-being and life as an inspirational example for healthskills of children aged 13-16 (see www.mie- education The study module,based on the objectives and content of the ” Go to bed early, sleep so tight,National Core Curriculum (2004) for health study at school to get it right.128
  • 113. Country Chapter #2 | Finland No matter if life treats me so cruel, One of the participants was a health I love my friends, ‘cause I ain’t no fool. education and home economics teacher from When mom is mad all she does is Lauttasaari Comprehensive and Upper Sec- whine, ondary School. It is a private school founded I just know I can’t take it all the time. in 1945, with about 50 teachers educating I can count on my friends any time of 700 students (350 in the comprehensive the day, school and 350 in the upper secondary they’ll always be there for me, come school). This comprehensive school has 16 what may. classes (an average of 22 students per class). My life’s just beginning, I’m starting to The non-graded upper secondary has 13 learn year groups (an average of 26 students per the things that you need to make the group). The health education and home eco- tide turn.” nomics teacher was very satisfied with the functional exercises of the mental well-being Ane, Suvi, and Iiris from class 7F teacher training course, and the fact that the conceptual difference between mental health Feedback from 22 teacher training courses and mental illness was stressed. She is cur-held during 2009-2010 in 11 different rently using the ready-made materials in hertowns around the country has been excellent. health education lessons and takes pleasureBased on the comments of 567 teachers in the increased discussions and openness(97.3% of the participants), over 95 % of among students. It is a relief for the studentsthem found that the course increased their that they do not always have to discuss theirown knowledge of mental well-being and personal issues and come up with examplesgave them applications and ideas for teaching from their own lives, and that they can, atmental well-being at school. One of the times, approach difficult issues through theteachers had also understood the importance examples introduced in the materials. Fromof mental well-being for the teachers them- the teacher’s perspective, she is happy to useselves: the functional exercises, because she trusts the development and pre-testing of the ma- “This teacher training had very nicely, in terials. Having everything in one folder is its hidden curriculum, paid attention also handy, although she hopes to get the materi- to the support of teachers’ mental well- als in electronic form in the future - rushing being. The atmosphere was peaceful, en- from one class to another would be easier couraging, and optimistic. It felt good with a memory stick rather than with a heavy and is important.” teacher’s folder. Some of the teachers that had taken their In 2009, the project was welcomed bycourse in Helsinki criticised the course or- the upper secondary schools and vocationalganisers for the high number and the long du- schools when the mental health teachingration of the practical exercises. It was sug- programme was made available to younggested that some of the functional exercises adults. In 2010, the project was expanded tocould have just been demonstrated. In the include youth work personnel working onup-dated content of the training course the the internet. After taking the training course,practical exercises have been compressed, the youth leaders are expected to apply theand, as a response to the suggestion of 51 knowledge and working methods concerningteachers (9% of the participants), the exer- mental well-being while working with chil-cises are now backed up with more theory. dren and youth through social media, for 129
  • 114. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandIt is a relief for the students that they do not always haveto discuss their personal issues and come up withexamples from their own lives, and that they can, at times,approach difficult issues through the examples introducedin the materialsexample, on Facebook. The project looks for- skills, alongside academic achievement. Inward to deepening their collaboration with addition to imported programmes, experi-universities and teacher education to im- enced professionals and scholars in the fieldsprove their curricula by incorporating more of psychology, psychiatry, and education havemental well-being and social and emotional developed domestic programmes for SEE andaspects for student teachers. produced packs of materials and tools to sup- port the psychosocial well-being of childrenConcluding thoughts: Current delights and and young people at school.future concernsFrom the late 1970s, teachers, parents and Typically, in SEE programmes developed inother significant adults in the lives of Finnish Finland, at least for school-aged children,children and youth have been able to en- evaluation and research are built into thehance their own social and emotional skills, project. Secondly, many of the Finnish pro-and learn ways to support children’s social grammes are also characterised by the inter-and emotional development through various est in using physical activity, in addition to artcommercial training courses, mostly offered and music, as a means of enhancing chil-by civic organisations. For about twenty years dren’s social and emotional well-being. Asthe enhancement of children’s social and early as the 1970s, in a programme for de-emotional well-being was dependent upon veloping self-control (the DSC-programme),the motivation and activity of individuals, 4 to 6-year-old kindergarten children’s socialwho valued the mental well-being of the chil- skills (team work, sharing, taking turns,dren and considered social and emotional thinking about others and constructive be-skills as worthwhile, learnable, and teachable. haviour), the understanding of one’s ownBy the end of the millennium, many of and others’ feelings and reactions, and phys-Finnish children’s physical health problems, ical skills were promoted through physicalsuch as accidental deaths, had shown signs of games, together with music, books (e.g.improvement (Rimpelä, 2010), and atten- Pulkkinen et al., 1977), and arts and craftstion was rightly turned to social and emo- (Pitkänen-Pulkkinen, 1977). More recently,tional issues. At the national level, the general Finnish kindergarten children’s positive socialaims of the new National Core Curriculum interactions (sharing, helping, working in(2004), and especially the core contents of groups, respecting and appreciating othershealth education and a cross-curriculum and their work) have been improved throughtheme of ‘Growth as a person’, highlighted physical activity in the Early Steps projectstudents’ psychosocial well-being and related (2004-2007), financially supported by the130
  • 115. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandEU Socrates Programme (see Zachopoulou, the four municipalities located in the areasLiukkonen, Pickup, & Tsangaridou, 2010 and where the Sami live, pupils speaking theZachopoulou, Tsangaridou, Pickup, Liukko- Sami language must primarily be providednen, & Grammatikopoulos, 2007 for more with basic education in that language,information). Physical activity has also played should their parents so choose. Since 1989,a central role in a 20-week intervention Roma children have been able to learn Ro-where Hellison’s (2003) Teaching Personal many at evening classes in some compre-and Social Responsibility model was inte- hensive schools, but an amendment to thegrated into the physical education curriculum Comprehensive School Act in 1995 made itof 13-year-old boys (Rantala & Heikinaro- possible for Romany to be taught as aJohansson, 2007). These projects are very mother tongue. Teaching of Romany may bemuch needed, not only because decreasing provided if a group of at least four pupilsphysical activity poses a distinct threat to the can be of Finnish children and youth, but alsobecause physical inactivity in 15 to 16-year- As for the Sami people, there has been aold Finnish adolescents has been shown to be two-stage, EU-funded research and develop-associated with emotional, social, concentra- ment project regarding the psychosocial well-tion and attention problems, and rule-break- being of children and youth in the Arcticing behaviour (Kantomaa, Tammelin, Ebeling, called ArctiChildren ( Taanila, 2010). in 2002-2008. The project has aimed at de- veloping a supranational network model to There are, however, current and future improve the psychosocial well-being, socialconcerns. First of all, it seems that the exist- environment and security of school-aged chil-ing SEE programmes in Finland are more dren in the Barents area (in Finland, Russia,heavily focused on social skills than on emo- Norway, and Sweden). The project supportedtional skills. More emotionally oriented pro- the development work being done at the so-grammes are highly welcome, because early cial and health sector of the National Forum ofemotional competence has been shown to the Northern Dimension of the EU. Unfortu-contribute to later social competence (e.g. nately, the next stage of the project, the SamiDenham et al., 2003). ArctiChildren Project, failed to gain interna- tional funding and has not been launched. Secondly, there are hardly any current This third stage of the project was planned toSEE programmes for children and youth ask how Sami stories/narratives could havefrom the minority groups in Finland. Lin- been used as psychosocially and culturallyguistically, the instruction in Finnish schools supportive learning material to promote psy-is usually given in one or the other of the chosocial well-being and cultural identity intwo national languages, Finnish (over 90% educational processes in the Sami communi-of all pupils) or Swedish (under 6 %). The ties in Sweden, Norway, Russia and Finland.two traditional ethnic minorities, the in-digenous Sami people (6 000 – 10 000 in These kinds of initiatives do not come atotal) and the Roma (10 000 in total; Man- moment too soon; Finnish 13 to 15-year-oldnila, 2010), as well as the other groups, schoolchildren living in the Barents regionhowever, have the right to maintain and have the fewest friends and like school thedevelop their own language and culture. least compared to Russian, Swedish, and Nor-Therefore the regional language of Sami wegian children. Finnish girls, compared to(under 0.1% of all pupils), Romany or sign boys, suffered from more psychologicallanguage may be used. More specifically, in health problems and lower self-rated health 131
  • 116. Country Chapter #2 | Finland(Ahonen, 2007). As for the Sami children in Ministry of Education and Culture (2007)particular, they report being very lonely, de- that was asked to present their visions forspite lower levels of school bullying and a teacher education in 2020 focused on, forgeneral satisfaction with schooling (Rasmus, example, the need for pedagogical studies in2008). The recent briefings of the Finnish English, multiculturalism, and a stronger re-Ombudsman for Children clearly show that search-orientation in the departments forthere is also a need for research and tailored teacher education. It is also seen vital for fu-SEE programmes for the Romany children, ture teachers to be able to detect learning dif-because they get bullied at school more fre- ficulties even better than before (Innola &quently than other children (Junkala & Mikkola, 2010), and the purpose of contin-Tawah, 2009). They also participate less in uing professional education has been arguedbasic education than children of the majority to be the maintenance and updating of teach-population, they have more absences, and ers’ pedagogical skills (Education and Sci-they more frequently drop out. ence in Finland, 2008, 19). Given the obvi- ous challenges of social and emotional In addition to these two traditional ethnic well-being in Finnish children and adoles-minorities, other minority groups are made cents, one might consider questioning theup of refugees (annually around 700 people) dominant role of the content-knowledge andand asylum seekers, and those who come to research-based thinking in teacher educa-Finland through marriage or family reunion tion, and that greater focus be given to the(Mannila, 2010). The objective of immigrant emotional and social dimensions in the teach-education is to prepare immigrants for inte- ing profession. It is encouraging that theregration into the Finnish education system are opportunities for student teachers andand society, to support their cultural identity teaching staff to receive SEE in both the ba-and to provide them with as well-functioning sic and continuing education in some uni-bilingualism as possible. It seems that the versities. For example, the curriculum forFinnish educational policy of integration, the physical education teachers at the Universitygreat concern about the possible disappear- of Jyväskylä includes a compulsory courseance of the minority languages, and the em- entitled “Social and Emotional Skills in Teach-phasis on the educational continuity and rais- ing”, and for subject teachers there is a courseing the level of education and future module called “Social and Emotional Learningemployment in minority children and youth (SEL) Strategies and Group Processes” (forhave not left room for the development and more details, see Klemola & Heikinaro-Jo-implementation of SEE programmes. Al- hansson, 2006).though language competence as one of theenculturation factors surely protects minor- Despite these shortcomings in the domainity children from social and emotional prob- of SEE in Finland, the near future looks quitelems to some extent, there is a need for SEE promising. There is ongoing reform of theprogrammes that more directly, and in a cul- aims of basic education and the allocation ofturally sensitive manner, promote the social lesson hours. The possibility to increase theand emotional well-being of immigrant chil- minimum number of lesson hours to en-dren and youth. hance equality among all children, to de- crease the number of children in one class, Finally, Finnish policymakers and teacher bringing the class sizes down to a more rea-educators should update their views on the sonable level (into which 30 million euroscompetencies required for modern teaching. have been just invested recently), and to im-The teacher education working group of the prove learning and well-being by increasing132
  • 117. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandA recent evaluation carried out by the Ministry ofEducation and Culture reveals that school pupils lookforward to sensitive, impartial, fair, and supportivetreatment by teachers and more opportunities to studyarts, crafts, and physical education. For teaching theyexpect versatility and social interactionthe number of compulsory curriculum hours (Sulonen et al., 2010). One can only hopefor art and skills subjects are all currently be- that a slight fall in the PISA 2009 results ofing debated. Along the same lines, the Devel- the Finnish adolescents does not drown outopment Plan for Education and Research in the voices of the school children and theirFinland for 2007–2012 states that schools parents and lead to an increased pressure onshould better support the development of academic achievement – academic alpha ado-children’s general well-being and their emo- lescents cannot be produced at any cost.tional, social, ethical and aesthetic skills. Italso announces that the role of schools in de-veloping children’s social and emotional skillswill be strengthened in the future. Along thesame lines, the report to the United Nationscommittee on the rights of the child by theFinnish Office of the Ombudsman for Chil-dren (2011) also favours reducing the em-phasis on information content and a strongeremphasis on the schools’ role in bringing upchildren and reinforcing their social skills. But what do school-aged children and theirparents think about what schools should belike in the future? A recent evaluation carriedout by the Ministry of Education and Culturereveals that school pupils look forward tosensitive, impartial, fair, and supportive treat-ment by teachers and more opportunities tostudy arts, crafts, and physical education. Forteaching they expect versatility and social in-teraction. Parents wish teachers to be lessbound to textbooks and to introduce moremethods and content that support their chil-dren’s social and emotional well-being, aspart of everyday life and academic learning134
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  • 120. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandKumpulainen, T. (2011). Opettajat Suomessa pared to Sweden and Norway. In S. Man- 2010. [Teachers in Finland 2010]. nila, V. Messing, H.-P. van den Broek, & Koulutuksen seurantaraportit 2011:6. Z. Vidra. (Eds.), Immigrants and Ethnic Tampere: Tammerprint. Minorities. European Country Cases and Debates (pp. 18-38). National InstituteKupari, P., & Välijärvi, J. (Eds.) (2005). Os- for Health and Welfare, Report 41/2010. aaminen kestävällä pohjalla. PISA 2003 Suomessa [Knowledge and skills on a Metsäpelto, R.-L., Pulkkinen, L. & Tolvanen, solid basis. PISA 2003 in Finland]. Min- A. (2010). A school-based intervention istry of Education & Institute for Educa- program as a context for promoting so- tional Research. Jyväskylä: Gummerrus. cioemotional development in children. European Journal of Psychology of Edu-Kupiainen, S., Hautamäki, J., & Karjalainen, T. cation, 25 (3), 381-398. (2009). The Finnish education system and PISA. Ministry of Education Publica- National Core Curriculum for Basic Education tions, Finland 2009:46 2004. Helsinki: Finnish National Board of Education.Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Little, T., Poskiparta, E., Kaljonen, A., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). A National Curriculum Guidelines on Early large-scale evaluation of the KiVa an- Childhood Education and Care in Finland tibullying program: Grades 4-6. Child De- (Stakes 2003:56/2005) velopment, 82(1), 311-330. Niemi, H., & Jakku-Sihvonen, R. (2011).Lahti, A., Räsänen, P., Riala, K., Keränen, S., Teacher education in Finland. In M. & Hakko, H. (2011). Youth suicide trends Valen i Zuljan & J. Vogrinc (Eds.), Euro- in Finland, 1969 – 2008. Journal of Child pean Dimensions of Teacher Education: Psychology and Psychiatry, doi: Similarities and Differences (p. 33-51). 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02369.x University of Ljubljana & The National (in press). School of Leadership in Education.Linnakylä, P., & Malin, A. (2008). Finnish Number of suicide rates by age group and students’ school engagement profiles in gender, Finland, 2007. Retrieved the light of PISA 2003. Scandinavian Jour- 19.5.2011 from nal of Educational Research, 52, 583-602. tity/mental_health/media/finl.pdfLuopa, P., Lommi, A., Kinnunen, T., & Jokela, OECD. (2007). PISA 2006. Science compe- J. (2010). Nuorten hyvinvointi Suomessa tencies for tomorrow’s world. Volume 1: 2000-luvulla. Kouluterveyskysely 2000 Analysis (Research). Paris, France: OECD. - 2009.[The well-being of Finnish youth in 21st century. The School Health Promo- Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Special tion Study]. Raportti 20/2010. National education [e-publication]. Helsinki: Sta- Institute for Health and Welfare. Helsinki: tistics Finland [referred: 18.5.2011]. Ac- Helsinki University Press. cess method:, S. (2010). Nordic immigration pol- icy and the new emphasis on labour im- Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Pre-Pri- migration – the case of Finland as com- mary and comprehensive school educa- 137
  • 121. Country Chapter #2 | Finland tion [e-publication]. Helsinki: Statistics in basic education 2010]. Retrieved from Finland [referred: 18.5.2011]. Access method: fault/OPM/Koulutus/koulutuspoliti- dex_en.html. ikka/Hankkeet/pop/liitteet/Peru- sopetuksen_ryhmakoko_2010.pdfOjala, M.-L. (2011). Perusopetuksen ja lukiok- oulutuksen opettajat kevätlukukaudella Pitkänen, L. (1969). A descriptive model of 2010. [Teachers in basic education and aggression and nonaggression with ap- general upper Secondary education in the plications to children’s behaviour. spring semester 2010]. In T. Kumpu- Jyväskylä: Jyväskylä Studies in Education, lainen (Ed), Opettajat Suomessa 2010. Psychology and Social Research, 19. [Teachers in Finland 2010] (p. 37-66). (Doctoral dissertation) Koulutuksen seurantaraportit 2011:6. Tampere: Tammerprint. Pitkänen-Pulkkinen, L. (1977). Effects of simulation programmes on the develop-Opettajankoulutus 2020. [Teacher Education ment of self control. In C.F.M. van 2020]. Opetusministeriön työryhmä- Lieshout & D.J. Ingram (Eds.), Stimulation muistioita ja selvityksiä 2007:44. Hel- of social development in school (pp. 176- skinki: Helsinki University Press. 190). Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.Paakkari, L., Tynjälä, P., & Kannas, L. Pulkkinen, L. (2004). A Longitudinal study (2010a). Student teachers’ ways of ex- on social development as an impetus for periencing the objective of health educa- school reform towards an integrated tion as a school subject: A phenomeno- school day. European Psychologist, 9, graphic study. Teaching and Teacher 125-141. Education, 26, 941-948. Pulkkinen, L. (2006). The Jyväskylä longitu-Paakkari, L., Tynjälä, P., & Kannas, L. dinal study of personality and social de- (2010b). Student teachers’ ways of ex- velopment (JYLS). In L. Pulkkinen, J. periencing the teaching of health educa- Kaprio, & R. J. Rose (Eds.), Socioemotional tion. Studies in Higher Education, 35(8), development and health from adolescence 905-920. to adulthood (pp. 29-55). New York: Cambridge University Press.Pulkkinen, L.Pelkonen, M., Marttunen, M., & Aro, H. (2009). Personality – a resource or risk (2003). Risk for depression. A six-year for successful development. Scandinavian follow-up of Finnish adolescents. Journal Journal of Psychology, 6, 602-610. of Affective Disorders,(77) 41–51. Pulkkinen, L., Heikkinen, A., Markkanen, T.,Peltonen, A., & Kullberg-Piilola, T. (2005). & Ranta, M. (1977). Näin ohjaan lastani: Tunnemuksu. Helsinki: Lastenkeskus. Lasten itsehallinnan harjoitusohjelma [Guiding my child: A program for devel-Perusopetuksen laatukriteerit [Quality crite- oping self-control in children]. Jyväskylä: ria for basic education]. Ministry of Edu- Gummerus. cation publications 2010:6. Helsinki: Ministry of Education. Pulkkinen, L., & Launonen, L. (2005). Eheytetty koulupäivä. LapsilähtöinenPerusopetuksen ryhmäkoko 2010. [Class size näkökulma koulupäivän uudistamiseen.138
  • 122. Country Chapter #2 | Finland [An integrated school day. A child-cen- 2009]. Perusraportti. Koulutuksen seu- tered approach to the reorganization of rantaraportti 2010:1.Helsinki: Finnish the school day].Helsinki: Edita. National Board of Education.Ranta, K., Kaltiala-Heino, R., Rantanen, P., & Sahlberg, P. (2007). Education policies for Marttunen, M. (2009). Social phobia in raising student learning: the Finnish ap- Finnish general adolescent population: proach. Journal of Education Policy, prevalence, comorbidity, individual and 22(2), 147. family correlates, and service use. De- pression and Anxiety, 26(6), 528–536, Salmela-Aro, K., Kiuru, N., Pietikäinen, M., & Jokela, J. (2008). Does school matter?Rantala, T. & Heikinaro-Johansson, P. The role of school context for school (2007). The personal and social respon- burnout. European Psychologist, 13 (1), sibility model as part of physical educa- 1-13. tion lessons for seventh-grade boys. Li- ikunta & Tiede 44(1), 6–44. Salmivalli, C., Kärnä, A., & Poskiparta, E. (2010a). From peer putdowns to peerRasmus, M. (2008). Being Sami is a gift’ - The support: A theoretical model and how it welfare of Sami children and the realiza- translated into a national anti-bullying tion of their rights in the Finnish Sami program. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. region. Office of the Ombudsman for Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds). Hand- Children reports 1:2008. book of Bullying in Schools: An Interna- tional Perspective (pp. 441-454). NewRecommendations for physical activity in York: Routledge. early childhood education (2005). Helsinki: Ministry of Social Affairs and Salmivalli, C., Kärnä, A., & Poskiparta, E. Health. (2010b). Development, evaluation, and diffusion of a national anti-bullying pro-Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of gram, KiVa. In B. Doll, W. Pfohl, & J. Yoon the Child. Supplementary report to Fin- (Eds.), Handbook of Youth Prevention Sci- land’s 4th Periodic Report. Publication by ence (pp. 240-254). New York: Rout- the Office of the Ombudsman for Chil- ledge. dren 2011:1. Jyväskylä: Office of the Ombudsman for Children Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Björkqvist, K., Österman, K. & Kaukiainen, A. (1996).Rimpelä, A. (2010). Suomalaisnuorten ter- Bullying as a group process: Participant veys. [Health of the Finnish youth.] In roles and their relations to social status Nuorten hyvin- ja pahoinvointi. Konsen- within the group. Aggressive Behavior, suskokous 2010 (pp. 14-24). Suoma- 22, 1-15. lainen Lääkäriseura Duodecom and Suomen Akatemia. Vammala: Vammalan Schulz, W., Ainley, J., Fraillon, J., Kerr, D., & Kirjapaino. Losito, B. (2010). ICCS 2009 Interna- tional Report: Civic knowledge, attitudesRimpelä, M., Fröjd, S., & Peltonen, H. (2010). and engagement among lower secondary Hyvinvoinnin ja terveyden edistäminen school students in thirty-eight countries. perusopetuksessa 2009. [Welfare and Amsterdam: IEA health promotion in basic education 139
  • 123. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandSimola, H. (2005). The Finnish miracle of promoting preschool children’s socio- PISA: historical and sociological remarks emotional skills as experienced by pre- on teaching and teacher education. Com- school teachers]. Kasvatus,1,69-80. parative Education, 41(4), 455-470. Takala, M., Pirttimaa, R., & Törmänen, M.Sourander, A., Helstelä, L., Haavisto, A., & (2009). Inclusive special education: the Bergroth, L . (2001). Suicidal thoughts role of special education teachers in Fin- and attempts among adolescents: A lon- land. British Journal of Special Education, gitudinal 8-year follow-up study. Journal 36(3), 162-173. of Affective Disorders, 63(1-3), 59-66. Uusitalo, T. 2007. Nuorten itsemurhatSourander, A., Niemelä, S., Santalahti, P. He- Suomessa. [Suicides of the youth in lenius, H., & Piha, J. (2008). Changes in Finland].Lapsiasiavaltuutetun toimiston psychiatric problems and service use selvityksiä 2:2007. Sosiaali- ja ter- among 8-year-old children. A 16-year veysministeriö ja Lapsiasiavaltuutetun population-based time-trend-study. Jour- toimisto. nal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 317-3227. Virtanen M., Kivimäki M., Luopa P., Vahtera J., Elovainio M., Jokela J., & Pietikäinen M.Sulkunen, S., Välijärvi, J., Arffman, I., Harju- (2009). Staff reports of psychosocial cli- Luukkainen, H., Kupari, P., Nissinen, K., mate at school and adolescents’ health, Puhakka, E., & Reinikainen, P. (2010). truancy and health education in Finland. PISA 2009 Ensituloksia. [PISA 2009 pre- European Journal of Public Health, 19 (5), liminary results]. Opetus- ja kulttuurim- 554-560. inisteriön julkaisuja 2010:21 Välijärvi, J. (2003). The system and howSulonen, K., Heilä-Yläkallio, R., Junttila, N., does it work – some curricular and ped- Kola-Torvinen, P., Laine, T., Ropo, E., agogical characteristics of the Finnish Suortamo, M., Knubb-Manninen, G., & comprehensive schools. Educational Korkeakoski, E. (2010). The functional- Journal (The Chinese University of Hong ity of the Finnish pre-primary and basic Kong) Vol. 31, No. 2, 2003 & Vol. 32, education curriculum system. Publica- No.1, 2004, 31-55. tions by the Finnish Educational Evalua- tion Council 52. Välijärvi, J., Kupari, P., Linnakylä, P., Reinikainen,. P., Sulkunen, S., Törnroos,Takala, K., Kokkonen, M., & Liukkonen, J. J. & Arffman, I. (2007). The Finnish suc- (2009). Päiväkotilasten sosioemotion- cess in PISA– and some reasons behind aalisten taitojen kehittäminen liikun- it 2. Jyväskylä: Institute for Educational tatuokioiden avulla. [The development of Research. pre-school children’s socio-emotional skills through physical exercise sessions.] Westbury, I., Hansen, S.-E., Kansanen, P., & Liikunta & Tiede 46 (1), 22 –29. Bjorkvist, O. (2005). Teacher education for research-based practice in expandedTakala, K., Oikarinen, A., Kokkonen, M., & roles: Finland’s experience. Scandinavian Liukkonen, J. (2011). Päiväkotilasten so- Journal of Educational Research, 49(5), sioemotionaalisia taitoja edistävät tekijät 475-485. varhaiskasvattajien kokemana.[Factors140
  • 124. Country Chapter #2 | FinlandZachopoulou, E., Liukkonen, J., Pickup, I. & Tsangaridou, N. (2010). Early Steps physical education curriculum. Theory and practice for children under 8. Human Kinetics.Zachopoulou, E., Tsangaridou, N., Pickup, I., Liukkonen, J. & Grammatikopoulos, V. (Eds.) (2007). Early Steps. Promoting healthy lifestyle and social interaction through physical education activities dur- ing preschool years. Thessaloniki, Greece: Xristodoulidi Publications. 141
  • 125. Singapore
  • 126. Social and Emotional Education in SingaporeDennis KomAbstractThis chapter provides an overview of Singapore’s efforts with regard to the provision of so-cial and emotional education in its national school system. In particular, it will describe the So-cial and Emotional Learning (SEL) initiative, which is the main strategy for implementing so-cial and emotional education in more than 350 schools in the system. This includes thebackground to the Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) initiative, the different developmen-tal phases of the SEL journey, and a description of some key features of this process, such asbuilding the foundation for the SEL work, the prototyping approach for SEL implementationand teacher enablement. Some of the significant observations arising from the SEL efforts willbe shared, such as the greater focus on building students’ competencies rather than just pro-gramme delivery and the emphasis will be on customising interventions instead of just usingstandardised programmes. In addition, six case-studies of different school-based SEL effortswill also be presented to illustrate the different aspects of our SEL endeavour. These include: (I) a whole-school approach to building a culture conducive to SEL, (II) infusing SEL elements into classroom lessons and environmental education, (III) doing SEL through service learning projects, (IV) using SEL as a strategy for holistic education at a primary school, (V) capitalising on SEL to help students succeed in a second chance school and (VI) how to do SEL for children with special needs.Finally, the future development that is envisaged for SEL in Singapore will be shared.Dennis Kom is a Senior Guidance Specialist with the Ministry of Education, Singapore. Helpingchildren and adolescents develop in a holistic manner has always been the interest and focusof his work. He began his career teaching Chemistry and English at the secondary school level,gradually developing an interest in social and emotional development of adolescents. As a re-sult, he took training in counseling and eventually switched to student support work in the schoolcontext. Subsequently, he joined the Guidance Branch of the Ministry of Education, where hisrole includes developing resources, systems and policies, as well as providing consultancy andtraining to schools to facilitate their efforts in promoting the social emotional development oftheir students. He is currently pursuing his doctoral studies in the field of psychology. 145
  • 127. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeBackground - Education in Singapore oping talents in specific areas such as sports,Singapore is an island city-state with a pop- the Arts, Mathematics and Science, and theulation of about five million people living in tertiary institutions, which include the Insti-a land area of about 690 square kilometres. tute of Technical Education, the PolytechnicsEducation is a key priority on the national and the Universities. The curriculum2 is rig-agenda and has evolved with the nation over orous and developed with a strong global andthe last 40 years or more of its history. In the future orientation, with instruction closelyearly years, the focus was on providing basic aligned to assessment. It seeks to develop theeducation for every citizen of school-going whole child morally, intellectually, physically,age in order to enhance their capacity for socially and aesthetically. These efforts havesurvival and to build a sense of national iden- been affirmed by various international re-tity. Bilingualism was introduced to help build ports on student performance, such as thesocial cohesion. By the 1970s Singapore’s Programme for International Student As-economic growth had gained momentum but sessment (PISA) and the Trends in Interna-there was still a high school attrition rate and tional Mathematics and Science Studyunemployability1 among school leavers. The (TIMMS). For example, Singapore has thefocus shifted to raising the minimum educa- second highest proportion of students whoThe curriculum is rigorous and developed with a strongglobal and future orientation, with instruction closelyaligned to assessmenttional levels of the workforce as well as pro- are top performers in all three domains ofviding a broad-based education to enhance Reading, Mathematics and Science in theadaptability within Singapore’s workforce. In 2009 PISA, and Singapore students emergedthe late 1990s, as Singapore prepared itself among the top in the different categories infor the new millennium, there was a pro- the 2007 TIMMS.gressive adjustment to the education systemto ensure that it continued to remain re- The Impetus - Rebalancing our Curriculumsponsive to the driving forces of globalisation for the 21st Centuryand the technological changes of the new era. As we move into the 21st century, our stu- dents will be facing an increasingly globalised, Singapore has come a long way over the fast-changing and highly connected globalpast four decades with regard to its efforts in environment. While Singapore students haveeducation. Today, there are more than 350 done well academically, it is also imperativeprimary and secondary schools and Junior for us to prepare them to be sufficiently re-Colleges distributed throughout the island at- silient and resourceful to meet the challengestended by half a million young people be- of the future. Since 2001, the Ministry of Ed-tween the ages of 7 and 18. Complementing ucation has progressively tuned our educationthis national school system are the pre- effort to equip our students to be future-readyschools for children from 4 to 6 years old, the especially with regard to social and emotionalSpecialised Independent Schools for devel- skills. The journey began with the publication146
  • 128. Country Chapter #3 | Singapore Tertiary education Universities from 18 years old (3-4 years for undergraduate) onwards GCE ‘A’ Level Examination or its equivalent Polytechnics (3 years) Diploma Institute of Education (1-2 years)Junior Colleges/Centralised Institute (2-3 years) GCE ‘O’ Level Examination Secondary 5 Normal (Academic) Secondary and Post-secondary education from 13 to 18 years old GCE ‘N’ Level Examination GCE ‘N’ Level Examination Secondary 1 to 4 Secondary 1 to 4 Secondary 1 to 4 Special / Express Normal (Academic) Normal (Technical) Primary Schools Leaving Examination (PSLE) Primary education From 7 to 12 years old Primary Schools (6 years) All students follow a broad-based mainstream curriculumDiagram of the Education System in Singaporeof the Desired Outcomes of Education in 2001 psychological, social and moral spheres of(see their lives. The view was that life skillssired-outcomes/), a milestone document would also contribute to the individual’s to-clarifying for our schools and educators the tal well-being, and hence to his/her abilitygoals of Singapore’s educational endeavour. to contribute to building the community andMany of the outcomes outlined in this vision nation. The delivery of life skills was en-statement are related to the social and emo- abled through a range of subjects and pro-tional development of students, thus provid- grammes such as Civics & Moral Education,ing the impetus and structure for greater ef- Health Education, Physical Education, Co-forts in the social and emotional education of curricular Activities3, Pastoral Care, andour students. Sexuality Education. As such, the compo- nents of life skills were seen as disparate Prior to the introduction of Social and blocks with little or no relationship to oneEmotional Learning (SEL) to Singapore another. Therefore, there was a crucial needschools, ‘life skills’ were delivered to enable to construct structures and mechanismsstudents to handle and balance the physical, across the whole curriculum (both formal 147
  • 129. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeSince 2001, the Ministry of Education has progressivelytuned our education effort to equip our students to befuture-ready especially with regard to social andemotional skillsand informal) to help schools see this as an there have been numerous activities and de-integrated area of learning instead of as velopments, which can be considered asseparate subjects and programmes.4 broadly falling into the four phases of a sys- tematic progression, namely Planning, De- These situations and developments form velopment, Implementation and Review (thethe background to the introduction of SEL, a PDIR cycle).5systematic process aimed at bringing about thenecessary improvements to existing efforts in I) Planning. The goal of the planning whichsocial and emotional education in order to spanned the period from 2004 to mid-2005better meet the needs of students in Singapore. was to lay a strong foundation for the entireThe key foci of this initiative included: SEL effort. It involved• progressing from a Pastoral Care para- • conducting a literature review of major digm where focus was on meeting stu- theories on social and emotional develop- dents’ social and emotional needs to a ment; more proactive paradigm which empha- • conducting studies on SEL frameworks, sized building resilience in all students programmes and best practice in over 20 through the systematic development of a countries, such as China, Korea, U.S.A, set of key social and emotional compe- UK and Australia; tencies; • visiting centres of excellence such as the• making our social and emotional develop- Collaborative for Academic, Social and ment efforts more comprehensive and in- Emotional Learning (CASEL) in Chicago, tegrated; the Centre for Social and Emotional Edu-• improving the quality of programmes and cation (CSEE) in New York, and the Qual- the consistency of implementation; ifications, Curriculum and Assessment Au-• providing sufficient differentiation in pro- thority for Wales (ACCAC); as well as gramming to cater to the needs of differ- • collecting inputs from numerous consulta- ent students; and tion sessions with school leaders, teachers,• raising the level of skills and knowledge of and school counsellors from a number of the teachers to enable them to facilitate schools, Ministry of Education staff, SEL in their students. teacher trainers from the National Institute of Education,6 parents, and employers.The Journey - Systematic ProgressionThe SEL journey for Singapore first began in II) Development. All the planning efforts2004, with the setting up of a task force by culminated in the development of the SELthe Ministry of Education to develop a frame- conceptual framework, a set of SEL Standardswork to define and guide SEL. Since then, and Benchmarks and a set of implementation148
  • 130. Country Chapter #3 | Singaporeplans with accompanying resources, which schools to understand the progress that hadall formed the foundations for the ensuing SEL been made in SEL implementation as well asefforts. the issues and challenges that the schools were facing. In 2006, the Ministry of Educa- III) Implementation. With the key elements tion had set up the SEL Advisory Panel, com-in place, efforts began in earnest to create prising invited local and overseas experts inawareness of SEL amongst schools. These the field, to help us take stock of develop-included ments in SEL, and to provide advice on strategic directions. The Panel has convened• introducing the SEL Framework to all every two years since 2006 with the last visit schools; taking place in 2010. To help raise the qual-• incorporating SEL into Civics & Moral Ed- ity of school-based SEL efforts, Guidance Of- ucation and into the English Language and ficers from the Ministry of Education also Reading programme; visited schools to provide programme con-• getting schools to join the SEL Prototyping sultation, and relevant resources and training approach in batches; and to help school teachers become more effec-• offering a training workshop to all school tive in their delivery of SEL. In addition, con- teachers to introduce the SEL Framework tinuous learning about developments in this and to encourage them to capitalise on field is another strategy we have adopted, teachable moments7 to develop students’ and officers at the Ministry of Education had social and emotional competencies. embarked on multiple overseas study trips and conferences to learn about the latest and Through these series of efforts, our pur- best practices in the field of SEL. Efforts arepose was to heighten schools’ awareness of also underway to develop communities ofthe vital role that SEL plays in the holistic de- shared practice among the schools, so thatvelopment of the child. From late 2006 to good practice, innovative ideas and new re-2009, further training was introduced to sources are shared.strengthen teachers’ knowledge and peda-gogical skills in the delivery of SEL, and new Key Features - Foundations, Prototypingteaching and implementation resources were and Teacher Enablementdeveloped to support schools’ efforts in SEL. The Singapore SEL effort was characterizedIn addition, SEL was also ‘extended’ into var- by three key features, namely: establishing aious domains of education, such as the infu- strong foundation, adopting the prototypingsion of SEL into different academic curricula approach to implementation and placing an(for example, in English and Chinese lan- emphasis on teacher enablement.8guage lessons), co-curricular programmesand activities, management of student disci- Key Feature 1 - Building the Foundation Blockspline and outdoor education. I) The SEL Framework provides the conceptual guide to schools in their SEL efforts. It iden- IV) Review. Since the introduction of SEL to tifies the key social and emotional compe-schools, our focus has been on supporting tency domains for SEL, and provides an in-schools in building their capacity to deliver tegrated perspective of how they workSEL. As this capacity was strengthened, our together. In particular, it highlights the rela-focus gradually shifted to reviewing our ef- tionship between the competencies thatforts to improve their quality and effective- schools can teach and student outcomes thatness. Following an evidence-based approach can be derived from these efforts. The SELto improvement, data was collected from the Framework has four guiding principles: 149
  • 131. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeSocial and Emotional Competency Domains Key Social and Emotional CompetenciesSelf Awareness • Identifying and recognising emotions • Accurate self-perception • Recognising strengths, needs, and values • Self-efficacy • SpiritualitySocial Awareness • Perspective taking • Empathy • Appreciating diversity • Respect for othersSelf Management • Impulse control and stress management • Self-motivation and discipline • Goal setting and organisational skillsRelationship Management • Communication, social engagement and building relationships • Working cooperatively • Negotiation, saying no and conflict management • Seeking and providing helpResponsible Decision Making • Problem identification and situation analysis • Problem solving • Evaluation and reflection • Personal, moral, and ethical responsibilityFigure 1: Key SEL Competencies• Principle 1: Values should guide and pro- cally and those that do well at school will vide the purpose for one’s behaviours. Val- do well in life.9 ues are at the core because they guide one’s actions. However, one needs social II) The Multi-pronged Implementation Plan. and emotional competencies to effectively The Ministry of Education has developed a live out these values. multi-pronged implementation plan to support• Principle 2: Key Social and Emotional Com- schools in achieving their desired SEL out- petencies should be taught to students to comes. As shown in Figure 2, the four broad ensure that they acquire the skills, knowl- key approaches that have been adopted are: edge and dispositions that will help them face future challenges. The five Social and • Prototyping. An exploratory and iterative Emotional competency domains are Self process to encourage schools to innova- Awareness, Social Awareness, Self Man- tively develop customised programmes to agement, Relationship Skills, and Respon- meet the specific social and emotional sible Decision Making. The table below needs of their students. (Figure 1) presents the key Social and • Training. Efforts to equip both pre-service Emotional competencies in each domain. and in-service teachers with the knowl-• Principle 3: The school environment is an edge and skills to teach and promote SEL important enabler in the development of in schools. students’ social and emotional competencies, • Curriculum. Developing resources and and school leaders and teachers are impor- strategies for the explicit teaching of So- tant role models of these competencies. cial and Emotional competencies, the in-• Principle 4: Children equipped with social fusion of SEL into the formal curriculum and emotional skills will do well academi- (for example, English and Mother Tongue150
  • 132. Country Chapter #3 | Singapore Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) Outcomes Prototyping Curriculum Evaluation Training • SEL Conceptual Framework • SEL Standards and BenchmarksFigure 2: Key Elements of SEL Implementation lessons and Civics and Moral Education) Prototyping is a controlled and systematic and informal curriculum (for example, process, which begins with the spelling out of the Co-curricular Activities) and the use specific outcomes, followed by going through of teachable moments an iterative process of problem-solving cy-• Evaluation. Developing an evaluation cles, developing various working ‘prototypes’, framework for the Ministry of Education and testing the solution to arrive at an opti- and the schools, as well as tools to help mal outcome. The aim is to encourage schools identify their needs and determine schools to experiment with various pro- whether they have achieved their standards. grammes and implementation strategies, and to test out these efforts to see if they will re- III) The SEL Goals, Standards and Bench- ally meet the specific needs of the students inmarks are performance or outcome indica- their local contexts.tors providing explicit definitions of goalsand expectations for student learning in SEL Prototyping was identified as a key ap-at the various key developmental levels. A proach because it would make SEL effortssample of the statements of Goals, Standards relevant to the schools and would facilitateand Benchmarks is given in Figure 3. Schools ownership and internalisation. This is incan use them as reference for formulating contrast to the traditional top-down “roll-learning objectives, designing curricula and out” approach, whereby the Ministry of Ed-for evaluating learning outcomes. ucation would design a standard package and then “roll it out” for teachers to imple-Key Feature 2 - The SEL Prototyping ment in schools across the board. MoreApproach than a quarter of our schools participated inI) The Prototyping Methodology SEL prototyping. 151
  • 133. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeGoal 1: Develop self-awareness and self management skills to achieve personal well-being Statement Benchmarks of Standards Lower Upper Lower Upper Pre-University Primary Primary Secondary Secondary (17 to 19 (7 to 9 (10 to 12 (13 to 14 (15 to 16 year old) year old) year old) year old) year old)1.1 Identify one’s 1.1.1a. 1.1.2a 1.1.3a 1.1.4a 1.1.5a emotions, Recognise and Understand the Incorporate Evaluate accuracy At ease with strengths, label one’s relationship constructive of self perception oneself, love weaknesses emotions and between feedback from and analyse oneself and and values, and identify thoughts, others and personal implications of self appreciate one’s understand how contributing emotions, and experiences into the perception on worth these influence factors to one’s behaviours construction of self actions and one’s actions emotions perception behaviours and behaviours 1.1.1b & 1.1.2b 1.1.3b 1.1.4b 1.1.5b Recognise that everyone is unique Recognise that Apply knowledge Exercise personal in his/her own way. Identify one’s actions can be taken of personal talents, leadership in talents, skills, likes and dislikes to cultivate personal skills, and interests contributing to talents, skills and to life choices self, one’s interests community and society based on one’s personal talents, skills and interestsFigure 3: Example of Statements of SEL Goals, Standards and Benchmarks III) The Effects of Prototyping made packages or ‘canned’ approaches, to Traditionally, school personnel have a ten- making an effort to understand specific stu-dency to focus on the programme rather than dent needs and developing something tai-students’ social emotional needs or compe- lored to meet those needs. As a result of thetencies. A good illustration of this was one shift from being programme-focussed to be-school that initially chose a particular SEL ing student-centric, the way school personnelprogramme for Primary 3 students (about 9 worked also had to change, as teachers foundyears old). When the school found that the it necessary to work in collaboration and instudents were not picking up the competen- an integrated manner, across departments,cies, they changed the target group to Pri- subject areas, or programmes, so as to meetmary 4 students (about 10 years old). So the unique needs of students and to helpthey kept the programme and changed the them develop group, instead of refining the pro-gramme to meet the level of development of Another consequence of the emphasis onthe initial target group. outcome was that teachers’ initial ideas of a good SEL programme or approach were of- Having gone through SEL prototyping, ten challenged when evaluated againstschool teachers have reported being chal- whether it would eventually lead to the de-lenged to make a shift in focus, from the tra- sired student outcome. The prototypingditional emphasis on process (programme spirit of constantly asking the hard questiondelivery) to an emphasis on outcome (devel- of an idea’s effectiveness, discarding un-oping student competencies). Along with this workable ideas and working out new onesemphasis on outcomes came a shift from that reinforced this shift from being idea-drivenof simply selecting and implementing ready- to being outcome driven. The prototyping152
  • 134. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeHaving gone through SEL prototyping, school teachershave reported being challenged to make a shift in focus,from the traditional emphasis on process (programmedelivery) to an emphasis on outcome (developing studentcompetencies)experience helped some teachers to re-eval- Key Feature 3 - Teacher Enablementuate the notion that the importance of a Teacher enablement is one of the four keyprogramme or intervention was measured broad approaches under the multi-prongedby its scale of reach or the number of stu- implementation plan mentioned earlier. Itdents on which it had an impact. Instead, the involves building the capacity of our teachersprototyping process helped the teachers to so that each teacherfocus on the validity of what they designed,ensured that the programme met the needs • is able to able to relate well to others, han-of the target group of students, and ensured dle stress and conflict effectively, and asthat the programmes were effective for the such, become good role models for students;students. Finally, the prototyping provided • has the skills and knowledge to effectivelythe teachers with the impetus to shift from deliver SEL lessons / programmes, inte-a mindset of “design once to perfection and grate the relevant social and emotionalthen roll-out” mode to a “feed-forward competencies into the school’s core cur-mode,” where initial attempts at executing a ricula and facilitate social and emotionalsmall scale version of the initiative would learning outside of classroom time;generate feedback and new insights that • is supported by a community of like-would be used to refine and improve sub- minded educators, among whom one cansequent cycles of the initiative. regularly reflect upon one’s practice, ob- tain feedback, share resources, obtain en- Overall, our observations indicate that the couragement and guidance to grow andprototyping approach produced certain shifts excel as a facilitator of our schools’ paradigm of SEL implemen-tation summarised in the table below (see Teacher enablement comprises two aspects,Figure 4): namely the preparation of school personnelShift From ToProgramme Delivery Developing Student CompetenciesReady-Made Packages Tailored Activities (or customized)Programme-Based Silos Integrated Cross-Functional TeamsBeing Idea-Driven Being Outcome-DrivenScale of Reach Validity of DesignRoll-Out Mode Feed-Forward ModeFigure 4: Shifts in Schools’ Paradigm 153
  • 135. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeMore than just having the knowledge and skills, a teacherteaches who he or she is. As such, the development ofpersonal, social and emotional competencies as well aspositive values and attitudes are crucial aspects of teacherpreparationfor SEL implementation and long term ca- ing and development of teachers is under-pacity building. The school personnel prepa- taken by the National Institute of Educationration programme involved a series of brief- of Singapore. To prepare student teachers inings and workshops at the inception of the SEL the SEL aspect, the institute has included ininitiative in 2005/2006 which were designed their education psychology curriculum rele-to engage all teachers in our schools with SEL, vant theories pertaining to the developmentand to equip them with a basic understanding of pupils’ psychosocial, cognitive, intellec-and SEL skills. These briefings and training tual, moral aspects and self-concept, as wellsessions were followed in 2007/2008 by an- as the understanding of pupil motivation,other series of more comprehensive training creative and critical thinking, problem-solv-workshops for all schools to equip teachers ing skills and behaviour management strate-with the skills and knowledge to apply the 5 gies. The educational psychology course alsoSEL Pedagogical Principles10 to effectively de- helps student teachers understand the char-liver lessons for SEL. At about the same time, acteristics and needs of diverse learners andto align our schools’ pupil management and how to facilitate their learning. All thesedisciplinary processes to SEL, we ran a series serve to provide the student teachers withof workshops for teachers to communicate the core content knowledge for understand-this approach. ing and engaging with the social and emo- tional needs of their students as they start out The school personnel preparation pro- on their career.gramme represents only the beginning inour efforts to enable our teachers, and its fo- More than just having the knowledge andcus is on promoting the SEL philosophy as skills, a teacher teaches who he or she is. Aswell as equipping teachers with relevant ped- such, the development of personal, socialagogical knowledge and skills. The need for and emotional competencies as well as pos-more comprehensive teacher preparation itive values and attitudes are crucial aspectsinvolves long-term capacity building, which of teacher preparation. To this end, valuesis designed to look beyond knowledge and such as putting the learner at the centre,skills into aspects such as the teacher’s own being aware of their development and di-personal effectiveness as well as teacher sup- versity, being caring and responsive to theirport. Given the nature of such developmen- needs, and believing that all children cantal work, this part of the teacher preparation learn are consistently communicated to theeffort needs to start from the pre-service teachers-in-training through the Nationaltraining of teacher trainees and continue Institute of Education’s design and delivery ofwith the on-going professional development all its courses, programmes and activities.of in-service teachers. The pre-service train- The pre-service training aims to help student154
  • 136. Country Chapter #3 | Singaporeteachers to clarify their own beliefs, percep- services to schools to help them assesstions and roles as a teacher, to develop an needs, advise them on implementation is-awareness of their own interpersonal be- sues, and conduct relevant training whenhaviour and to develop a personal pedagogy needed;that will be effective in bringing about the • promoting the sharing by schools of theholistic development of their students by the experiences, knowledge and resourcestime they complete their training. For in- arising from their SEL efforts and creatingservice teachers, besides being involved in platforms for such sharing, mutual supportthe various training workshops under the and personnel preparation programme,there are also a range of in-service training To help all our teachers become effectivecourses on offer to cater to their needs. in facilitating the social emotional develop-These include programmes to enhance their ment of their students is an on-going task.own social and emotional competencies, as There is still much ground to be covered. Aswell as training in various approaches (such we gain in knowledge and experience onas service-learning, collaborative ap- how to better equip and enable our teachers,proaches, strategies for meta-cognition and more will be done so that we can achieve theself-regulation) that enable teachers to be vision of all our teachers as effective SEL fa-more effective facilitators of their students’ emotional development. These are opt-in courses available to all teachers who want Case Studies - A Potpourri of School-Basedto further develop themselves beyond the SEL Effortsstandard training provision. Due to the foundations developed to support the SEL efforts in schools at the national Developing into effective SEL facilitators level, many school-based SEL efforts haverequires more than just building the knowl- ‘blossomed’. These school-based efforts tookedge and skills of individual teachers alone. It on many forms in accordance with therequires the development of a support net- unique needs of students as well as the par-work that will facilitate teachers’ work in this ticular contexts within the schools. Somearea, as well as create a stronger recognition schools emphasised developing a culture ofof the work that a teacher expends on SEL. care and support as a way of promoting so-Among the various supportive initiatives cial and emotional development in their stu-which the Ministry of Education has under- dents, others included the implicit and ex-taken are: plicit teaching of social and emotional competencies as part of their overall char-• engaging the school leaders in frequent acter development11 efforts, and there are communications, e.g. through briefing and still others which implemented targeted pro- dialogue sessions, about building a sup- grammes or strategies to meet the specific portive school climate and culture and how social and emotional needs of certain sub- they can lead and inspire SEL efforts; group(s) of their student population. This• making available various resources such as section provides a few examples of this wide lessons packages, implementation guides range of approaches to bringing about social and toolkits for school personnel to facil- and emotional learning. itate the implementation of SEL pro- grammes / activities in schools; Case Study 1: Gan Eng Seng Primary -• to have Specialist officers from the Min- A Whole-School Approach to Growing istry of Education provide consultancy CHAMPIONS and Building a Culture of SEL 155
  • 137. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeAppreciation Notes for StaffIn Gan Eng Seng Primary School (GESPS), things at the right times even when no one isstudents often receive “Joyful Notes” from looking’. The CHAMP@GESPS Frameworktheir teachers as a form of encouragement has its foci in Lifeskills, Service Learning,and affirmation for their positive behaviour. Leadership Development, National Education,“Especially for my Colleagues” is another ini- and Careers Education.tiative in this school whereby teachers writenotes of appreciation to one another. All The Enhanced Lifeskills Programme is athese are a part of Gan Eng Seng Primary’s key component of GESPS’s character devel-overall effort to create a supportive and car- opment and SEL efforts. The programme is aing environment where each of its staff and series of lessons based on the Enhancedpupils feel valued. The school firmly believes Lifeskills Package developed in-house by itsthat having every staff and pupil feel cher- Pupil Engagement & Discipline departmentished is the first step towards its goal of nur- and the various teachers. The package incor-turing its pupils to become persons of sound porates the CHAMPION values, and the SELcharacter. This commitment to building char- competencies and desired outcomes are allacter and social emotional competency clearly spelt out in the lessons. The lessonsthrough creating a culture that is open, car- are delivered by all form teachers12 to theiring and respectful is reflected in the school’s class. As teachers were involved in the de-mission statement - “Believing and Nurturing”. velopment of this package and subsequently in the delivery of the materials to the pupils, Gan Eng Seng Primary adopts the whole- they bring to the teaching-learning experi-school approach to its character development ence an intimate knowledge of their pupils’and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) efforts. needs and hence a deeper engagement.It has developed a robust framework, knownas the CHAMP@GESPS Framework, to en- Complementing the teaching of social andcapsulate its multi-faceted efforts in this re- emotional skills are the efforts to help pupilsspect. Guided by this framework, the school develop values-driven behaviour. In this re-seeks to develop every child to be a CHAM- spect, the school adopted the RestorativePION - defined as ‘one who does the right Practice (RP) approach in managing student156
  • 138. Country Chapter #3 | Singapore Inculcate values CHAMPS@ GESPS Equip skills Community Involvement Experiential Learning Co-Curricular ActivitiesProgramme (Service) Learning (Olympic Values) Student Leadership Development National Education Programme (Servant Leadership) (Active Citizenry) CHAMP@GESPS Framework misbehaviour. This is a process-based ap- sessions to help pupils with self-manage- proach which focuses on helping students to ment issues. reflect on their behaviour in the light of its impact on others as well as on themselves, Gan Eng Seng Primary School is a com- enabling them to develop a stronger sense munity living out a supportive and positive of self and social awareness, and under- culture. Its character development effort fo- stand the value of empathy. It is followed by cuses not only on correcting negative behav- guiding the students to take the responsible iour but emphasises the more important as- step of making amends or restitution for pect of celebrating the success of every pupil. their inappropriate actions. Every teacher is For this, the school has set up a compendium trained in RP and is provided with a handy of platforms to encourage and celebrate RP card which outlines the RP process for pupils’ positive behaviours, such as the easy reference. In this way, teachers can school-based Holistic Report Cards (which seize every teachable moment which pres- reports character and social and emotional ents itself (e.g. when a student misbehaves) development besides academic achieve- to facilitate the learning process for their ments) and CHAMP Awards (for affirming student, capitalising on the immediate con- positive behaviours in pupils). To encourage text. The school counsellor has also devel- whole-school participation, a CHAMPS Wall oped games and made use of art therapy was erected to allow teachers, staff, parents 157
  • 139. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeHolistic Report Cards (School-Based)and stakeholders to acknowledge pupils’ de- amples of leadership roles in the school in-sired behaviour. Positive peer influence was clude being a Prefect, a Sports Leader, an ICTanother important leverage used to encour- (Information and Communications Technol-age positive behaviour. For example, through ogy) Leader, a Library Leader, or a Littlethe Class CHAMP Award, all pupils know Leader (for Primary 1and 2 pupils who arethat they can contribute to their class winning between 7 to 8 years old).this award. The idea of bringing a friend tothe CHAMP Space as a reward for good be- Not forgetting the students who come fromhaviour is another powerful means by which a more disadvantaged background, or arepupils can encourage each other to demon- struggling with various psycho-social issues,strate good behaviour. support programmes like the GUSTO Kids Club and the Befrienders Club are imple- Another integral part of the school’s char- mented to help these at-risk pupils acquireacter development and SEL efforts is to de- self-discipline, resilience and confidence.velop future leaders for our society. The strat- GUSTO Kids Club is a discovery arts pro-egy adopted to develop pupils’ leadership gramme aimed at reaching out to the school’squalities is to assign every pupil a leadership at-risk and latchkey pupils. The school col-role through which he or she can contribute. laborates with the Little Arts Academy, anEvery GESPian is provided with leadership external agency/partner to use popular arttraining and the opportunity to assume var- forms such as hip-hop dance, speech andious leadership roles in class, in their Co- drama and culinary skills to re-engage at-riskCurricular Activities and in the school. Ex- or latchkey pupils and positively re-direct158
  • 140. Country Chapter #3 | Singaporetheir focus and energies. Through this at- Princess of Mount Ophir), where the princesstempt, the school aims to provide small tastes faced a dilemma. She had to choose betweenof success for this group of children to in- her family and her true love. In her pursuit ofcrease their self-esteem, as well as to discover true love, the Princess alienated her brotherthe many arts-related talents amongst them. and angered the Sultan (the ruler) of Malacca who had proposed to her. After viewing the Jonas (not his real name) is a wonderful clip, students discussed whether theexample of how a student has been turned princess’s decision to pursue her true lovearound. The school’s first observation of was right, focusing on the rationale of the de-Jonas was that he appeared to be disinter- cision made. They also discussed the effect ofested in school and in academic studies. Jonas her decision, as she had angered the Sultan,comes from socially-disadvantaged home, putting her hometown in danger. The Fivewith minimal role-modelling to emulate. As Responsible Decision Making Steps were thenan attempt to engage Jonas, the school placed introduced to the students and they appliedhim in the GUSTO Kids Programme, where these steps to the Princess’s dilemma. Finally,his talents in the performing arts were clearly the students were given the chance to prac-manifested. He was eventually offered the tise their decision making skills in an au-U.K.-LAMDA Scholarship to further pursue thentic scenario, e.g. ‘You’ve been awarded aarts education. In Jonas’ words, “I feel proud scholarship to further your studies overseas.that I can perform for everyone. When oth- At the same time, your mother is diagnoseders clap for me, I feel happy and I am now with a chronic disease. What would you do?’more confident about myself and that I canbe good at something.” The above was an example of a Malay Language lesson conducted in the Common- Pupils have responded very positively to- wealth Secondary School, but with a twist –wards the many SEL-driven initiatives. Many of it was one of the many examples of a school-the pupils came from underprivileged home wide effort to intentionally infuse Social Emo-backgrounds and they displayed signs of infe- tional Learning (SEL) into academic teaching.riority which translated into problems of cop- The student response was heartening. Theying with schooling. Through the SEL pro- were very engaged in the discussion, arguinggrammes, pupils were observed to display an for and against the princess’s decision. Theyincreased sense of self-esteem and confidence. realised the importance of considering alter-Pupils were also more regular in their atten- native solutions to a dilemma, and adoptingdance and were more attentive and partici- one that could be a win-win for the differentpated more during lessons. The satisfaction felt stakeholders. They also realised the impor-about this work is clearly reflected in the words tance of keeping calm to better analyse theof Mr Jackson Seow, Subject Head of Pupil En- dilemma and come up with alternative solu-gagement and Discipline, “My teachers and I are tions. It was also observed that the use of thevery heartened to see a great improvement in video clips has more impact than using a textthe general disposition of our pupils and the alone, as the emotions of the various charac-way they interact with their peers.” ters were clearly visible and provided the students with more input for the discussion.Case Study 2: Commonwealth SecondarySchool - SEL in Classroom Lessons and In Commonwealth Secondary School, SELEnvironmental Education is pervasive and is not limited to only non-in-The lesson started with a video clip on a fa- structional programmes (such as Studentmous story about Puteri Gunung Ledang (The Leadership programmes, Character Devel- 159
  • 141. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeStaff members mentioned that their greatest satisfactioncame from seeing more students engaged in the lessonwhen SEL infused lessons were usedopment programmes, Service Learning ac- for the following year, together with theirtivities). The school’s philosophy is that edu- department teachers.cation has to be holistic and the teaching ofacademic subjects alone will not bring about Commonwealth Secondary School’s paththe desired outcome. Infusing of SEL into ac- to SEL infusion was not without its chal-ademic lessons will enable the students to lenges. While the teachers understood thehave an authentic experience and relate to rationale behind the move, quite a numberthe topic. This in turn will eventually translate struggled at first and had doubts and ques-into motivation for students to be passionate tions, e.g. how is it possible to infuse SELabout independent learning. Hence, in a bold into factual or abstract academic subjectsattempt to realize these principles, the school such as Science and Mathematics lessons?embarked on a progressive effort to infuse However, after trying out the lessons withSEL into the teaching of core academic sub- their students and having shared and re-jects to better engage the students. Alongside ceived supportive lesson critique / feedbackthis went the complementary effort to equip from colleagues during the workshop, theythe staff with the skills to use SEL in design- indicated that the sharing opened up theiring their lessons more effectively, and the minds and they realized the possibilities.push to create an atmosphere where teach- Overall, staff members mentioned that theirers would be willing to experiment and to greatest satisfaction came from seeing morehave their lessons constructively critiqued by students engaged in the lesson when SEL in-peers in order to bring about improvement. fused lessons were used. At the same time,A key training programme for the staff was they also reported learning that context andconducted jointly by the Student Develop- relevance are key to designing SEL-infusedment Department with a Guidance Officer lessons, and that one cannot ‘force-fit’ SELfrom the Ministry of Education. After the first into every lesson or topic. The following is atraining session, the various SEL pedagogical personal account of a Mathematics teacher’sprinciples were introduced. Various academic experience on this SEL journey.departments in the school were given thetask of selecting a topic into which to infuse “I have always found it a challenge to in-SEL, and teachers had to design and conduct corporate SEL into Mathematics lessons, asthe lesson, as well as have it video-recorded. Mathematics concepts tend to be more ab-During the second training session, a segment stract. I found it helpful to bounce ideaswas dedicated to lesson critique by all staff on around with my colleagues during the weeklythe respective department’s lesson. Staff professional development hour. For example,members were encouraged to use the feed- when two cases of road accidents involvingback that they had received to refine their Commonwealth students occurred, we hit onlessons. In addition, the Heads of Depart- the idea of using the topic of travel graphs toments went on to look at how they could in- reinforce responsible decision-making in en-fuse SEL into 20% of their Scheme of Work suring road safety. The students worked in160
  • 142. Country Chapter #3 | Singaporegroups to weave stories based on their inter- hands-on activities which allow them topretation of given travel graphs designed to translate their energy and enthusiasm intoillustrate accident-based scenarios. They pre- action. From water conservation to climatesented their stories to the class for peer cri- change and alternative energy, students learntique. As the students had incorporated ele- about a myriad of key issues through class-ments on road accidents into their stories, I room learning and project work. Field trips tofacilitated a discussion on the responsibilities Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve and riverof both motorists and pedestrians in ensur- clean-ups at Sungei Pandan and Pandaning road safety, with careful links to speeding Reservoir further enhance the learning ex-to align with the topic on speed-time graphs. perience. To augment the development of itsI ended the lesson by showing a video of an environmental education programme, theaccident and pictures of the road accident school converted the school pond into a Con-near the school. In pairs, the students re- structed Treatment Wetland that recycles greyflected on how they can be responsible for water and serves as an outdoor classroom.their own road safety. Responses included Students are also encouraged to be environ-not using a handphone or mp3 player when mental ambassadors and bring the messagecrossing the road and not dashing across the of environmental conservation to the com-road to catch the bus. I noticed that the stu- munity by educating households on mitigat-dents were more on-task. Compared to the ing climate change and preventing mosquito-usual set work of completing practice ques- breeding. In addition, students volunteer astions, students put more effort into coming up guides at Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve andwith stories that would explain the graphs. Singapore Science Centre. Through theseThey enjoyed the exercise in creativity and various activities, programmes and experi-appreciated the link to an authentic situation, ences, Commonwealth Secondary School’sas it made Mathematics concepts come alive. students get to apply and develop the socialThe challenge I faced was how to balance the emotional competencies learnt in the class-teaching of mathematical concepts with the room to relevant, real-life contexts. For ex-teaching of SEL competencies in the short 1- ample, in the Air and Alternative Energyhour lesson. I feel that my responsibility as a Module taught to secondary-two students,Mathematics teacher is towards the subject. they are challenged to tackle the problem ofWhere Mathematics topics can provide the energy and water conservation. The studentscontexts to illustrate SEL competencies and were taught to analyse their household utili-help them better appreciate Mathematics, I ties bill and come up with an action plan towould continue to infuse SEL.” encourage family members to conserve en- ergy and water. In addition, the students were Environmental education is another cor- also assigned to work in groups to audit thenerstone of the educational experience pro- energy and water usage of the school. There-vided in Commonwealth Secondary, and is after, they had to report their findings andanother platform through which its students recommendations for improvements to theexperience SEL. It nurtures students to de- school’s Operations Manager, who would ex-velop a keen interest in green issues and plore the feasibility of implementing theirempower them to become environmental recommendations. Through working in thesestewards both in school and in the commu- authentic contexts where they needed tonity. The school’s environmental education study behaviour patterns of consumers, stu-programme provides a structured and differ- dents were exposed to problem identificationentiated programme for students at each and analysis and were actively involved in de-grade. Students are engaged through various signing solutions to the problem. As they162
  • 143. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeEcosystems Studies. Learning journey to a Nature Reserveworked to encourage family members and of community service. Premised on the ra-peers to change their energy / water con- tionale that Social Emotional Learning (SEL)sumption behaviour, they also got the op- and Character Education must go beyondportunity to practise their relationship man- mere discussion in the classroom, the schoolagement competencies, and deepen their has embarked on organising Service Learn-sense of personal and ethical responsibility ing Projects as a means through which thetowards taking care of the environment. values and social emotional competencies talked about in class are put into practice. At the same time, the school is working to- Service Learning requires the students to un-wards nurturing a generation of environ- derstand a given community and find outmentally aware students and grooming future about its specific needs, as well as to developleaders who hopefully possess a firm grasp of ways to meet those needs. Hence, it providesthe complexities of sustainable development, an excellent opportunity for developing stu-technologists eager and able to solve envi- dents’ social awareness that is talked about inronmental challenges and potential industry SEL. At the same time, students get to prac-captains with green consciences. tise working together in teams, engaging and communicating with others (e.g. the people inCase Study 3: Kranji Secondary School - SEL the community they are serving). As theythrough Service Learning Projects get involved in the various demands of the project, they also have a chance to discover “Kranji students demonstrate good val- something more about themselves and to ues and character... Their behaviours grow personally. Most of all, the students get show they understand the needs of oth- to live out the value of ‘giving back to the ers (the intellectually disabled).” community’ which is emphasised in their character education. These are the comments from the staff ofa day care centre for people with disabilities All these were seen in one of the Serviceafter a joint community project with students Learning projects involving a group of 44from Kranji Secondary School. When it secondary-two students (14 year-old) - ancomes to character and social emotional de- outreach activity to a group of people withvelopment, Kranji Secondary thinks in terms disabilities from a home for people with 163
  • 144. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeThe school has embarked on organising Service LearningProjects as a means through which the values and socialemotional competencies talked about in class are put intopracticespecial needs. This was a collaborative proj- in applying skills, such as showing respectect between the school and the home con- and displaying responsibility to self and oth-ducted in 2009, with the twin aims of pro- ers, taught in the earlier Character Educationviding some hands-on and interactive lessons. The various groups then raised fundsactivities for clients of the day care centre, by selling snacks during recesses or afterwhile at the same time creating an aware- school over a two week period, thereby col-ness of the needs of people with disabilities lecting more than twice the required amount.among Kranji students. They chose to donate the excess to the day care centre. At the planning stage, teacher-mentorsfacilitated discussions with the students on the After much background work, the stu-purpose and meaning of service learning. dents were finally ready for the cookingFollowing this, they briefed the students about workshops, which turned out to be a reallywho they would be working with and the enriching learning experience for them. Twoneeds of their clients. With this information sessions of the workshop were conducted,in mind, the students were invited to brain- and two students were paired with a ‘client’storm what the possible activities could be with disabilities for the sessions. Together,and their pros and cons, before eventually they whipped up a range of ‘delicacies’ oversettling on the choice of running a cooking the two sessions while enjoying the processworkshop for the clients of the day care cen- and one another’s company. Over lunchestre. After this, the group immediately after each cooking workshop, they all feastedlaunched into the next stage of discussing together on the outcomes of their labours,the menu, safety matters, how to run the with the accompanying staff. While a few ofsession etc, hence, applying the important the students had initially expressed that theydecision-making skills which they had learnt did not feel comfortable and had difficulties inearlier. communicating with their clients, they man- aged the hands-on session well and the ex- In addition, the students also had to raise perience had helped them to relate to the in-the funds for purchasing the ingredients re- dividuals with whom they had been paired.quired for the cooking workshops. For this,the students formed into groups of five or six At the end of the project, every studentto brainstorm on how to raise funds, and wrote an individual reflection of their expe-discussed the roles and responsibilities for rience and learning. Their reflections wereeach member in the team with regard to posted on a mobile notice board placed in thetheir fund raising project. During this process, school foyer for other students to read. Thethe teacher-mentor facilitated the students following are a few samples:164
  • 145. Country Chapter #3 | Singapore ‘I learnt how to be patient and treat oth- to get a Primary One (7 year old) group-mate ers with care. I had to make responsible to cooperate with the team. At 8 years old, decisions in trying to reach out to them. Han was already a leader, leading the team on Really hope I can cook with them again.’ a ‘Play n Design’ project to create a ‘play- – QYH mate’.13 for the group. The group had to con- ceptualise a design for a ‘playmate’ for a ‘The service learning was great as I get friend who was ill in hospital, and apply dif- to gain new knowledge during the plan- ferent art elements to enhance their creation. ning and at the same time get to inter- In choosing the design for the playmate with act with the disabled during the cooking the group, Han would ask her members, workshop.’ “What do you choose? Okay, then let’s decide – SN together.” Han showed respect for others’ opinions and wanted the group to reach a ‘After the project, I learnt to be more consensus, and demonstrated a sense of fair- patient. It was my first time assisting the ness and democracy by asking each member disabled in cooking a meal. It was a for his/her choice. Besides exercising lead- great and unforgettable experience and ership, Han exhibited genuine concern for it was fun too!’ peers and was helpful. For example, when a – WL group member had difficulty putting a ‘wing’ on the cup (the body) when constructing the As reflected in the students’ comments, ‘playmate’, she offered to help. While makingthey have learnt many important social skills this attempt, her creative side manifested assuch as relating to others with respect, team she tried to make wings with the differentwork and responsible decision making. More types of paper provided and explored differ-importantly, the experience has given them a ent ways of pasting the paper wing onto thechance to learn to be sensitive to the disad- cup.vantaged in their community and has en-gendered empathy in them – a crucial aspect The above are snippets from the observa-of good character. For the teachers who put tion of a student during a module of the Pro-in the hard work and journeyed with the stu- gramme for Active Learning (PAL)14 in Cedardents, this is perhaps their greatest reward, as Primary School. Han is just one of the manyexpressed by one of them: ‘It was most heart- primary students who are given broad expo-warming to have witnessed the students’ ex- sure and rich experiences in Sports andcitement and enthusiasm in raising funds for Games, Outdoor Education, the Performingthe project... The students were sincere in Arts and the Visual Arts at the lower primarywanting to impart their (cooking) skills to level (7 to 8 year olds) through the Pro-them (the clients). They were respectful to- gramme for Active Learning (PAL) which fo-wards their clients. It was very fulfilling for cuses on the non-academic to see to the fruition of this project and towitness the growth and learning of my stu- Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) fordents. these children is a vital component of the school’s overall effort to realise the aspirationCase Study 4: Cedar Primary School - “Learn- of nurturing its Primary 1 and 2 pupils (7 toing to Love, Learning to Learn, Learning to 8 year olds) to be Caring, Enthusiastic, De-Live” - Developing the holistic child termined, Adaptable and Responsible Cedar-“We are not working together. Come on, stop ians. PAL, along with the Form Teacher’stalking!” Han (not her real name) was trying Guidance Period facilitate the SEL of the bud- 165
  • 146. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeThe emphasis on celebrating growth (rather than oncomparing achievement), on reflection (rather than onevaluation) and the enhancement of the safe andsupportive school environment through the GuidancePeriods and PAL, has resulted in greater joy of learningamong the pupilsding Cedarians. The Form Teacher’s Guid- ture inventiveness and develop social andance Period is a weekly lesson within the emotional competencies.curriculum for form teachers to build posi-tive relationships with their pupils. During Pupils have indicated that they enjoyed thethe Guidance Period, Form Teachers interact Form Teacher Guidance lessons and the PALwith their pupils through play-based activi- modules. Through the SEL sessions taughtties. In addition, they conduct explicit teach- during the Guidance Periods, pupils acquireing of Social and Emotional competencies, knowledge and skills relating to self-aware-supported by resource packages developed ness, self-management, social awareness, re-by the Ministry of Education (Singapore). lationship management, and responsible de-Placing greater emphasis on the non-acade- cision-making. In PAL, the exposure tomic development of pupils, PAL provides various learning domains enables pupils tobroad exposure to Sports, Outdoor Educa- learn more about themselves and others;tion, Performing Arts and Visual Arts. PAL nurture confidence and a sense of pride inmodules are rich in self-discovery, experi- their own abilities; share and cooperate withential learning and collaborative learning op- others; cultivate curiosity about the worldportunities and provide a ready platform for around them; and develop a zest for life.pupils to practise their social and emotional These were evident in the students’ com-skills learnt during the Guidance Period. In a ments when they were queried about theiryear, each grade level undergoes three mod- PAL experience:ules, each made up of 7 to 9 two-hour ses-sions. While the modules can be conducted “I like going to the garden to look for artby external instructors, Form Teachers are things. There are many lines on a leaf.present to facilitate pupils’ learning and ob- Even the ant’s buttocks have lines!” (aserve pupils’ behaviours. One unique PAL comment by a student during a sessionmodule at the school is ‘Play n Design’ (men- using the outdoors as a context fortioned earlier), where Primary 1 and 2 learning)pupils work together in mixed-age teamsand use the outdoors as a context for learn- “I like ‘Play n Design’ because I caning about art. Pupils learn about the ele- work with my friends to make things.”ments of art and work on an authentic task (a reply from a student when he dis-relating to social responsibility, National Ed- covered the joy of cooperative learningucation or the Olympic Games and design asolution using paper. Through ‘Play n De- ”The ‘playmate’ must have a smilingsign’, pupils learn about art and design, nur- face. We need to cheer our friend (who166
  • 147. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeStudents engaged in PAL activities is in hospital) up.” (an expression from environment through the Guidance Periods another student during the ‘Play n De- and PAL, has resulted in greater joy of learn- sign’ session, reflecting his care for oth- ing among the pupils. In Cedar Primary ers) School, it is a community that is truly “Learn- ing to Love, Learning to Learn, Learning to ”Teacher, when is the next PAL lesson?” Live”. (an enthusiastic question by students full of zest for learning) Case Study 5: NorthLight School - Helping students succeed with a Second Chance In addition, the Form Teachers’ steward- 16 year-old Jay (not his real name) is aship and presence in Guidance and PAL ses- model student and a student leader at North-sions have also enabled the Form Teachers to Light School. He is also one of the privi-foster greater teacher-pupil rapport with leged youths who was chosen to be a torch-their charges and increase their knowledge of bearer during the inaugural 2010 Youthindividual children. Thus these sessions have Olympics held in Singapore because he wasenabled Form Teachers to be more effective deemed to have displayed the Olympic val-as Life Coaches to their students. The em- ues of friendship, excellence and respect.phasis on celebrating growth (rather than on However, this was not the Jay of four yearscomparing achievement), on reflection ago, before he enrolled at NorthLight School.(rather than on evaluation) and the en- Jay, then 12, suffered a major setback. Hehancement of the safe and supportive school did not make the grade in the Primary 167
  • 148. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeThe school adopts an experiential approach in teachingand learning, with an emphasis on nurturing the students’social and emotional development. This is done by helpingthe students to discover their talents, redefining success,encouraging peer support, and creating conditions whichpromote self esteemSchool Leaving Examination (PSLE), a key file of the student population, the schoolnational examination in Singapore for pro- adopts an experiential approach in teachinggressing from elementary schooling to the and learning, with an emphasis on nurturingnext level. He was also addicted to computer the students’ social and emotional develop-gaming, had conflictual relationship with his ment. This is done by helping the students toteachers, and was contemplating dropping discover their talents, redefining success, en-out of formal education altogether. He was couraging peer support, and creating condi-feeling down, helpless and lost regarding tions which promote self esteem. Characterthe future. Jay’s mother was heart-broken Education is key to NorthLight School’s cur-about the state of her son. However, she did riculum. The other two components of thenot give up. She found out about NorthLight curriculum are Foundational Education (e.g.School and tried to get Jay to enrol in the Mathematics, English and Information andschool, but Jay was resistant. It was only af- Communications Technology) and Vocationalter much cajoling that Jay changed his mind, Education.and this proved to be the turning point forhim. His life thereafter was intricately linked Character Education forms 26% of theto his experiences at NorthLight School. NorthLight School’s curriculum, and its de- livery and assessment are aligned to the The NorthLight School was set up with the learning profile of the students, e.g. as theaims of providing an engaging career-ori- students learn best by doing, 70% of the timeented and values-focused education for young is spent on experiential learning or course-people who were less academically inclined work and 30% on theory. NorthLight teach-and to prepare them for lifelong learning and ers constantly review and update the charac-employment. Most of the students which the ter education material to ensure that itschool takes in have experienced academic remains relevant. The first half hour of eachfailures in their primary school education. day is the class family time where the formMany of them also struggled with social and teacher will cover the character trait of theemotional issues. On entering the school, week, focusing on different contexts for dif-every student has a personalized Emotional ferent levels, e.g. on ‘self’ for Year 1, ‘family’Quotient (EQ) profile done. On the whole, re- for Year 2, ‘school’ for Year 3 and ‘commu-sults from the profiling indicate that students nity’ for Year 4. Students learn to move fromare weakest in the aspects of interpersonal receiving to giving, and looking beyondskills and general mood (comprising opti- themselves to those who are less fortunatemism and happiness). In view of such a pro- than them. The school’s Character Education168
  • 149. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeOne of the student recreation centres. A talking deskcurriculum has the LiVE components, ment that will enhance the development ofnamely, Lifeskills, including the Emotional good habits and the relevant social and emo-Quotient profile (EQ), thinking skills, per- tional competencies to prepare the studentssonal growth and effectiveness, financial lit- for further studies or the workplace.. Theseeracy, career guidance, Values that are im- include Class Family Time17 and the Lunchparted through service learning activities or Interaction Time,18 the Time-out Box,19 theprojects and Everyday Affairs which deal Talking Desk,20 the SHINE Card,21 the Studentmainly with current affairs. For EQ, the focus Recreation Centres,22 the Jar of Excellence23is on the individual and on relationship man- and the Bowl of Honesty,24 as well as theagement. Lessons on Thinking Skills pro- Student of the Month25 awards. Neverthe-mote creative and critical thinking, while Fi- less, amidst the flurry of activities and pro-nancial Literacy is taught through the “Mind grammes at NorthLight School, one thing isYour Money”15 game which was developed by constant, that is, the single-mindedness ofthe teachers. Career Guidance is an important its staff in the pursuit of their mission to helpcomponent as it prepares the students for their students achieve the following beforethe mandatory 8-week Industrial Work they graduate:Placement for every Year 4 student (about 17to 18 year olds). Service Learning encourages • to have a high level of self awareness, i.e.the students to return to the community, able to recognise and develop theirwhile Current Affairs ensures that the stu- strengths to achieve their potential;dents remain abreast with the latest happen- • to relate to others in a respectful and con-ings in the world. In addition, there is a fident manner and able to work collabo-school-wide adoption of Art Costa’s Habits of ratively in a team; andMind (HOMs).16 The school has adopted 8 out • to be developed morally, to care for others,of the 16 Habits of Mind (HOMs) and these the school and the country, and be willingare assessed by the individual students as to give of themselves to serve.well as their peers and teachers and consti-tute a substantial percentage of the total score Jay is just one of the many examples of thethat each student receives for all the Founda- realisation of these goals. Perhaps his owntional and Vocational subjects. words best sum up the experiences he had at The school also has structures and strate- NorthLight School and the transformation hegies to create a conducive learning environ- experienced: “My teachers and my friends 169
  • 150. Country Chapter #3 | Singaporeaccepted me and helped me to discover my help them in this area. Such was the impetusstrengths. I was given many opportunities as for the work of a committee, set up in earlya student leader and I slowly got back my 2006, to look into the affective competencyself-esteem and self-confidence. I tell myself development of students with special needs.that I need to set a good example and must The committee, comprising members fromnot disappoint my teachers or confuse my the Special Education Branch of the Ministryjuniors. . . . . All of us were very sad when we of Education (Singapore) and teachers fromfailed the PSLE [the Primary School Leaving the various local special education schools,Examination] but a failure in an exam does found that: (i) the teaching and learning ofnot mean that we will fail in life. There were social and emotional skills was done mostlyincidents where others look down on or pass on an ad-hoc basis through teachable mo-unkind remarks about us but we must not al- ments; (ii) the development of appropriatelow their remarks to discourage us. We will social skills was conducted during (func-prove to them and ourselves that we can suc- tional) life-skills lessons and not much em-ceed. We will take every task given to us as an phasis was placed on the emotional develop-opportunity to challenge ourselves and our ment of students. Arising from these findings,ability. The school is the place where we ap- it was evident that there was a need for theply the HOMs. I achieved a perfect score of explicit teaching of social and emotional skillsGPA26 4.0 and my parents could see the to students with special needs.change in me. I would not be here today if notfor the teachers. The NorthLight teachers play To kick start the process, the committeea big part in my transformation. They worked invited Professor Mark Greenberg from Pennhard to make sure we understand our les- State University to Singapore in March 2006sons. I would like to thank them for helping to conduct a series of introductory seminarsus to find the joy of learning again.” as well as consulting to schools on the social and emotional development of students with Editor’s Note: The chapter on Portugal in this Inter- special needs. Professor Greenberg recom-national Analyisis includes a case study on a secondchance school in that country. mended the use of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS)27 curriculum for the special schools. Designed to be used inCase Study 6: Social and Emotional Education the early school years (between 6 to 12 yearsfor Children with Special Needs old), the PATHS curriculum includes a wideCK was attention seeking and impulsive. He range of activities that focus on:threw tantrums and whined whenever hecould not get his way and would shout or scold • Emotional literacyhis friends at the slightest provocation. He also • Self-controlneeded constant attention and reminders to • Social competencecomplete assigned tasks. CK is a nine year old • Positive peer relationsstudent with mild learning disabilities. • Interpersonal problem-solving skills Children with special needs face greater The first PATHS curriculum training for achallenges in various aspects of their lives in small group of teachers was conducted incomparison to their ‘normal’ peers. In par- 2007. The trained teachers then prototypedticular, many of them face great difficulties in the explicit teaching of social and emotionalthe social and emotional domain as a direct learning in their schools and provided feed-result of their special needs. It is therefore back that the programme was benefiting stu-imperative that specific attention be given to dents with special needs.170
  • 151. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeSelf-made PATHS poster Incorporating PATHS strategies into lesson After some early exploration in small- CK’s teacher made him a ‘PATHS Kid forscale prototypes, Chaoyang School which Today’ badge as a reminder that he shouldserves students with mild intellectual dis- be nice to his friends. Efforts were alsoabilities, Towner Gardens School, serving made to compliment CK daily and he had tostudents with moderate to severe intellec- return the compliments by sharing positivetual disabilities, and Spastics Children’s As- things about others. CK’s teacher also taughtsociation School, serving students with him self-control techniques such as thephysical disabilities, came on board in Au- PATHS “Turtle” technique (a calming downgust 2008 and early 2009 for the pilot im- / anger management strategy taught in theplementation of the programme. Teachers PATHS programme). Today, we can see thewere trained by PATHS consultants to de- fruition of all these efforts as the number ofliver the curriculum and to build a school CK’s temper tantrums are greatly reduced,culture that supports SEL. and he makes an effort to calm himself down whenever he feels frustrated and tries After a year of implementation, the schools to do the “Turtle” technique instead of whin-reported that the programme had a positive ing or crying to get attention. The impact ofimpact on their students. Teachers reported the SEL efforts has not only been limited tothat students had shown greater awareness of the students. Teachers also reported thattheir emotions and could manage their own the emotional literacy and self managementbehaviours better than before. tools introduced during the social and emo- tional lessons had helped them in their own Returning to CK from our earlier story, personal lives.he is one of the many who has benefitedfrom the programme. CK now no longer Overall, several factors contributed to theengages in negative attention seeking be- success of the programme in the schools.haviours, he can now work on an assigned These include:task with minimal supervision and is con-sistent in keeping to appropriate behav- 1 Strong leadership: For SEL to be success-iours. However, the success story of CK did fully taught in schools, school leaders mustnot happen overnight. It was not easy get- provide a clear vision and direction, asting CK started in managing his emotions well as support in terms of resources andand behaviours but his teacher persisted. personnel. 171
  • 152. Country Chapter #3 | Singapore2 Strong PATHS teams.28 PATHS teams pro- The Next Lap - Preparing Students for Life vided the anchor for the successful imple- and Work in the 21st Century mentation of the programme in the With the constant focus on holistic educa- schools. tion and preparing our students well for3 Passionate and enthusiastic teachers: The their future life and work, in March 2010 passion and enthusiasm of teachers who the Ministry of Education articulated a co- recognized the importance of social and herent framework for the development of emotional learning for their students. soft skills. The Framework for 21st Century These teachers believed in the programme Competencies and Student Outcomes (see and carried on despite the challenges they faced in the initial phases of the imple- supply-debate/files/nurturing-our- mentation of the programme. young.pdf) builds on values that are taught4 Creativity and flexibility: In order to cater in Civics and Moral Education, the social to the diversity of needs in Special Educa- and emotional competencies as well as tion schools, PATHS teams and teachers the emerging competencies that are nec- showed great originality in their ability to essary for living and working in the 21st adapt resources to meet the needs of their Century. The three domains of the emerg- students. Some examples are the display of ing competencies deemed necessary for life “feelings faces” in common spaces such as and work in the 21st Century globalised the school canteen, the creation of attrac- world are: tive PATHS posters as well as the incorpo- ration of PATHS strategies such as the use • Civic literacy, global awareness and cross- of stories and problem solving skills into cultural skills literacy and numeracy lessons. • Critical and inventive thinking • Information and communication skills Currently, the implementation of the pro-gramme has been expanded to five other Developing the values and competencies inSpecial Education Schools and teachers from our students will enable them to tap into the16 out of 20 schools have been trained to de- rich opportunities in the new economy whileliver the PATHS programme. With the posi- keeping a strong Singapore heartbeat, andtive feedback that has been received about helping each of them to become:the programme and with many other schoolsexpressing keen interest in implementing the • a confident person who has a strong senseprogramme, the Special Education branch of right and wrong, is adaptable and re-continues in the training and professional silient, knows him/herself, is discerning indevelopment of staff in the teaching of social judgement, thinks independently and crit-and emotional competencies through PATHS. ically, and communicates effectively. • a self-directed learner who takes respon- Looking to the future, the Special Educa- sibility for his/her own learning, whotion Branch will be putting together a SEL questions, reflects and perseveres in theFramework with the intention of extending pursuit of learning.the teaching of social and emotional skills to • an active contributor who is able to workolder students with special needs and equip- effectively in teams, exercises initiative,ping these students with the necessary skills takes calculated risks, is innovative andfor their successful transition into society and strives for excellence.the workplace. • a concerned citizen who is rooted in Sin- gapore, has a strong civic consciousness, is172
  • 153. Country Chapter #3 | Singapore informed, and takes an active role to bet- Arts, which take place within the curriculum ter the lives of others around him/her. time. Also in the curriculum time the Form Teacher Guidance Period has been put in Embedding values and social and emo- place to provide quality interaction time fortional competencies within this overarching students with their form teachers as well asFramework highlights their importance for to equip the students with social and emo-facilitating the development of the emerging tional competencies by means of explicit21st Century competencies in students. For teaching.example, having a broader perspective andappreciating diversity, which are important Conclusion - The Effects of SEL Effortsaspects of social awareness, will enable stu- Singapore’s SEL initiative represents a sys-dents to develop a sense of global aware- tem-wide effort to introduce educationalness; whereas growing empathy and consid- change aimed at strengthening the holisticeration of others’ feelings, needs and attitudes development of our students. In carrying outare essential for the building of civic literacy the initiative, particular emphasis had beenand cross-cultural skills. In addition, the so- placed on building a strong foundation oncial and emotional competency of goal-setting which to build the ensuing efforts. At theand managing time and effort are associated same time, the prototyping approach waswith inventive thinking; while competencies adopted to ensure that attention was given toin relationship management will impact on relevance to the local context, meeting thestudents’ learning of communication skills. specific needs of the students and programme effectiveness. In addition, recognising that With the re-positioning of SEL in the con- having effective teachers is the key to bring-text of the pursuit of a set of new and larger ing about all we want to achieve in our effortseducational goals, SEL has received new im- to offer holistic development to our students,petus. The teaching and learning of the 21st particular emphasis has been given to teacherCentury competencies will be a system-wide enablement. Since SEL was introduced tophenomenon and will be delivered through schools in 2004, the SEL effort has goneboth the academic curriculum as well as the through a full cycle characterised by the fournon-academic curriculum. In particular, to phases of a systematic progression, namelyachieve a more balanced curriculum, the Planning, Development, Implementation andquality of Physical Education, and Art and Review, and the results are heartening. Look-Music education will be strengthened, as ing forward, we are poised to see SEL play athese subjects are integral to a holistic edu- more extensive role in the holistic develop-cation experience for our students, enabling ment of our students, equipping them to bethem to develop physical robustness, enhance ready for the future world in which they willtheir creative and expressive capacities, and live.shape their personal, cultural and social iden-tities. Structural changes have also been madeto support this new emphasis. At the Pri-mary school levels, the Programme for ActiveLearning is one such initiative introduced toaddress the need for greater emphasis onnon-academic programmes. It consists ofmodules of activities in two broad areas:Sports and Outdoor Education, the Perform-ing Arts (Music and Dance) and the Visual174
  • 154. Country Chapter #3 | Singapore 6Notes The National Institute of Education (NIE) is the only teacher training college in Singapore. 7 Teachable moments refer to unplanned authentic1 Unemployability occurred because many school opportunities that arise during the course of learn- leavers were not deemed adequately equipped for ing. They can be seized upon by teachers to guide the jobs offered by employers. their students in modelling, applying and reflecting2 The primary and secondary schools in Singapore on values and relevant social and emotional com- generally adopt the national curriculum (which in- petencies. For example, in the event of a conflict be- cludes a primary level curriculum and a secondary tween students, teachers can help the disputants see level curriculum) as the basis for their school pro- the conflict from different perspectives and guide gramme. However, each school can customize its the students towards resolving the situation through programme to cater to the unique needs of its stu- the application of negotiation strategies. dent population. At the secondary level, some sec- 8 Teacher enablement refers to the development of ondary schools offer the alternative Integrated Pro- the relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes in our gramme which provides a seamless secondary and teachers so that they can become effective facilita- junior college level education to prepare students tors of social emotional development of their stu- who are clearly bound for university. The Inte- dents. It also includes setting up the necessary sup- grated Programme leads directly to the ‘A’ Level ex- port systems that will bolster the efforts of our aminations or other Diplomas (e.g. the Interna- teachers in this aspect. tional Baccalaureate Diploma). In addition, the 9 From Zins, J. E., Bloodworth, M. R., Weissberg, & Specialised Independent Schools offer specialized Walberg., H. J. (2004). The scientific base linking programmes for developing talents in specific areas social and emotional learning to school success. In such as sports, the Arts, Mathematics and Science. Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C., & Walberg.,3 Co-curricular activities are a range of activities or H. J. (Eds). Building Academic Success on Social and programmes which students can participate in out- Emotional Learning. NY: Teachers College Press. side the academic curriculum time, and include 10 The 5 SEL Pedagogical Principles are a series of cadet uniformed groups, various sports and games, principles we have identified from our study of rel- music and dance, clubs and societies for various in- evant literature as well as feedback from practi- terests. Students can choose which of these they tioners deemed to be able to help to effectively fa- would like to participate in based on their prefer- cilitate the development of social emotional ence. Participation is voluntary for students at the competencies in students. They include Providing primary level but is a requirement for students at for the Social Dimension (includes rapport build- secondary or higher levels. ing, peer interaction and perspective taking), Pro-4 The SEL initiative not only represents ensuring a viding for the Emotional Dimension (includes elic- supportive school culture and environment to better iting feelings, touching feelings), Relevance (i.e. deliver the existing life skills curriculum, it is also an each lesson should be appropriate to age, ability, adjustment in emphasis – a move from just going background & needs and referring to authentic sit- through the process of developing life skills in our uations whenever possible), Reflection (includes students to one that also focuses on learning out- reflecting on self and on the perspectives of others), comes. Hence, under SEL, the relevant social and and Action (through demonstration and providing emotional competencies (essentially learning out- opportunities for practice and application). comes for the various life skills) appropriate for the 11 The character development programme, adopted by different developmental levels of our students were many schools in Singapore, emphasizes values in- identified and specified in terms of a set of standards culcation and the development of relevant social and and benchmarks. These standards and benchmarks emotional competencies which will enable students will be used to guide schools in their design, imple- to be good citizens, to know right from wrong and mentation and evaluation of their SEL efforts. to act appropriately, to be resilient in the face of dif-5 The PDIR cycle is Singapore Ministry of Educa- ficulty and to demonstrate care for their fellow hu- tion’s 4-step framework to guide the design, devel- man beings. opment and implementation of educational policies, 12 A form teacher is the teacher who is mainly re- programmes and services to support schools in de- sponsible for the pastoral care for a particular class. livering quality education to every child. It is based 13 ‘Playmate’ refers to a hand-made figurine or pup- on a systems approach which involves examining pet made by the children. the links across various systems and processes to 14 The Programme for Active Learning (PAL) is a ensure effective implementation and long term sus- major initiative, introduced in 2010, to address the tainability; involving the different departments of need for greater emphasis on non-academic pro- the Ministry of Education working as one and grammes for all Primary 1 and Primary 2 pupils (7 pulling together resources and expertise; consulting to 8 year olds). It consists of modules of activities in and engaging the various stakeholders; conducting two broad areas: Sports and Outdoor Education, and an extensive environmental scan and researching Performing Arts (Music and Dance) and Visual best practice; as well as conducting prototyping / Arts, which are carried out within the curriculum piloting and addressing concerns and issues before time for at least 2 hours a week over about 30 full-scale roll-out. weeks in a year. 175
  • 155. Country Chapter #3 | Singapore15 25 The ‘Mind Your Money’ game helps students make The Student of the Month is nominated by students smart money decisions (e.g. the difference between and endorsed by form teachers for exemplifying the a need and a want) that will ensure quality of life in school values. A description of the behavior dis- the Singapore context. The game touches on finan- played is written on the certificate. 26 cial literacy concepts relevant to adolescents. It is GPA stands for ‘Grade Point Average’. It is calcu- also a cooperative game in that the winner is the lated based on the points students accumulate with group instead of an individual. the designated modules in the course they have16 See: chosen to take for the ITE Skills Certification for course. 27 more detailed explanation of Habits of Mind (HOMs). See:17 The Class Family Time provides a platform for form teachers to build relationships with their students ml for more details on the PATHS Curriculum. 28 and for students to start each day in the right way A PATHS team usually comprises a group of teach- and manage their emotions effectively. ers who come together to act as advocates for SEL18 The Lunch Interaction Time is also a platform for in the school, adapt the PATHS curriculum to suit relationship building and a time for teachers to do the unique context and needs of the students and a mid-point check with their students daily. model the teaching of PATHS lessons for colleagues.19 The Time-out Box is a designated space in the classroom and/or outside the staff room for stu- dents who displayed errant behaviour to reflect on their actions and think of ways to put things right. It has also proven to be effective in reducing the tension in that when a child on his own sits at the time –out box, it is his way of telling the class that he has had a bad start or something unpleasant has happened at home. The classmates will then give this friend his personal space.20 The Talking Desk provides the very first ‘safe place’ for students to express their thoughts and feelings. When students first join the school, they are usually alone, with few or no friends and are not confident to talk to each other. They are encouraged to put photos/pictures of people and things that make them feel happy on their desks. Teachers know a lot about the students through the talking desks.21 The SHINE Card is a system to catch students do- ing the right things and to reward them for it. Whenever students behave in ways that reflect the school values, Sincerity, Honesty, Innovation, Net- work and Excellence, teachers will write positive comments on their SHINE cards. Students could ex- change their SHINE cards for tokens to play at the Student Recreation Centres once they have accu- mulated a certain amount of positive comments. On the SHINE card there are 8 squares in total. Once 4 squares are filled, a token will be given. However, if a child were to wait till the 8th square is filled be- fore he exchange for the tokens, the teacher will give him 3 tokens. This is to teach the importance of delayed gratification.22 The Student Recreation Centres are places set up as a safe haven for students to rest and relax. The cen- tres are equipped with youth-friendly recreational facilities where students have to abide by rules on the use and care of the equipment provided.23 The Jar of Excellence is to recognize students with 100% attendance and 100% punctuality.24 The Bowl of Honesty is to recognize students who demonstrate acts that reflect the values of integrity and honesty. There are Closed-Circuit Televisions (CCTVs) in the school and the notice reads “the CCTV is to record honesty 24 hours daily”. Besides honesty, the CCTV also records good manners.176
  • 156. Country Chapter #3 | SingaporeReferencesBerk, L.E. (2004). Development Through the Lifespan. New York: Allyn & Bacon.Devaney, E., O’Brien, M. U., Resnik, H., Keis- ter, S., Weissberg, R. P. (2006). Sustain- able Schoolwide Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) – Implementation Guide and Toolkit. N.J.: Collaborative for Aca- demic, Social, and Emotional Learning.Singapore. Ministry of Education. (2010). Nur- turing our Young for the Future – Compe- tencies for the 21st Century. Retrieved from supply-debate/files/nurturing-our- young.pdfSingapore. Ministry of Education. (2008). Education in Singapore. Retrieved from oe-corporate-brochure.pdfSingapore. Ministry of Education. (2010). Primary School Education – Preparing Your Child for tomorrow. Retrieved from mary/files/primary-school-education- booklet.pdfZins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C., & Walberg., H. J. (Eds) (2004). Building Academic Success on Social and Emo- tional Learning. NY: Teachers College Press. 177
  • 157. Canada
  • 158. Social and Emotional Education in the Canadian ContextLucy Le MareAbstractThis chapter begins with a brief overview of the Canadian educational context including thehistory of the education system and the population that system serves. This is followed by ashort review of the academic and social and emotional status of Canadian students, which, toa certain extent, has informed the direction of Social and Emotional Education (SEE) in Canada.A distinction is made among three approaches to SEE, which include cognitive-behavioural,relational, and Indigenous. A variety of SEE initiatives occurring at a number of levels withinthe Canadian education system are described. Province-wide SEE initiatives on the part of theBritish Columbia and Ontario Ministries of Education are examined. Initiatives in teacher ed-ucation taking place at the University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University, bothof which prepare pre-service teachers to be competent in SEE, are described. Two classroomprograms, one designed to combat bullying and the other aimed at supporting children’s de-velopment of empathy, are reviewed. Finally, two schools that exemplify the relational and In-digenous approaches to SEE are discussed.Lucy Le Mare (PhD Developmental Psychology) is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Ed-ucation at Simon Fraser University, Canada. Emphasizing the centrality of social relationshipsand cultural-historical context, her research focuses on risk and resilience processes and schooladjustment in mainstream and diverse populations (e.g., children-in-care; inter-countryadoptees; and Indigenous children). Her teaching includes courses on the social lives of schoolchildren and social development in the school context. 181
  • 159. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaIntroduction along with others and understanding one-Since the last decade of the twentieth century, self, that do not fall within the category of ac-a new vision of what it means to be an edu- ademic achievement. It is frequently statedcated person has been taking shape in that fostering these social and emotionalCanada and internationally. A prominent competencies through the public educationUNESCO-commissioned review on education process is desirable (e.g., Hymel, Schonert-(Delors et al., 1996) defined four pillars of Reichl, & Miller, 2006; Schonert-Reichl &learning that are considered to represent the Hymel, 2007); a view that is reflected in thefull scope of a comprehensive life-long edu- official documents of the Ministries and De-cation. This framework has been adopted by partments of Education across the country. Athe Canadian Council on Learning, a Cana- number of labels, such as moral education,In Canada there is a range of valued educational outcomes,such as getting along with others and understandingoneself, that do not fall within the category of academicachievementdian non-profit organization with the mission character education, emotional intelligence,to translate educational research into effective respect, citizenship, and social responsibility,educational practice. The domains of educa- have been used to refer to these areas oftion (pillars of learning) according to the De- non-academic learning. In the present chap-lors Report (Delors et al., 1996), and adopted ter, all these areas are seen as falling underby the Canadian Council on Learning include: the umbrella of Social and Emotional Educa- tion (SEE), a mandate of Canadian schools• Learning to be: Learning that contributes to that has widespread acceptance and support. the development of a person’s body, mind and spirit. Skills in this area include per- This chapter begins with a brief overview sonal discovery and creativity; of the Canadian educational context including• Learning to know: The development of the history of the education system and the skills and knowledge needed to function in population that system serves. Next, I provide the world, including literacy, numeracy, a short review of the academic and social critical thinking and general knowledge; and emotional status of Canadian students,• Learning to do: The acquisition of applied which, to a certain extent, has informed the skills related to occupational success; and direction of SEE in Canada. Following that, I• Learning to live together: Values of respect describe a variety of SEE initiatives that are and concern for others, fostering social occurring at a number of levels within the and inter-personal skills, and an appreci- Canadian education system, including gov- ation of the diversity of Canadians. ernment, Universities, and schools. This re- view is necessarily selective. My intent has As such, in Canada there is a range of been to make selections that represent thevalued educational outcomes, such as getting spectrum of SEE initiatives in Canada.182
  • 160. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaHistorical overview of the Canadian Historically, most immigrants to CanadaEducational Context have been of European origin. For example inThe land that is now called Canada has been 1971, Europeans accounted for just overinhabited for millennia by various groups of 60% of new immigrants. Beginning in theIndigenous1 peoples and, since the 16th cen- 1980s however, people from Asia and thetury, by Europeans and others. Beginning in Middle East began to arrive in substantialthe late 15th century, British and French ex- numbers and as of the 2006 census the pro-peditions explored and later settled in the portion of immigrants from these areas sur-present day Maritime Provinces on the At- passed those from Europe. Of the million-pluslantic coast and the provinces of Quebec and newcomers who arrived in Canada in theOntario. Continued conflict occurred between period from 2001 to 2006, 58% were fromthe British and the French and in 1763 France Asia. China, India, the Philippines and Pak-Today, Canada remains the only industrialized countrywith no federal office or central department of educationand no national policy regarding educationceded nearly all of its North American colonies istan topped the list for country of the British. In 1867, the British North Amer- Notably, recent arrivals from Europe ac-ica Act established Canada as a country. The counted for only 16 percent of immigrants tocreation of Canada began an accretion of Canada, while those from Central and Southprovinces and territories and a process of in- America and the Caribbean accounted forcreasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. approximately a further 11 percent, with theToday Canada comprises ten provinces and proportion from Africa being just slightlythree territories and is the world’s second lower.largest country by total area. According to the 2006 census, the largest Canada now represents a diverse, multi- self-reported ethnic origin in Canada is Eng-cultural society. The 2006 national census lish (21%), followed by French (15.8%), Scot-counted a total population of 31,612,897. In tish (15.2%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%),the five years between the last census enu- Italian (5%), Chinese (3.9%) and Ukrainianmerations (2001-2006), over a million peo- (3.6%). Self-identified Indigenous peoplesple made their way to Canada, accounting for comprise 3.8% of the population, and repre-two-thirds of the population growth during sent a group that is growing through births atthose years (currently, approximately 20% of almost twice the national rate.the Canadian population is foreign born).These individuals came from over 200 coun- The Structure of the Educationtries and speak almost 150 different lan- System in Canadaguages. Of these newcomers, one in five is As a reflection of tensions among Canada’sunder the age of 14, which has significant early European colonizers that were basedimplications for the education system. primarily on differences in language (French 183
  • 161. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaThe partnering of provincial and municipal governmentsin raising revenues for education helps to maintain aconsistent quality of education within provinces, withwealthier communities underwriting less privilegeddistricts. Hence, both within and between provinces,disparities between public schools in access to resourcesare typically smalland English) and religion (Catholicism and In Canada, children typically begin publicProtestantism), a decentralized model for the schooling at age 4/5 when they enteradministration of education was initiated kindergarten and graduate at age 17/18(Smythe, 2003) and maintained, most re- with the completion of grade 12. Education iscently being reviewed and renewed in The compulsory up to the age of 16 in everyConstitution Act of 1982. Today, Canada re- province, except for Ontario and Newmains the only industrialized country with no Brunswick, where the compulsory age is 18.federal office or central department of edu- Canada generally has 190 school days in thecation and no national policy regarding edu- year, between early September and the endcation (Levin & Young, in Smythe, 2003). of June. Public schools are divided into ele- mentary schools (kindergarten to grade 5, 6 Education in Canada is a public responsi- or 7; ages 5 to 13), middle schools (grade 5bility under provincial jurisdiction. Each of or 6 to grade 8 or 9; ages 11 to 15), and sec-the Provinces shares a similar hierarchical ondary schools (grade 8, 9, or 10 to gradestructure in administering education, begin- 12; ages 13 to 18).ning with a Provincial Ministry or Depart-ment of Education. The ministries/depart- The major source of funding for publicments of education in most provinces have education in Canada comes from transferthe responsibility of establishing school dis- payments to the Provinces derived from fed-tricts, providing funds to school boards, de- eral tax dollars (Dibski, 1995). These federalveloping educational goals and curricula, au- tax payments make up a significant part ofthorizing textbooks, and establishing criteria the Provinces’ overall budgets and attempt tofor teacher education and certification (which prevent disparities in the quality of educationare provided by the University Faculties of from developing across the country. WithEducation and College of Teachers in each few exceptions, school boards, in partnershipprovince, respectively). Elected school boards, with local municipal governments, also fundresponsible for the implementation of Min- education through local residential and busi-istry/Department policies and procedures, ness taxes. The partnering of provincial andgovern school districts, and individual schools municipal governments in raising revenuesare responsible for the delivery of educa- for education helps to maintain a consistenttional services. quality of education within provinces, with wealthier communities underwriting less184
  • 162. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaBeginning in the latter half of the 19th century andlasting for over 100 years, Indigenous children wereforcibly educated through government-sponsored,church-run residential schools designed to assimilateIndigenous children into European-heritage culture andthe Christian faithprivileged districts. Hence, both within and digenous peoples in Canada, of which therebetween provinces, disparities between pub- are over 630.lic schools in access to resources are typicallysmall. Education of Indigenous People in Canada The history of education for Indigenous peo- The Council of Ministers of Education in ple in Canada differs substantially from thatCanada (CMEC), comprised of the provincial of European-Canadians. Beginning in the lat-Education Ministers, oversees areas of coop- ter half of the 19th century and lasting foreration between provinces and the federal over 100 years, Indigenous children weregovernment and manages the federal trans- forcibly educated through government-spon-fer payments that exist to equalize services in sored, church-run residential schools de-each province. The federal government also signed to assimilate Indigenous children intofacilitates education programs relating to European-heritage culture and the Christianbilingualism and multiculturalism, generally faith (Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peo-in relation to immigrant services, and enacts ples (RCAP), 1996; Trocme, Knoke, & Black-constitutional reforms relating to education. stock, 2004). By 1930, these institutionsThe Official Languages Act (1969), which housed approximately 75 percent of all Firstrecognizes both English and French as Nations children between the ages of 7 andCanada’s official languages, made accessibil- 15 years (Fournier & Crey, 1997) and a sig-ity to bilingual education a required option in nificant proportion of Métis and Inuit childrenall provinces except Quebec (which did not (RCAP, 1996). Children were forbidden tosign the Act and continues to offer instruction speak their own languages or maintain theiroverwhelmingly in French). To support spiritual and cultural traditions. Distances be-French Immersion programs in English tween schools and the children’s home com-speaking provinces, the federal government munities prevented contact with parents andsupplies funding for university-based French other family members. In residence, siblingslanguage teacher training programs. The fed- were separated, abuse was common, anderal government also retains control over the many children succumbed to disease. Chil-education of Indigenous peoples, although dren were traumatized and rarely encoun-that responsibility is gradually being ceded to tered healthy parental role models.the Band Councils (Ghosh, 2004), the gov- The residential school system left a tragicerning bodies of the various groups of In- legacy as concerns the education and well- 185
  • 163. Country Chapter #1 | Canadabeing of Indigenous people. The poor care Indian education” would be reflected in na-provided in residential schools resulted in tional policy (Battiste & Barman, 1995). Sincemany students reaching adulthood with di- the mid 1970s, and as a result of persistentminished capacity to care for their own chil- activism, band-run schools (schools manageddren (Bennett & Blackstock, 2002; by the governing bodies of the various groupsSmolewski & Wesley-Esquimaux, 2003), set- of Indigenous peoples in Canada) haveting up a self-perpetuating cycle of inter- emerged (Haig-Brown, 1988). Currentlygenerational trauma. Another legacy of the there are approximately 550 band-runresidential school system was a deep distrust schools located on First Nations reserves2 inin the education system among Indigenous Canada. The federal government funds thesepeople, which has been passed from one gen- schools (Mendelson, 2008), although accord-eration to the next and, to a certain extent, ing to some (e.g., Guhn, Gadermann & Zumbopersists today. 2010), not to an adequate extent. Across theThe residential school system left a tragic legacy asconcerns the education and well-being of Indigenouspeople. The poor care provided in residential schoolsresulted in many students reaching adulthood withdiminished capacity to care for their own children, settingup a self-perpetuating cycle of inter-generational trauma Residential schools began to close in the country only about 25 percent of Indigenoussecond half of the twentieth century, and in children and youth live on reserves. Of those1969 the federal government released a pol- who do, about 60 percent attend schools op-icy paper mandating the transference of re- erated by their Band, while most of the re-sponsibility of Aboriginal education from the maining 40 percent attend off-reserve publicfederal government to the provinces (Battiste schools that are under provincial authority& Barman, 1995). The release of this paper (Mendelson, 2008). The 75 percent of In-was met with strong opposition from Indige- digenous children and youth who live off re-nous groups and in 1972 the National Indian serve typically attend public schools. ManyBrotherhood (now called the Assembly of public school boards with large numbers ofFirst Nations) released the policy paper, Indian Indigenous students enrolled have formal orControl of Indian Education, which stressed informal arrangements to involve Indigenousthat all decisions regarding Indigenous edu- representatives in decision-making (Mendel-cation must be made by or in consultation son, 2008).with Indigenous people. As a consequence,the responsibility for Indigenous education How Well are Canadian Students Doing?remained with the federal government, which Academic indicesin principal conceded that, “Indian control of Canada is among the world leaders in terms186
  • 164. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaCanada is among the world leaders in terms of studentacademic performance… An analysis by Province revealedthat nine of the ten Canadian provinces performed at orabove the OECD average on the combined reading scaleof student academic performance. Results of aimed at ensuring equitable quality of educa-the 2009 Program for International Assess- tion within and between Provinces.ment (PISA), issued by the Organization forEconomic Cooperation and Development PISA data do not allow for comparisons(OECD), reveal that Canadian students con- between Indigenous and non-Indigenoustinue to rank highly in the academic areas Canadian students but there is abundant ev-measured. PISA measures quality, efficiency, idence that the academic needs of Indige-and equity of education in sixty-five countries nous children are not being well met by pub-by assessing students in reading, mathemat- lic schools in Canada. For example, in theics, and science. In 2009, Canadian students Province of British Columbia standardizedoverall performed very well in reading with assessments of reading, writing, and arith-only four countries surpassing Canada: metic, administered to all children in gradesShanghai-China, Korea, Finland and Hong 4, 7, and 10 (i.e., at ages 9, 12, and 15Kong-China. An analysis by Province re- years), reveal across ages and subjects thatvealed that nine of the ten Canadian the proportion of Indigenous children meet-provinces performed at or above the OECD ing grade level expectations is in the range ofaverage on the combined reading scale. There 50 to 60 percent, which compares to 80 towas no significant change in Canadian mean 90 percent for non-Indigenous childrenperformance in reading from 2000 to 2009. (Morin, 2004). As teens, Indigenous youthHowever, in 2000 only one country outper- are also more likely than non-Indigenousformed Canada in reading, while four coun- youth to leave school before graduation,tries outperformed Canada in 2009 (mean- which typically occurs when students are 17ing the relative performance of Canada or 18 years old. Again in British Columbia,decreased). The overall performance levels of over the years of 1997 to 2001 high schoolCanadian students in mathematics and sci- graduation rates for Indigenous youth rangedence were also well above the OECD average from 34 to 42 percent whereas for non-In-and remained unchanged from previous PISA digenous youth graduation rates were in theresults. In 2009, Canada was outperformed range of 73 to 78 percent (Morin, 2004).by only seven countries in mathematics andsix countries in science. Equity, a measure of Social and emotional indiceshow well a country can maximize its stu- In contrast to the relative strength of Cana-dents’ potential, was ranked as extremely dian children’s academic performance in in-high in Canada in 2009. The combination of ternational comparisons, indices of Canadianhigh PISA scores with high equity demon- children’s social and emotional competencestrates that there is a small gap between our and well-being are less encouraging. Al-highest and lowest performing students, though in Canada we pride ourselves on re-which may well reflect policies and practices specting diversity and building community, as 187
  • 165. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaThe high proportions of Canadian students who reportbullying or being bullied has been interpreted asrepresenting an important social problem in Canada andhas influenced the direction of SEE in this countryconcerns the prevalence of childhood bully- tistics on bullying, childhood aggression hasing we are in a dismal position on the inter- been identified as a particular concern bynational stage. The World Health Organization Canadian researchers, clinicians, policy mak-(WHO), in their 2001/2002 report on the ers, and educators. The Offord Centre forhealth of children and youth, reported that Child Studies reports that about 10 percent ofCanada ranked 26th and 27th out of 35 all Canadian children exhibit anti-social be-countries on 13 year-old students’ reports of haviours, such as anger and aggression, se-bullying and victimization, respectively (Craig rious enough to affect their ability to relate to& Harel, 2004). Moreover, Canada’s position others and to do well in school and that manyacross all age and gender categories has of these children have parents who also haveslipped over time relative to other countries. difficulties with their own anger.WHO figures reveal that despite the rates ofbullying and victimization among Canadian Another index of the social and emotionalstudents remaining relatively stable from well-being of Canadian children has been1993/1994 to 2001/2002, Canada’s rank derived from surveys using the Early Devel-relative to other countries dropped during opment Instrument (EDI; Janus & Offord,that eight-year period, suggesting that other 2007). The EDI is a Canadian checklist toolcountries have been addressing bullying for measuring children’s school readiness inproblems more effectively than Canada. For five areas including social competence andexample, many of the countries that ranked emotional maturity. Teachers complete thehigher (more positively) than Canada in checklist for each child in their classroom2001/2002, such as Norway and England, when children are in the second half of theirhave had national campaigns to address kindergarten year (age 5 or 6). Since 2000,childhood bullying. The high proportions of EDI data have been collected for over half aCanadian students who report bullying or million children across Canada. After an ini-being bullied has been interpreted as repre- tial province-wide administration of the EDI,senting an important social problem in each province determined the score repre-Canada and has influenced the direction of senting the cut-off for the lowest ten percentSEE in this country. of scores in each of the five areas assessed. In subsequent province-wide administrations Within Canada, epidemiological reports on that cut-off score was used to define the per-prevalence rates of disorders suggest that ap- centage of children considered to be “vulner-proximately one in five Canadian children able” in each domain. In the six provinces forand adolescents experiences social and emo- which EDI data are available (Ontario, Man-tional problems serious enough to warrant itoba, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick,their need for mental health services (Offord Saskatchewan, and British Columbia), ratesCentre for Child Studies; Offord, Boyle & of vulnerability in the social competence andRacine, 1991). Consistent with the WHO sta- emotional maturity domains range from 6 to188
  • 166. Country Chapter #1 | Canada13 percent and 7 to 13 percent, respectively Social and Emotional Education(Guhn, personal communication), suggest- Initiatives in Canadaing that a significant number of Canadian The cognitive-behavioural approach: Dis-children are starting school without the social course and practice in SEE in Canada can beand emotional competencies expected for seen as falling into one of two broad ap-school success. proaches. The dominant, cognitive-behav- It is important to point out that these ioural approach includes a wide array of re-EDI vulnerability rates do not include In- sources and programs addressing such thingsdigenous children. While EDI data on In- as empathy, bullying, self-esteem, violencedigenous children have been collected, they prevention and conflict resolution. While dif-are only disseminated in consultation with fering in both foci and theoretical underpin-the community from which the data came nings, what is common to these programs isor the Aboriginal Steering Committee that an emphasis on teaching children discreteprovides guidance on EDI assessments in cognitive and behavioural skills, such as be-Indigenous communities. This situation ing assertive, understanding the viewpoints ofstems from a history of educators and re- others, using appropriate language to expresssearchers characterizing Indigenous chil- feelings, and recognizing facial expressionsdren as deficient and reflects the effort on and other displays of emotion, that are be-the part of Indigenous communities to re- lieved to mitigate negative social interactionsgain control of the care of their children and support positive social interactions. Theand to restore, revitalize, and recreate fam- popularity of the cognitive-behavioural ap-ily and community supports for children’s proach stems from a number of factors in-development (Ball & Le Mare, in press; cluding how readily it can be translated intoCastellano, 2002). These efforts notwith- “scope and sequence” type curriculum mate-standing, there are several other indica- rials (scope refers to the material or skilltors suggesting that relative to non-Indige- that is to be taught, for example, empathy,nous Canadian children, Indigenous and sequence is the order in which onechildren remain at elevated risk for social teaches the necessary sub-skills or informa-and emotional problems including delin- tion, for example, names for feeling states,quency, substance abuse, (Federal Depart- recognizing facial expressions, etc.). Suchment of Justice) and suicide (Chandler & curricula typically have identifiable and mea-Lalonde, 1998), especially in communities sureable learning outcomes and can be im-in which cultural continuity has been most plemented by classroom teachers or othersdisrupted due to colonial interventions. according to a relatively standardized script. Data on the social and emotional well-be- This approach to SEE has the benefit of re-ing of Canadian children and youth provide a quiring minimal teacher preparation andcompelling rationale for SEE (see also, Hymel, readily lends itself to program evaluation,Schonert-Reichl & Miller, 2006) and, as which has become increasingly important innoted, have informed the direction of SEE in the current era of accountability within edu-Canada. In particular, concerns about bully- cation (Kohn, 2000).ing and aggression have led to an emphasison addressing these issues through SEE. Even The relational approach: A second ap-SEE initiatives aimed at promoting positive proach to SEE that has received less attentionsocial and emotional skills and dispositions in Canada is what I will refer to as the rela-are often framed as “anti-bullying” or “anti- tional approach. Rather than focusing on childviolence” programs. attributes such as their knowledge and be- haviours, within this approach the emphasisEditor’s note: Results of the EDI in Australia, known as the AEDI(Australian Early Development Index) are discussed in the chapter“From Crisis to Confidence: The Development of Social and Emo- 189tional Education in Australia” in this International Analysis.
  • 167. Country Chapter #1 | Canadais on the ability of adults (teachers) to provide the relational approach makes it much morecaring contexts and to develop genuine and complex both for teachers to practice andsupportive relationships with the students in for researchers to evaluate, which probablytheir charge. Put simply, the basic tenet of this accounts for the lesser attention it has re-approach is that the positive social, emotional, ceived relative to the cognitive-behaviouraland academic development of children and approach to SEE in Canada.adolescents depends, to a considerable de-gree, on whether the contexts in which they The distinction between cognitive-behav-develop, including schools, are reliable ioural and relational approaches to SEE issources of caring relationships (Noddings, conceptually useful but in practice these ap-1992, 2002; Rauner, 2000). This approach proaches are often blended. As will be seendoes not lend itself to standardized instruc- in the discussion of SEE initiatives in Canadational scripts or scope and sequence curricula. that follows, generally it is not a matter ofSince genuine caring is attuned to individuals whether a SEE program reflects either theand their needs, caring practices are neces- cognitive-behavioural or the relational ap-sarily emergent and variable rather than pre- proach; rather, it is more meaningful to con-determined and fixed (May, 1992; Noddings, sider the initiative’s relative emphasis.1992; Prillamen & Eaker, 1994). As statedby Noddings (1992); Indigenous perspectives: Ball and Le Mare (in press) have identified a number of key Caring requires… different behaviours principles expressed by members of Indige- from situation to situation and person to nous communities for schools to support In- person. It sometimes calls for toughness, digenous children’s development. These per- sometimes tenderness. With cool, for- spectives reveal ideals closely aligned with mal people, we respond caringly with the relational approach to SEE as discussed deference and respect; with warm, in- above but with significant emphasis on (1) formal people we respond caringly with relationships between schools and the com- hugs and overt affection. Some situa- munity, including parents, extended family tions require only a few minutes of at- members, and elders, and (2) a strong In- tentive care; others require continuous digenous identity as the foundation for chil- effort over long periods of time (p. xii). dren’s healthy social and emotional develop- ment and school success. As described by This view is shared by Rauner (2000), Ball and Le Mare, Indigenous participants inwho maintains that caring is not a mecha- their studies stressed the importance ofnism but rather a context for healthy devel- parental involvement in supporting children’sopment, one that promotes social connec- academic and social and emotional education,tions, creates possibilities for students, and but also spoke of barriers to meaningful In-leads to positive outcomes. In contrast to the digenous parental engagement in publiccognitive-behavioural approach, it has been schools. Respondents identified racism, a lackargued that programs based on principles of of respect for parents, and the tendency tocaring should be evaluated not in terms of view Indigenous children from a deficit per-particular learning outcomes but rather ac- spective as factors that negatively affectedcording to whether they have “succeeded in school-community relationships, parental in-creating caring relationships between young volvement in education, and children’s well-people and positive role models” (Rauner, being. Community members’ comments un-2000, p. 89). The non-standardized, non- derscored the need for educational policies,mechanistic, individually focused nature of programs, and practices to support children190
  • 168. Country Chapter #1 | Canadawithin the context of their families and cul- I. Contributing to the classroom and schooltures. All participants voiced the importance community, which involves students’of supporting families to recapture and sharing responsibility for their social andstrengthen Indigenous child-rearing skills, physical environment and participatingdrawing on cultural understandings of the and contributing to the class and to smallholistic nature of children’s development and groups;the embeddedness of children’s lives within II. solving problems in peaceful ways, whichtheir families, communities, mainstream in- involves managing conflict appropriately,stitutions, and society. including presenting views and argu- ments respectfully, and considering oth-Social and Emotional Education at the ers’ views and using effective problem-Level of Government solving steps and strategies;The mandate for SEE is evident in the mis- III. valuing diversity and defending humansion and vision statements of the Ministries rights, which involves treating othersand Departments of Education across fairly and respectfully, showing a sense ofCanada (see Table 1). Nearly all make ref- ethics and recognizing and defending hu-erence to supporting students in becoming man rights; andcontributing members of a cohesive, just, IV. exercising democratic rights and respon-and democratic society, developing a sense sibilities, which involves knowing andof personal fulfillment, well-being and self- acting on rights and responsibilities (lo-reliance and making positive choices. Al- cal, national, global) and articulating andthough these are among the stated goals of working toward a preferred future foreducation across the country, only the the community, nation, and planet—aprovinces of British Columbia and Ontario sense of idealism.have fully developed SEE initiatives. The BC performance standards for socialBritish Columbia’s Social responsibility have been tailored for specificResponsibility Framework age groups to accommodate the wide range ofOne prominent example that illustrates behaviours and competencies associated withboth a cognitive-behavioral emphasis in social responsibility at different ages. There areSEE and how SEE has been explicitly inte- four clusters: Grades Kindergarten to 3 (agesgrated into the mandate of the public school 5 to 8 years), Grades 4 to 5 (ages 9 to 11system in Canada is the Social Responsibil- years), Grades 6 to 8 (ages 12 to 14 years),ity Framework in the province of British and Grades 8 to 10 (ages 14 to 16 years).Columbia. In British Columbia (BC), the Within the framework, teachers can assessMinistry of Education has included ‘social students’ social responsibility performance asresponsibility’ as one of the four main stan- falling within one of four levels that include:dards, alongside reading, writing, and nu-meracy, on which student development is 1. NOT YET WITHIN EXPECTATIONSassessed. According to the Ministry docu- • there is little evidence of progress towardments, their definition of social responsi- expected knowledge, skills, and attitudesbility reflects broadly accepted Canadian • the situation needs interventionsocietal values that in their enactment mayvary from one cultural context to another. 2. MEETS EXPECTATIONSWithin this framework, social responsibil- (MINIMAL LEVEL)ity is made up of four components: • there is evidence of progress toward ex- pected knowledge, skills, and attitudes 191
  • 169. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaTable 1. Visions for Education across the Canadian Provinces and TerritoriesBritish Columbia“The purpose of the British Columbia School System is to enable all learners to develop their individualpotential and to acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to contribute to a healthy, democraticand pluralistic society and a prosperous and sustainable economy.”In keeping with the stated mission for the school system, the Ministry of Education has identified threegoals of education: Intellectual development, Human and social development, and Career developmentAlberta“Vision: Education inspires and enables students to achieve success and fulfillment as citizens in achanging world.Mission: Every student has access to educational opportunities needed to develop competencies re-quired to contribute to an enriched society and a sustainable economy.”Saskatchewan“The Ministry of Education provides strategic, innovative, and collaborative leadership to the early learn-ing and child care, Prekindergarten through Grade 12 education, literacy, and library sectors. It pro-motes higher student achievement and well-being for Saskatchewan children and youth, and improvedliteracy skills for all, as a foundation of the province’s social and economic growth.”Manitoba“Manitoba Education Citizenship and Youth’s (MECY) vision is that Manitoba’s children and youth willhave access to relevant, engaging, high quality and responsive education that meets the needs of everylearner now and in the future.The primary responsibilities of MECY are to facilitate the improvement of learning at the K - 12 lev-els, to enhance citizenship development, and to address transition issues for youth.”Ontario“Vision: Ontario students will receive the best publicly funded education in the world, measured byhigh levels of achievement and engagement for all students. Successful learning outcomes will give allstudents the skills, knowledge and opportunities to attain their potential, to pursue lifelong learning,and to contribute to a prosperous, cohesive society.”Quebec“The Ministere de l’Education is the government authority responsible for seeing that Quebec’s citizensreceive the educational services they need in order to develop as individuals and become active, con-tributing members of society.”Nova Scotia“The mission of the Department of Education is to provide excellence in education and training for per-sonal fulfillment and for a productive, prosperous society.”192
  • 170. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaNew Brunswick“To have each student develop the attributes needed to be a lifelong learner, to achieve personal fulfill-ment and to contribute to a productive, just and democratic society.”Newfoundland and Labrador“The vision of the Department of Education is citizens with the values, knowledge and skills necessaryto be productive and contributing members of society.”Prince Edward Island“Public education in P.E.I. is based on a quality program that respects the intrinsic value of the individ-ual and centres on the development of each child. The development of the child implies providing eachstudent with the basic education required to participate in and contribute to society. It also meanspreparing students with the knowledge and intellectual training needed to enter the work force or topursue post-secondary studies.”Yukon Territory“The Department of Education’s mandate is to deliver accessible and quality education to all Yukonlearners including children and adults.To achieve this mandate the Department:Works with learners in meaningful partnerships with all other users of the public education system topromote and support lifelong learning, and to ensure that Yukon has an inclusive and adaptive labourmarket; andWorks in cooperation with parents and other partners to develop the intellectual, physical, social, emo-tional, cultural and aesthetic potential of learners, to the extent of their abilities, so they may becomeproductive, responsive and self-reliant members of society while leading personally rewarding lives ina changing world.”Northwest Territories“To invest in and provide for the development of the people of the Northwest Territories, enabling themto reach their full potential, to lead fulfilled lives and to contribute to a strong and prosperous society.”Nunavut“Mission: The Department of Education works collaboratively to build a seamless learningenvironment that is accessible to learners of all ages, inspires excellence among learners andeducators, and promotes personal and community well-being.Vision: The people of Nunavut value education and are inspired to be actively involved in life-longlearning so they may make positive life choices and contribute to the future of Nunavut.” 193
  • 171. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaKindergarten to Grade 3 Social Responsibility FrameworkAspect Not yet within expectations Meets expectations minimallyContributing to Often unfriendly or disrespectful of others. Usually friendly and if asked will help or include others.the classroom and Generally reluctant to participate in and May need prompting to participate in classroom andschool community contribute to classroom and group activities. group activities.Solving problems In conflict situations often expresses anger In conflict situations tries to state feelings and managein peaceful ways inappropriately; blames or puts down others. anger appropriately but quickly becomes frustrated; Has difficulty recognizing problems; may tends to overestimate or underestimate the need for adult help. suggest inappropriate strategies. Can identify simple problems; with help, generates strategies.Valuing diversity and Sometimes disrespectful; tends to focus Usually respectful; may not notice when others are treated unfairlydefending human rights on own needs and wants..Exercising democratic Can often repeat class or school rules, With support shows an emerging sense of responsibility for therights and but is unable to think of ways to improve classroom and may be able to describe simple ways to improveresponsibilities school, community or world. school, community or world.• the student needs support in some areas opment in this domain. As such, although the framework makes clear that the social3. FULLY MEETS EXPECTATIONS and emotional development of children is• there is clear evidence of expected knowl- central to the mandate of education and that edge, skills, and attitudes SEE is valued and, indeed, required in the province of British Columbia, it offers mini-4. EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS mal guidance for teachers on how to achieve• there is evidence of independent, voluntary this. Teachers may be exposed to SEE peda- application and extension of expected gogy and curriculum materials in their own knowledge, skills, and attitudes pre-service training (see section below on Canadian University Initiatives), through in- The Ministry documents emphasize that service professional development activitiesany decision about an individual student’s provided by their School Districts, or by seek-level of social responsibility should be based ing out resources from outside organizations.on an accumulation of observations and sam- However, there is no mechanism or structureples over time. Examples of the kinds of be- in place to ensure that all teachers are ex-haviours representing each of the four com- posed to and competent in SEE.ponents of social responsibility at each of thefour performance levels for Kindergarten to Ontario’s Character Development InitiativeGrade 3 are found below. Following the lead of British Columbia, in 2006 the Ontario Ministry of Education in- Although the intent of the BC Social Re- troduced a province-wide character develop-sponsibility Framework is laudable, this ini- ment initiative called Finding Common Ground,tiative is not without critique. Framing social a summary of which can be found in Table 2.responsibility in terms of performance stan-dards stresses product or outcome over School boards in Ontario began the im-process and accordingly appears to de-em- plementation of this Initiative during thephasize the role of the teacher/school in pro- 2007–2008 school year. The following Min-viding a context to support children’s devel- istry statement conveys its intent:194
  • 172. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaFully meets expectations Exceeds expectationsUsually welcoming, friendly, kind and helpful. Welcoming, friendly, kind and helpful.Participates in and contributes to classroom Participates in and contributes to classroom and group activities;and group activities. often takes on extra responsibilities.In conflict situations, tries to express feelings honestly, In conflict situations, usually manages anger and expresses feelingsmanage anger appropriately, and listen politely; most appropriately; often tries to solve problems independently, butoften relies on adult intervention without knows when to get adult help.considering alternatives. Clarifies problems, generates appropriate strategies, andCan clarify problems and generate and evaluate strategies. predicts outcomes.Increasingly interested in fairness; treats others fairly Fair, respectful; may ‘stick up’ for others when perceiving injustice.and respectfullyShows emerging sense of responsibility generally Shows a clear sense of responsibility in the classroom and emergingfollowing classroom rules; able to identify simple sense of idealism – wants to make the world a better place.ways to improve school, community or world. This is the time for us to reaffirm our conflict resolution, respect for diversity and commitment to the potential of our pub- human rights, inclusion, and the ideal of licly-funded school system to deliver on democratic citizenship. However, the Ontario its promise to educate all students suc- initiative does not contain the same degree of cessfully. But it must be recognized that emphasis on behavioural standards and eval- a quality education includes the educa- uation as is found in the British Columbia So- tion of the heart as well as the mind. It cial Responsibility Framework. There is less includes a focus on the whole person. It stress on discrete indicators of character and means preparing students to be citizens more emphasis on creating conditions in who have empathy and respect for oth- which character development can flourish. As ers within our increasingly diverse com- such, Finding Common Ground contains a munities. It also means providing op- more explicit endorsement of the relational portunities for students to understand approach to SEE, as can be seen in the roles deeply the importance of civic engage- and responsibilities it ascribes to teachers, ment and what it means to be produc- which include the following: tive citizens in an interdependent world. ( • Model the character attributes agreed upon ument/reports/literacy/book- in the broad-based community consulta- let2008.pdf) tion process in their workplace practices and interactions The documentation provided by the • Continue to engage students in the creationOntario Ministry on Finding Common Ground of a classroom learning environment that isdescribes a broad reaching inclusive ap- collaborative, caring and characterized byproach to supporting the social and emo- high expectations for learning and equity oftional development of students that shares outcomesome similarities with the Social Responsibil- • Provide the knowledge, skills and leader-ity Framework in British Columbia but differs ship development required for students tofrom it in a number of ways. Both initiatives take on their expanded roles effectivelyemphasize similar values such as peaceful • Assist in creating a school culture that values 195
  • 173. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaTable 2. Vision for character development found in Finding Common GroundCharacter Development in Ontario schools...✔ is about all members of the community sharing the ✘ is not about schools taking over the responsibility ofresponsibility for supporting students and families in parents and familiesthe development of character✔ is about critical and analytical thinking, questioning, ✘ is not about complianceanticipating problems and contributing to solutions✔ is about self-management, self-discipline and the ✘ is not about behaviour based on a fear of punishmentdevelopment of interpersonal competencies✔ is about self-awareness, reflection and ✘ is not about behaviours motivated by extrinsic rewardsunderstanding – doing what’s right because it’s the and recognitionright thing to do✔ is about the development of standards of behaviour ✘ does not seek to indoctrinateagainst which we hold ourselves accountable✔ must include the active involvement and ✘ cannot be done to studentsengagement of students✔ is a process that develops character in a deliberate ✘ is not found in a textbook, binder or manualand intentional manner through interactions withothers and engagement in the wider community✔ is embedded in all aspects of school life – in its ✘ is not a new curriculum or an add-onpolicies, programs, practices, procedures, processesand interactions✔ is about inclusiveness, equity and respect for diversity ✘ is not about the “few” or the exclusion of some✔ is about ensuring that there are opportunities toengage students in general, and disengaged andmarginalized students in particular, in the initiative✔ is about all students and all schools✔ is about the universal attributes upon which diverse ✘ is not a form of religious educationcommunities find common ground and is a componentof many faith traditions✔ complements religious and family life education inCatholic schools✔ is about a process of engagement in which ✘ is not about a government imposing a set ofcommunities come together to build consensus on moral standardsthe values they hold in common caring relationships between teachers and • Embed character development in their sub- students, fosters a sense of belonging, nur- ject areas and in all classrooms, extracur- tures democratic principles and encourages ricular and school-wide programs. student voice in decision making• Use the attributes identified in Ontario Cur- The Ontario Ministry of Education out- riculum and other Ministry documents and lines ways in which it supports schools in im- by local communities in the development of plementing this initiative and teachers in en- classroom behavioural expectations in col- acting their stated responsibilities. For laboration with students example, Character Development Resource196
  • 174. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaThroughout all of their coursework, teacher candidateslearn about current research and theory on SEL and areprovided with opportunities to learn how to integrate SELprograms and practices across a variety of curricularareas. Practicum placements provide opportunities forteacher candidates to integrate SEL programs andpractices into the classroom and curriculum.Teams comprised of individuals experienced The Teacher Education programs at bothin the implementation and extension of char- universities group their teacher candidatesacter development programs have been es- into learning groups called “cohorts” at UBCtablished across the province to support all and “modules” at Simon Fraser UniversityEnglish and French, Catholic and public school (SFU). Cohort or module members partici-boards. The document entitled Finding Com- pate together in courses and in practicummon Ground: Character Development in On- placements in partner schools in giventario Schools, K–12, is located on the Ministry school districts. In each elementary cohortof Education website at or module, teacher candidates are profes-Character development information is posted sionally prepared to teach all subjects in theregularly on this site along with updates on the elementary school curriculum, from Kinder-work and structure of the Character Devel- garten to Grade 7 (ages 5 to 13). At eachopment Resource Teams. Links to character university some cohorts/modules aredevelopment electronic resources and event planned according to specific themes, whilehighlights are also provided. others are generalist. Nevertheless, to engender a shared under- Among the various cohort options avail-standing and valuing of SEE in teachers across able at the University of British Columbiathe country it is desirable that SEE be central to (UBC) is the “Social–Emotional Learningthe curriculum in teacher education programs. (SEL)” cohort. Within this program, teacher candidates take the regular Teacher Educa-University Initiatives in Teacher Education: tion program with a special emphasis on “So-Consistent with widely held societal values, cial–Emotional Learning (SEL)”. Active learn-teacher education programs within Canadian ing approaches to and teaching practices forUniversities, at least in principle, prepare creating safe, caring, and participatory class-teachers to educate “the whole child” (al- room and school environments are empha-though a relative emphasis on supporting sized as foundational for the promotion ofchildren’s academic competence remains). SEL. Throughout all of their coursework,Briefly described here are SEE initiatives in teacher candidates learn about current re-the teacher education programs at two of the search and theory on SEL and are providedmajor universities in British Columbia, the with opportunities to learn how to integrateUniversity of British Columbia (UBC) and SEL programs and practices across a varietySimon Fraser University (SFU). of curricular areas. Practicum placements198
  • 175. Country Chapter #1 | Canadaprovide opportunities for teacher candidates and Mind”. While student teachers are intro-to integrate SEL programs and practices into duced to cognitive-behavioural SEE programsthe classroom and curriculum. in these modules, the primary orientation of the modules stems from care theory and a re- At the graduate level, UBC offers a unique lational approach. Moreover, while SEE is apracticum course in SEL for Masters and specific focus of only some modules, the en-doctoral level students, many of whom are tire teacher education program at SFUexperienced teachers pursuing advanced ed- (known as the Professional Developmentucation. According to the course syllabus, “ Program or PDP) is premised on its impor-students learn about the nature of social- tance. This can be clearly seen in the Pro-emotional development in education, men- gram’s 12 goals for student teachers, whichtal health, and risk prevention; receive are printed below with references relevant totraining in some of the latest techniques for SEE highlighted.enhancing social-emotional growth fromtrainers in the field as well as faculty mem- 12 Goals of the Professional Developmentbers; understand the importance of evi- Program (Teacher Education) at SFUdence-based practice and gain knowledge 1. The development of a clear, coherent andand experience in evaluating the effective- justified view of education that enablesness of SEL programs; and work directly one to: understand the place of educa-with children and youth in existing pro- tion in an open, pluralistic and caringgrams in community, classroom, and school society; determine the content, methodscontexts as part of their field placement un- and institutional arrangements that areder the supervision of faculty and our relevant, worthwhile and appropriate forpracticum facilitator/school liaison” the education of children; have a personal vision of what one can achieve as an ed- The SEL programs in which students re- ucator; understand how schooling andceive training in this practicum course in- other institutions influence students. clude Second Step, SafeTeen, Focus on Bully- 2. The development of a clear commitmenting, Leave Out Violence, MindUp and Roots of to: respect students as persons withEmpathy. They also learn about the work of varied interests, backgrounds, pointsattachment and care theorists (e.g., Noddings, of view, plans, goals and aspirations;2005) for creating caring classroom and care about students and their individualschool environments. Hence, as in the UBC development, uphold standards of ex-teacher education program, students are ex- cellence inherent in various forms of in-posed to established programs with prede- quiry; uphold the principles that oughttermined curricula, evidence-based practice, to govern a civilized, democratic andand program evaluation, all of which are con- pluralistic community; establish andsistent with the cognitive-behavioural ap- maintain ethical working relationshipsproach to SEE, as well as to ideals and prac- with all members of the educationaltices aligned with the relational approach. community.  Among the various module options cur- 3. The development of clear commitment torently available to student teachers at Simon lifelong learning manifest in: openness toFraser University (SFU) is the “LifeWork” alternatives and possibilities; reflectivemodule that has a specific focus on Social Jus- practice; engagement in dialogue and col-tice, Social Responsibility and Social and laboration with colleagues, students, par-Emotional Education. A previously available ents and others in the educational com-module with a similar focus was called “Heart munity; ability to form and reform ideas, 199
  • 176. Country Chapter #1 | Canada methods, techniques; setting an example sound working relationships among to students; stimulating students to be students.  continuous learners.  11. The development of ability to observe,4. The development of ability to create op- understand and respond respectfully to portunities for learning that are: engag- students with different learning styles ing and imaginative; significant and rel- and learning difficulties. evant to pupils’ educational development; 12. The development of appreciation for and intellectually challenging; sensitive to is- ability to be flexible about curriculum — sues of social equity and cultural diver- recreating, re-inventing, re-constituting, sity; appropriate to building habits of and discarding practices that have been sound thinking; responsive to students’ observed, upon reflection, to be inappro- individual learning needs; reflective of priate to individual and group learning growing understanding of what goes on needs. in the classroom; consonant with learn- ing goals.  With these goals in mind, the development5. The development of ability to put educa- of a caring community is an aim of all PDP tionally sound curriculum ideas into modules regardless of how the module is practice in well-organized ways.  named and its explicit emphasis. Student6. The development of knowledge about: teachers in all modules are exposed to care teaching subjects; how individuals and theory and faculty members who work with groups of students learn; evaluation prac- student teachers in the PDP enact this ap- tices.  proach in their own practice. In the words of7. The development of ability to be a one SFU Education professor, “we try to live thoughtful and sensitive observer of out certain values/principles that we es- what goes on in the classroom.  pouse....and this informal curriculum is also a8. The development of ability to use evalu- powerful teacher”. ation and assessment practices that: use evaluative data as a means of furthering Another teacher educator at SFU stated, student learning; appreciate the subjec- tivity of evaluation; make use of varied “(SEE) is an area that (my teaching part- practices that are congruent with learn- ner) and I are both passionate about. ing goals; respect the dignity of each From my perspective, ever so briefly learner; show understanding of the here, we are talking about a way of be- moral implications of evaluation and ing in the classroom. This starts with assessment practices; promote self as- helping student teachers to learn about sessment.  who they are, and think about how to9. The development of ability to use class- bring this forward in a classroom in a room interactions that: show caring way that fosters and promotes the same and respect for every student; encour- with their students. It’s also about mod- age learners to clarify and examine their eling and explicitly teaching every day ideas; are authentic, unpretentious and on campus. So, if we want student teach- honest; communicate openness, a tol- ers to community build in classrooms, erance for uncertainty, and appreciation we have to explicitly do this with them. of the spirit of inquiry.  If we want student teachers to address10. The development of appreciation for Social Emotional needs, then we have to and skill in organizing harmonious give them opportunities to delve further working groups, and interpersonally into their understanding of themselves”.200
  • 177. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaThe inclusion of SEE in the teacher education curriculumat universities in Canada is a crucial component toensuring that Ministry visions such as those found in theBritish Columbia Social Responsibility Framework and theOntario Finding Common Ground character developmentinitiative are successfully enacted in schools The inclusion of SEE in the teacher educa- lence (LOVE; see,tion curriculum at universities in Canada is a and Real Restitution, a program focused oncrucial component to ensuring that Ministry supporting students’ development of self-dis-visions such as those found in the British cipline and positive self and other orienta-Columbia Social Responsibility Framework tions (see All theseand the Ontario Finding Common Ground SEE programs and many others are regularlycharacter development initiative are success- put into practice in schools across Canada.fully enacted in schools. Currently, across the Here I have chosen to highlight two SEEcountry a wide variety of SEE programs are programs. The first is an initiative of thebeing offered in schools. In some instances British Columbia Ministry of Education calledthese offerings are part of a cohesive Focus on Bullying: A Prevention Program for El-Province-, school district-, or school-wide ementary School Communities and the secondSEE plan; in other instances they are initiated is a private sector initiative called Roots ofby an individual teacher and may comprise a Empathy. Focus on Bullying, to the best of mystand-alone curriculum or a more integrated knowledge, has not been formally evaluated. Itrelational approach. is included here as an example of a program provided by the BC Ministry of Education (seeSEE Programs in Schools is a plethora of SEE programs available sources.htm for other Ministry resources rel-to schools in Canada, many of which origi- evant to SEE) and as such, is universally avail-nated in the United States. Examples of able to (but not required in) elementaryAmerican programs can be found at the Col- schools in British Columbia and can be seen aslaborative for Academic, Social, and Emo- part of the province-wide Social Responsibil-tional Learning (CASEL) website ity initiative. Roots of Empathy is an award-( winning program, developed in Canada, whichp) and include character education curricula has been widely implemented in schoolssuch as Lion’s Quest, violence prevention pro- across the country, and has an evidence basegrams such as PATHS and Second Step, and with several well-designed evaluation studiescommunity building programs such as demonstrating its effectiveness.TRIBES. Examples of SEE programs devel-oped in Canada include: SAFETEEN, a violence Focus on Bullying.prevention program focused on empowering Focus on Bullying: A Prevention Program forteens (see, Leave Out Vio- Elementary School Communities is based on 201
  • 178. Country Chapter #1 | Canadaa project, originally undertaken by BC School training materials through “action research”District No. 39 (Vancouver), to develop a in nine school sites, conducted a variety of fo-comprehensive strategy to engage elementary cus-testing activities, and delivered manyschool communities in addressing bullying workshops throughout Vancouver’s large ur-behaviour. A group of Vancouver School Dis- ban community. When the British Columbiatrict staff began by examining current re- government’s Safe Schools Initiative was in-search on bullying with the intent of devel- troduced in 1997, the program was adaptedoping a series of lesson plans to complement for broader application to elementary schoolsSecond Step: A Violence Prevention Program, across the province.a cognitive-behavioural SEE program thatwas being widely used in the school district at The BC Ministry of Education offers thethe time. As these teachers became familiar following rationale for creating a province-with the research on bullying it became ap- wide bullying prevention program.parent to them that classroom lessons alonewould not be sufficient to address the issue. Incidents of bullying are frequent oc-Specifically, Canadian research on bullying currences for many children at school(e.g., Craig & Pepler, 2007; Craig, Pepler, & and in the community. Children struggleBlais, 2007) has led to an awareness of bul- with name-calling, with being pickedlying as a problem that resides not only in in- upon, and with exclusion from their peerdividuals (i.e., the bully or the victim) but group. Frequently, children who are bul-also in the broader social milieu that supports lied do not know how to respond to thisand perpetuates bullying through such things aggressive behaviour. Bullied childrenas the active and passive encouragement of fear coming to school, and they believeBullying [is] a problem that resides not only in individuals(i.e., the bully or the victim) but also in the broader socialmilieu that supports and perpetuates bullyingpeers, adults’ attitudes reflecting the belief school to be an unsafe and distressingthat it is a “normal” part of childhood, adults’ place. Bullying in schools is a seriousresponses to bullying that are punitive and problem for a critical minority of chil-model power imbalances, and societal views dren. It has a detrimental impact on theand practices that marginalize certain groups overall school climate and, particularly,(e.g., those that are not heterosexual; see on the right of students to learn in a safeWalton, 2004). A comprehensive approach, which all members of the school commu-nity contributed to the development of a Focus on Bullying is intended to promoteschool-wide bullying-prevention plan, was an approach in which all members of thestrongly indicated and this became the “focus” school community contribute to the develop-of Focus on Bullying. During the develop- ment of a school-wide bullying preventionmental years of the program, practitioners plan. It is primarily addressed to educatorshoned intervention strategies, resources, and who want to expand their efforts to create202
  • 179. Country Chapter #1 | Canadaconditions through which children respect want to make sure that there is no more bul-and support one another. The resource doc- lying at our school. All of us can help. You canument contains material for teachers, school help! Let’s talk about ways we can each helpadministrators, and support staff including to stop bullying behaviour.information about the nature of bullying andthe common myths and stereotypes associ- I’m going to read you a story about some-ated with it, recommendations for the col- one who was bullied. As you listen to thelaboration of parents, teachers, students, and story, imagine that you are in the story andcommunity members working together to you are watching what happens. I will stopdevelop a plan for bullying-free school com- and ask what you could do to stop the bully-munities, practical ideas and strategies for ing that happens in the story.responding to students who bully and havebeen bullied, and a series of skill-building les- • Read the literature selection aloud to theson plans designed to actively engage students students. Each time there is a situation inin discussions about bullying and in devising which bullying happens, stop and asksolutions to stop bullying when it occurs in el- students to think of things they could doementary schools. To provide the reader with or say to stop the bullying.a better a sense of the program, below I de-scribe one sample lesson aimed at kinder- If you were in this story with (name ofgarten children with the goal of teaching character) what are some things you could dothem how to stop bullying behaviour at to help stop the bullying behaviour in thisschool. For more information, the reader can story?access the complete resource at What could you say? What would you do? • Ask several students for examples, and to role play as though they were in theKindergarten lesson: Students Can Help story.Stop Bullying BehaviourAccording to the Focus on Bullying resource Now think about the adults in the story.document, the purpose of this lesson is to en- What could they do to stop the bullying orcourage in children a sense of shared re- teasing?sponsibility for making sure that no one atschool is bullied. Teachers are instructed to • Seek to see that students understand thechoose and preview ahead of time an age school rules and consequences.appropriate children’s story with a bullying • At a suitable point in the story, or at thetheme. Several suggestions are provided for end, stop and reflect with the students onteachers to consider including Chrysanthe- ways of supporting the child who wasmum by Kevin Henkes, Just a Daydream by bullied in the story. Ask these questions:Mercer Mayer, and King of the Playground byPhyllis Reynolds Naylor. How do you think the child who was bullied is feeling? The following Lesson Script for teachers isprovided: If you had been in the story, what are some things that you could do to help that child to Everyone wants our school to be a safe feel better? Show me or act out what youand happy place where students can learn, could do to help.have fun and do their best. That’s why we 203
  • 180. Country Chapter #1 | Canada What would you say to the child who was classroom teacher, delivers all aspects of thebullied if you were a teacher or the supervi- lessons that take place in 27 sessions over thesion aide? What would be some good ideas for school year. The ROE Instructor works closelythe grown-ups to say or do to help someone with a participating volunteer family – a par-who has been bullied? ent and an infant who are the cornerstone of the program. This infant and parent join the• Seek examples of caring adult behaviour ROE Instructor in the classroom for nine of and adults enforcing the rules. the 27 visits (about every three weeks) for about 30 minutes each time. The recommended assessment strategy toaccompany this lesson is to ask students to There are three elements to the Roots ofmake up their own story about someone who Empathy program: a one-time pre-programis bullied and what happened to help stop the visit by the ROE Instructor to the home of thebullying behaviour. Teachers are instructed to participating parent and infant, monthlylook for evidence in the stories that students classroom family visits from the parent andcan identify appropriate strategies for dealing infant (accompanied by the ROE Instructor),with bullying. and additional bimonthly classroom visits by the ROE Instructor.Roots of EmpathyThe Roots of Empathy (ROE) program was The pre-program home visitdesigned and developed in Canada as a pri- In early September at the beginning of themary prevention social and emotional pro- school year, the Roots of Empathy instructorgram intended to promote children’s emo- identifies a local parent with an infant be-tional and social understanding. According to tween the ages of 2 and 4 months. The ideathe program website (http://www.root- behind having such a young infant is to ROE was first offered in students the enormous milestones achieved1996 as a pilot program in the Toronto Board in the first year of life. A key feature of theof Education (Ontario). In 2000, ROE ex- ROE program is to celebrate the diversity ofpanded beyond Ontario and by the 2005-06 the community. Parent-infant dyads comeschool year, was running in nine provinces. In from all cultures and socioeconomic levels.the 2009-10 school year over 46,575 Cana- The effort to include a diverse range of parentsdian children participated across the country. is based on the desire to teach children thatThe program is offered in English, French and loving parent-infant relationships transcendFrench Immersion classrooms. ROE has also language and financial barriers. Father-infantbeen delivered to more than 3,000 Indigenous teams are also sought to show how fathers canchildren across Canada, including 80 pro- be nurturing parents. About one-third of vis-grams in on-reserve communities. The pro- iting parents are fathers. The Roots of Empa-gram is aimed at elementary school children thy instructor meets with the parent and infantfrom Kindergarten to Grade 8, and uses a in their home and prepares the parent for thespecialized curriculum designed for children at classroom visits by ensuring that the parent4 levels – Kindergarten (age 5), Grades 1-3 understands the developmental information(ages 6 to 8), Grades 4-6 (ages 9 to 12), and that will be taught. The instructor takes pic-Grades 7-8 (ages 13 and 14). tures of the baby in his or her home to use as an introduction to the students before the first Although ROE is delivered in school class- visit to the classroom in late September. Therooms during regular school hours, a trained parent and instructor also discuss the baby’sand certified ROE Instructor, rather than the most recent developments.204
  • 181. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaThe primary goal of all the [Roots of Empathy] program’sactivities is to enhance children’s empathy; that is,children’s understanding of their own feelings and thefeelings of others. Theoretically, the presence of empathyis believed to reduce the likelihood of engaging in waysthat are negative or hurtful to others and to promote pro-social behaviour and responsible citizenship, a positionthat is supported by research...Monthly classroom family visits The lesson plans for these class visits em-The monthly family visits to the classroom phasize the shared observations that tookare scripted in the sense that a lesson plan is place during the family visit. During theseprepared to match the age of the baby and classes, the substantive work of teaching em-the age of the students. For example, if the pathy takes place. The ROE instructor revis-baby is 9 months old, milestones typical of its the interactions of the family visit andthat stage are taught. Students learn about draws comments from students. If the babythe unique temperament of ‘their’ baby in cried during the visit, for example, the In-addition to the development and behaviour structor might ask the students to try to re-expected for the age. Even though there is a member why the baby cried and how thelesson plan with specific teaching topics for parent comforted the child. This shared ex-each month, the spontaneous nature of the perience is then made relevant to the stu-baby’s interactions largely direct the visit. dents’ own lives. The Roots of Empathy in-The parent and ROE instructor guide the stu- structor is attentive to all students’ comments.dents’ observations of what the baby is do- She validates their opinions and attempts toing and explore what the baby is feeling and foster a safe environment for sharing feel-why. This enables the ROE instructor to dis- ings. Learning to talk about emotions is a fo-cuss the baby’s temperament with the parent cus of every class visit. Drama, visual arts, po-in front of the students as they observe how etry, journal writing, music, research,the parent responds to the baby’s cues. The problem-solving and mathematics are used toROE instructor also guides the children’s ob- link the messages of the Roots of Empathyservations about the baby’s drive to explore class to the curriculum. Examples of studentor to practice a new skill he or she is per- activities include creating presents for theirfecting, such as rolling over or pulling to babies, making class books for which eachstand up. Each stage of development is dis- student contributes a page, and making story-cussed along with the new safety concerns books that include photos of the children andthat accompany it. the infant and text composed by the students.Bimonthly classroom visits The primary goal of all the program’s ac-The ROE instructor visits the class twice a tivities is to enhance children’s empathy; thatmonth without the infant and parent present. is, children’s understanding of their own feel- 205
  • 182. Country Chapter #1 | Canadaings and the feelings of others. Theoretically, the ROE program (Schonert-Reichl & Scott,the presence of empathy is believed to reduce 2009). Four of these studies, summarized inthe likelihood of engaging in ways that are Table 2, were conducted in British Columbianegative or hurtful to others and to promote by Dr. Kimberly Schonert-Reichl and her col-pro-social behaviour and responsible citi- league Dr. Clyde Hertzman, in collaborationzenship, a position that is supported by re- with others at the University of British Co-search (e.g., Caravita, Di Blasio, & Salmivalli, lumbia.2009; Gini, Albiero, Benelli, & Altoè, 2007;Miller & Eisenberg, 1988). The following an- In each study, a battery of measures as-ecdote, provided by Mary Gordon, the devel- sessing children’s social and emotional com-oper of Roots of Empathy, demonstrates this petence (e.g., self-reports of perspective-tak-relationship. ing, teacher and peer reports of pro-social and aggressive behaviours) was administered “There was a boy in Grade 8 at one of before and after students had participated in our most impoverished inner-city the ROE program. With the exception of the schools. He really didn’t have many so- randomized controlled trial, in all studies cial skills, was very gruff in his presen- comparison classrooms were chosen to tation, and had rather poor language match the ROE program classrooms as closely skills. He was labelled as ‘a difficult as possible with respect to grade, gender, and child.’ After the third baby visit that year, race/ethnicity composition. In the random- just as the mother and infant were leav- ized controlled trial, which is considered to be ing, he approached them and said, ‘I’ve the “gold standard” in evaluation design, ran- brought this teddy bear for the baby.’ domization took place at the building level, This is a child of a single mother living on meaning that no intervention or program government support in subsidized hous- classrooms were in the same school. The ing. The boy had saved all of the change neighborhoods in which the schools were lo- that he was given and gone out and pur- cated were considered to be comparable. chased a toy for the baby. Well, the mother cried on the spot. This Schonert-Reichl and Scott (2009) high- child previously hadn’t had a forum to light a number of statistically significant find- display who he was. He had been la- ings (summarized below) that were consis- belled as a troublemaker and had tent across the four evaluation studies. played the role. Here was a chance for him to show that he is an empathetic hu- 1. Whereas ROE children decreased on all man being.” (Caledon Institute of Social measures of aggression from pretest to Policy, 1999). post-test, comparison children increased on aggression. To date there have been seven Canadian 2. Scores for ROE participants were moreresearch studies examining the efficacy of improved at post-test than were scoresTable 2: Overview of Research Studies Conducted in British Columbia (2000-2007)Study Year Age group NNational Evaluation 2001 – 2002 Grades 4 – 7 585Rural/urban Evaluation 2002 – 2003 Grades 4 – 7 419Randomized Controlled Trial 2003 – 2004 Grades 4 – 7 374Longitudinal follow-up 2004 – 2007 Grades 3 – 7 374206
  • 183. Country Chapter #1 | Canada for comparison children on pro-social For boys and girls in all grade levels and behaviours (e.g., helping, sharing, coop- both cohorts, participation in the ROE pro- erating), pro-social characteristics (e.g., gram had statistically significant and repli- kindness) and peer acceptance. cated beneficial effects on all three teacher-3. Scores for ROE participants were more rated child-behaviour outcomes at post-test. improved at post-test than were scores In both cohorts, these beneficial outcomes for comparison children on perspective- were maintained or continued to improve taking and emotion understanding. across the three years following completion of4. ROE participants, in contrast to compar- the ROE program. ison children, were more likely to attrib- ute infant crying to an emotional state Finally, two outcome evaluations of the and suggest emotional care strategies ROE program were also undertaken in the (e.g., sing a lullaby, play with him, rock province of Alberta during the 2006-2007 him to sleep) rather than physical care school year, both of which yielded results strategies (e.g., change the diaper, give consistent with those obtained in the BC and the baby a bottle) to deal with crying, Manitoba studies. Schonert-Reichl and Scott5. Scores for ROE participants were more (2009) report that Alberta children who ex- improved at post-test than were scores perienced the ROE program, compared to for comparison children on perceptions those who did not, displayed positive changes of classroom supportiveness. in social and emotional understanding, en- hanced self-efficacy about parenting, and re- Another evaluation of the ROE program ductions in aggressive behaviours.was conducted in the province of Manitoba.As described by Schonert-Reichl and Scott Whytecliff Education Centre(2009), in this randomized controlled trial, While Focus on Bullying and Roots of Empa-beginning in the 2002-2003 school year, thy are most consistent with the cognitive-be-eight school divisions, stratified into three havioural approach to SEE, programming atgrade levels (kindergarten (age 5), grade 4 the Whytecliff Education Centre provides an(age 9), grade 8 (age 13), were randomly as- example of the relational approach. Whyte-signed to either a program group that re- cliff is a small school (55–60 students) lo-ceived Roots of Empathy or a wait list control cated in a suburb of the city of Vancouver ingroup. At the beginning of the school year, British Columbia that was established to meetresearchers pre-tested both groups on three the multiple needs of a highly vulnerablechild behaviour outcomes (physical aggres- population of youth (Cassidy & Bates, 2005).sion, indirect aggression, and pro-social be- Take for example, sixteen-year-old student,haviour) as rated by teachers and students. Anita (not her real name), whose story wasStudents in the control group participated reported in a local newspaper (Burnabyonly in data collection. Using the same three NOW). Anita grew up in what she calls the “measures, post-test data were collected for slums.” Her mother abused alcohol and drugsboth groups at the end of the year and three and by the time Anita reached secondarytimes annually thereafter. School divisions school, as she put it, “I was miserable. I wasin the wait-list control group received the emotionally disturbed and I really, reallyprogram in the subsequent school year and hated the fact I was going into a school withwere compared to the control group from so many people.” The fact that some of herthe 2002- 2003 cohort, thus serving as a teachers didn’t seem to care bothered herreplication sample. more. Frustrated, Anita burned down a school portable (outbuilding), which also 207
  • 184. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaStaff members sought to model and practice care witheach other and with students, to make care central to theirdialogue, and to confirm caring practices when they wereobserved in others. Staff took time to listen to students, didnot overreact when students’ behavior was challenging,and worked toward the students’ well being, believing thatthese practices would have a powerful positive influenceon the young people in their chargefunctioned as an activity centre. “That was my had labeled all as having a “severe behavioronly sanctuary,” she says. “The only reason I disorder”. Social and emotional well-beingburned it down was because I hated the was a significant focus of the school but ratherschool, I hated the teachers and I didn’t know than implementing pre-determined programshow else to show it.” She was expelled from to address the students’ social and emotionalschool and arrested. Her probation officer needs, the school operated according to a col-recommended she attend Whytecliff and, in laboratively constructed ethic of care, whichher words, “I’ve been happy and healthy ever guided every aspect of its operation. In theirsince.” Her grades have improved and she is study of this school, Cassidy and Bates (2005)now anticipating high school graduation. sought to document administrators’ and teachers’ conceptions of care and how care Social and emotional well-being was a sig- was enacted in the school. As well, they askednificant focus of the [Whytecliff Education students how they described care, whetherCentre] but rather than implementing pre- they felt cared for, and the impact the schooldetermined programs to address the students’ had on their and emotional needs, the school oper-ated according to a collaboratively con- Results of the investigation revealed com-structed ethic of care, which guided every monalities and differences in perceptions ofaspect of its operation. caring and its enactment across teachers, ad- ministrators, and students. At the core of all Stories like Anita’s caught the attention of three groups’ perceptions of caring was theWanda Cassidy, Associate Professor of Edu- importance of building respectful, responsive,cation and Director of the Centre for Educa- and supportive relationships and, throughtion, Law and Society at Simon Fraser Uni- these relationships, meeting the needs of chil-versity, who led a research study of the school. dren in flexible and insightful ways. All threeAs described by Cassidy and Bates (2005), at groups compared the school to a home orthe time of their study, most students at family, where the young and vulnerable feltWhytecliff were 14 to 17 years of age, many safe and were nurtured and where the adultshad diagnosed learning difficulties, some had worked in partnership to provide positivemental health issues, most struggled with sub- emotional, social, and academic growth op-stance abuse, and the Ministry of Education portunities for each young person.208
  • 185. Country Chapter #1 | Canada Teachers and administrators were found to between young people and positive role mod-perceive and enact caring at the school in els” (Rauner, 2000, p. 89). According to Cas-manners that were consistent with the liter- sidy and Bates (2005), students at Whytecliffature (e.g., Beck, 1991; Noddings, 1992, spoke passionately and unreservedly of the2002; Prillamen & Eaker, 1994; Rauner, care they received from teachers and ad-2000; Witherell, 1991). Caring was seen as ministrators, and of the positive differenceembedded in relationships, as needing to be caring made in their own development,recognized by the receivers of care, as indi- schoolwork, and overall well being. The re-vidually focused, and as being responsive to searchers were surprised by the strength ofstudents’ needs as whole beings. Staff mem- the positive feelings that each student hadbers sought to model and practice care with for the staff and the school. Not one staffeach other and with students, to make care person was singled-out by a student as beingcentral to their dialogue, and to confirm car- a problem, even though the researchers gaveing practices when they were observed in the students ample opportunity to be criticalothers. Staff took time to listen to students, and students were assured their answersdid not overreact when students’ behavior would remain anonymous.was challenging, and worked toward the stu-dents’ well being, believing that these prac- The staff’s high regard for each studenttices would have a powerful positive influence and absence of negative judgment was veryon the young people in their charge. apparent to students. Accustomed to being treated as “problems” by teachers, students Cassidy and Bates (2005) noted the staff were encouraged by the staff’s different viewmembers’ genuine affection and high regard of them at this school. One student summedfor the students. Despite the fact that the stu- up this perspective when he talked aboutdents had been involved in criminal behav- how he was treated by the principal: “Heiour and had come to the school with files la- treats me, he treats us like human beings, in-beling them as highly problematic, the staff stead of just a place where he works.” Severalheld them in high esteem, viewing them as students indicated that they had never before“survivors” with whom they were privileged felt cared for by a teacher or a school prin-to spend time. Staff sought to develop stu- cipal, and some not even by their parents.dents’ talents and interests, focusing on the Additional indices of the success of thepositives in their lives rather than the nega- Whytecliff’s program noted by the re-tives, gave students a voice in decision mak- searchers were the school’s high attendanceing about curriculum, expanded the curricu- rate and the high rate of course completionlum beyond the classroom into the (Ministry of Education for British Columbia,community, worked with students’ families 2002), and that it was identified in a nationaland their peers, and, as such, provided stu- study as an exemplary intervention programdents with a positive and supportive learning for at risk youth (Shariff et al., 2000).environment that was very different fromthe marginalization they experienced in pre- Princess Alexandra Schoolvious schools and in the wider society. Another example of a relationally focused approach that specifically accounts for the According to Rauner (2000) the approach concerns and aspirations of Indigenous com-taken by staff at Whytecliff should be evalu- munities is that found at Princess Alexandraated not in terms of particular learning out- School. Princess Alexandra School is locatedcomes but rather according to whether it has in a low-income, inner city neighborhood in“succeeded in creating caring relationships Saskatoon, the capital city of the province of210
  • 186. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaSaskatchewan. The school is located half a nouring Our People, when you walk into ourblock from the railroad tracks and shares a school. We are immensely proud of our peo-parking lot with a bingo hall. Princess ple and our community. We seize every op-Alexandra has an enrollment of 200 - 250 portunity we can to honour the wonderfulstudents, who are primarily of Indigenous work of our school community.ancestry, from pre- kindergarten (age 4 ( to grade eight (age 13 years). It is a grams/elementaryschools/princes-community school with high transience and sAlexandra/about.html)a high level of poverty. Building trust and relationship with the Consistent with the views expressed by In- community often involves Indigenous cul-digenous participants in the research of Ball tural activities – hosting feasts and powwows,Consistent with the views expressed by Indigenousparticipants in the research of Ball and Le Mare (in press),building trust and relationships with the community is atthe forefront of efforts at [the Princess Alexandra] schoolto support the social and emotional and academic well-being of studentsand Le Mare (in press), building trust and re- including pipe ceremonies and Native drum-lationships with the community is at the fore- ming, teaching hoop and jingle dancing, andfront of efforts at this school to support the so- serving soup and bannock at school events.cial and emotional and academic well-being of These activities demonstrate an acceptancestudents. At this school, the focus is on creat- and honouring of the identity of a majority ofing conditions where children and families feel the individuals within the school community.welcome and cared for, and respect and rela- They also support families in learning abouttionships are at the heart of everything they do. and strengthening their own cultural tradi-As is outlined on the school website: tions and practices, something that partici- When you walk through the doors of our pants in Ball and Le Mare’s (in press) re-school, expect to be warmly greeted by staff search also valued in schools.members, other parents, and students. Wepride ourselves on creating a warm and car- The Princess Alexandra School Commu-ing environment for our students, parents, nity shares four main beliefs - developed as aand any guests that enter our school. It is result of a consultative and collaborativethrough these types of actions that we build process with students, staff, parents, and com-strong relationships with our families so that munity members. These beliefs are: Safety,our students can thrive in an optimal learn- Respect, Self-Esteem, and Connectedness. Re-ing environment. You will also notice stu- search shows that the evaluation standard setdents’ family photos, as well as posters Ho- by Rauner (2000), stating that the success of 211
  • 187. Country Chapter #1 | Canadasuch an approach is demonstrated by the re- because then they will have the infor-lationships that develop among staff, students, mation and then they can decide with usand families, has been met. Specifically, Pushor about things. And I said, “I’m not going toand Ruitenberg (2005) spent a considerable force this.” And we revisited it a coupletime in the school observing and talking to of times and, I think, in December theymembers of the school community. The results said to me, “Okay, we will try it once, justof their research revealed several themes. The once, and then we’ll see.” (Pushor &researchers found that the staff at Princess Ruitenberg, 2005, p.32)Alexandra consciously worked to live out theirpositive assumptions about parents, and their Interestingly, the first time parents werebeliefs about the engagement of parents within invited to an event that had previously beentheir school, in practice. They found that hos- the exclusive domain of teachers it was to apitality at Princess Alexandra was not about Professional Development workshop on anteachers and administrators inviting people to anti-bullying program that was being con-their place, but rather, was about creating a sidered for implementation at the school. Asplace that was owned as much by students, described by the principal:parents, and other community members as itwas by the school staff. Finally, they observed And so it was something like Decemberand heard about practices at the school that 27th, 2000, and it was professional de-moved “away from the institutionalized, ritual- velopment around bully-proofing theistic, and often public interactions between school and it was one of those commer-teachers and parents typical of most school cial programs. …And I was not evenlandscapes to an emphasis on building trust there. …What happened was the viceand relationships in ways which are much less principal presented the stuff and all thatformal and more intimate” (p. i). and half the staff said, “Yeah, I think that would be good” and half the staff said, “I Each of these themes is illustrated in the don’t know.” But they asked the parentsschool principal’s decision to include parents and the parents said, “This is not cultur-and senior students in staff meetings and ally affirming who we are; this isn’t ap-Professional Development opportunities at propriate.” And they asked the kids andPrincess Alexandra, activities that are typi- the kids said, “Well, I don’t want to walkcally reserved for teachers and administrators around with a little button that says I’monly. When asked about this decision, the a goody two-shoes. This is offensive forprincipal explained: me to be treated that way.” This was a Friday and I got home and I got phone A good friend of mine, who is also a calls from several persons saying, “Oh, principal, once said to me, “Well, parents you should have been there because the cannot take part in decisions because parents had a voice today and they said parents don’t have the same information no to this [program]. This is terrible. If we do.” And I thought, well, that makes you had been there you could have sense, and then I thought, that’s simple. talked them into it.” And I said, “My in- We have to make sure the parents have tent would not have been to try to talk the same information as us. So I said to them into it; that’s why we had the par- the staff [at Princess] this is why I would ents there – to listen to them.” (Pushor like parents to participate in staff meet- & Ruitenberg, 2005, p.32) ings, this is why I would like parents to come to Professional Development. It’s This example illustrates not only the re-212
  • 188. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaThe researchers found that the staff at Princess Alexandraconsciously worked to live out their positive assumptionsabout parents, and their beliefs about the engagement ofparents within their school, in practice. They found thathospitality at Princess Alexandra was not about teachersand administrators inviting people to their place, butrather, was about creating a place that was owned asmuch by students, parents, and other communitymembers as it was by the school staffspect accorded to parents at this school, relief because the parents loved it andwhich is consistent with the school’s rela- people were coming to me on Saturdaytionally focused efforts, but more specifically and Sunday morning at the coffee breakhow parents and students responded to a saying, “I like this stuff here. Are we go-particular SEE initiative that they viewed as ing to do this?” And I said, “I’m not goingculturally inappropriate and offensive. In to make that decision. It’s not going to bekeeping with the approach adopted by this (me) saying yes we’re going to do this orschool, these views were honoured and other no we’re not going to do this.” So we didresources for SEE continued to be explored. this workshop and the elder said yesThe principal explained what happened next. and the parents said yes, let’s try this. So we came back to the staff, and I said to The interesting thing is that a month the staff, “Some of us are going to be later we offered another workshop. This working with the kids differently, but time it was a Saturday/Sunday and it we’re not going to make everybody work was optional for the staff and it was op- the same way. If you don’t want to do tional for parents. We had most of the this stuff, that’s fine. …We would like peo- staff there and we had about ten, twelve ple to respect the fact that we are using parents and we had an elder, Mrs. Katie this approach to work with kids, [and we Poundmaker. … The workshop was called will]respect that [others]are also using Restitution and you could tell the parents their own approach and respect the way seemed to be comfortable with it; lots of they’re doing things. (Pushor & Ruiten- people on the staff were comfortable. berg, 2005, p. 33) But everybody was sort of holding their breath. … And then at lunchtime on Sun- In creating a place where Indigenous cul- day I turned to Katie and said, “Well, is ture is honoured, where families are wel- this appropriate for us to have?” And comed, and where relationships are gen- her answer to us was, “These are our uinely caring, Princess Alexandra School has teachings that we lost because of resi- created the conditions articulated by Indige- dential schools.” So there was a sigh of nous community members (Ball & Le Mare, 213
  • 189. Country Chapter #1 | Canadain press) that are needed to allow the social riculum in teacher education programs, as isand emotional and academic well-being of happening in British Columbia.Indigenous children to flourish. Indeed, datareported in an overview of research on the A distinction was made here among cog-Restitution approach adopted at Princess nitive-behavioural, relational and IndigenousAlexandra (see http://www.realrestitu- approaches to SEE, all of which have butions to make in supporting the social andtution.pdf), show that discipline incidents at emotional well-being of Canadian students.Princess Alexandra dropped from 37 inci- Cognitive-behavioural approaches will nodents per day to less than two incidents per doubt have greater impact when they are de-day after this culturally appropriate method livered in an environment that adheres towas introduced. Moreover, as part of the the relational approach and within the con-broader emphasis on positive relationships text of a school-wide (if not Province wide)and respect, during the period of 1999 to initiative.2003, the percentage of students in grade 4(age 9 years) performing at the 50th per- Given the diversity of Canadian society, incentile or higher on the Canadian Achieve- order to support all students, practitioners inment Test jumped from 7% to 55%. By 2003, schools must be sensitive to variations in cul-ninety-eight percent of the parents in the tural histories, values and practices. The re-community were involved with the school. lational competencies of teachers must in-With these successes, Princess Alexandra re- clude empathy, respect, a non-judgmentalceived a fifteen thousand dollar grant from approach, and, particularly as concerns In-the Saskatchewan Teacher’s Federation to digenous communities, knowledge of the so-study the relationship between Restitution cio-historical context of Indigenous child-and Aboriginal child rearing practices and hood, along with positive beliefs aboutwas recognized as one of twelve outstanding parenting capabilities.Aboriginal schools in Canada. AcknowledgementsConclusions I would like to thank colleagues Wanda Cas-Social and Emotional Education is widely val- sidy, Ann Chinnery, Allissa Ehrenkranz,ued in Canada. Provincial and Territorial gov- Shelley Hymel, Kim Schonert-Reichl, andernments have set the stage for its wide- Holly Stibbs for their valued contributionsspread implementation by acknowledging the and willingness to and emotional side of education and itsimportance in the vision and mission state-ments of their Ministries/Departments ofEducation. A few provinces, notably BritishColumbia and Ontario, have taken the lead byexplicitly ascribing SEE importance equal tothat of academic education, and developingcomprehensive statements and resource doc-uments to support that step. This is somethingthat needs to occur in all Provinces and Ter-ritories across the country. To support andencourage such initiatives, Faculties of Edu-cation within Canadian universities must in-clude SEE as a central component of the cur-214
  • 190. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaNotes References1 The terms Indigenous and Aboriginal are used al- most synonymously at this time in Canada to refer Ball, J. & Le Mare, L. (in press). “You’ll never to people who identify themselves as descendents of believe what happened”….is always a good the original inhabitants of the land now called way to start: Lessons from community- Canada. Section 35 of the Canadian Constitution recognizes First Nations, Inuit, and Métis as Aborig- university partnerships with First Na- inal people of Canada. The term Aboriginal was tions. In H. Goelman, J. Pivik, & M. Guhn coined in the 1980s by the Canadian colonial gov- (Eds.). New Approaches to Early Child ernment. Indian remains in place as the legal term used in the Canadian Constitution; its usage outside Development: Rules, Rituals, Reality. Pal- such situations can be considered offensive. The grave Press. term Eskimo has pejorative connotations in Canada and is replaced with Inuit. The term Indigenous (as used here) is inclusive of First Peoples internation- Battiste, M. & Barman, J. (1995). First Nations ally. Many prefer the term Indigenous as a resist- education in Canada: The circle unfolds. ance against imposed colonial naming and because the term Indigenous is more widely used in global Vancouver, BC: University of British Co- advocacy movements to promote Indigenous Peo- lumbia Press. ples’ rights, development, and equity.2 In Canada, a reserve is specified by the Indian Act Beck, Lynn. 1992. “Meeting the Challenge as a “tract of land, the legal title to which is vested of the Future: The Place of a Caring in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Ethic in Educational Administration.” Majesty for the use and benefit of a band”. American Journal of Education 100 (Au- gust): 454–96. Bennett, M. & Blackstock, C. (2002). A Liter- ature Review and Annotated Bibliogra- phy Focusing on Aspects of Aboriginal Child Welfare in Canada. Ottawa: First Nations Child and Family Caring Society of Canada. Burnaby NOW abynow/news/story.html?id=ce298a5a- 2 a 1 a - 4 5 9 8 - 8 b 3 1 - 823bbe99bea0&k=364 Caledon Institute of Social Policy (1999). Roots of Empathy. Retrieved February 23, 2011 from: tions/PDF/RootsEmpathy.pdf. Caravita, S. C. S., Di Blasio, P., & Salmivalli, C. (2009). Unique and interactive effects of empathy and social status on involve- ment in bullying. Social Development, 18, 140-163. 215
  • 191. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaCassidy, W. & Bates, A. (2005). “Drop-outs” ep-rap/2004/yj2-jj2/p5.html) and “push-outs”: Finding hope at a school that actualizes the ethic of care. American Finding Common Ground Journal of Education, 112, 66- ment/reports/literacy/booklet2008.pdfCastellano, M.B. (2002). Aboriginal family trends: Extended families, nuclear fami- Fournier, S., & Crey, E. (1997). Stolen from lies, families of the heart. Retrieved Jan- our embrace: The abduction of First Na- uary 27, 2010, from tions children and the restoration of Abo- riginal communities. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre.Chandler, M. J., & Lalonde, C. E. (1998). Cul- tural continuity as a hedge against suicide Ghosh, R. (1995). “Social Change and Edu- in Canada’s First Nations. Transcultural cation in Canada”, pp. 3-15. In Ratna Psychiatry, 35(2), 191-219. Ghosh and Douglas Ray (eds.), Social Change and Education in Canada.Craig, W. & Harel, Y. (2004). “Bullying, Phys- Toronto: Harcourt Brace. ical Fighting and Victimization” (pp. 133- 144) in Currie et al (Eds.) Young People’s Gini, G., Albiero, P., Benelli, B., & Altoè, G. Health in Context: Health Behaviour in (2007). Does empathy predict adoles- School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study, In- cents’ bullying and defending behavior? ternational Report from the 2001/2002 Aggressive Behavior, 33, 467-476. Survey, World Health Organization. Guhn, M., personal communication, JanuaryCraig, W. & Pepler, D. (2007). Understand- 7, 2011. ing bullying: From research to practice. Canadian Psychology, 48, 86-93. Guhn, M., Gadermann, A.M., & Zumbo, B. D. (2010). Education: A report of the Cana-Craig, W., Pepler, D. & Blais, J. (2007). Re- dian Index of Wellbeing (CIW). Retrieved sponding to bullying: What works? School December 18, 2010, from Psychology International, 28, 465-477 ments/Education-Full_Report.sflb.ashxDelors et al., (1996). Learning: The treasure within. Report to UNESCO of the Interna- Haig-Brown, C. (1988). Resistance and re- tional Commission on Education for the newal: Surviving Indian residential school. Twenty First Century. Retrieved December Vancouver: Tillacum Press. 30, 2010 from Hymel, S., Schonert-Reichl, K, & Miller, L. ages/0010/001095/109590eo.pdf. (2006). Reading, ‘riting, ‘rithmetic and relationships: Considering the social sideDibski, D. (1995). “Financing Education”. In of education. Exceptionality Education Social Change and Education in Canada, Canada, 16, 149-192. pp. 66-81. Ratna Ghosh and Douglas Ray (eds.), Toronto: Harcourt Brace. Janus, M. & Offord, D. (2007). Development and psychometric properties of the EarlyFederal Department of Justice Development Instrument (EDI): A meas- ( ure of children’s school readiness. Cana-216
  • 192. Country Chapter #1 | Canada dian Journal of Behavioural Science, 39 (1991). The epidemiology of antisocial (1) 1-22. behavior in childhood and adolescence. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), TheKohn, A. (2000). The Case against Stan- development and treatment of childhood dardized Testing: Raising the Scores, Win- and aggression (pp. 31-52). Hillsdale, ning the Schools. Portsmouth, NH: Heine- NJ: Erlbaum. mann. Prillamen, A. Renee, and Deborah J. Eaker.May, L. (1992). Insensitivity and Moral Re- 1994. “The Weave and the Weaver: A sponsibility. Journal of Value Inquiry 26 Tapestry Begun.” In A Tapestry of Caring, (March): 7–22. ed. A. Renee Prillamen, Deborah Eaker, and Doris M. Kendrick. Norwood, NJ:Mendelson, M. (2008). Improving Education Ablex. on Reserves: A First Nations Education Authority Act. Retrieved December 20, Pushor, D., Ruitenberg, C., with co-re- 2010, from: searchers from Princess Alexandra Com- munity School. (2005, November). Par- tions/Detail/?ID=684&IsBack=0 ent engagement and leadership. Research report, project #134, Dr. Stirling Mc-Miller, P. A., & Eisenberg, N. (1988). The re- Dowell Foundation for Research into lation of empathy to aggressive and ex- Teaching, Saskatoon, SK, 79 pp. ternalizing/antisocial behaviors. Psycho- logical Bulletin, 103, 324-344. Rauner, D. (2000). They still pick me up when I fall. New York: Columbia UniversityMorin, H. (2004). Student performance data Press. and research tools to ensure Aboriginal student success. Retrieved June 4, 2010, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples from : (1996). Gathering strength: Report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peo- search/ab_student_success.pdf ples. Ottawa, ON: Canada Communication Group Publishing.Noddings, N. (1992). The Challenge to Care in Schools. New York: Teachers College Schonert-Reichl, K. & Scott, F. (2009). Ef- Press. fectiveness of “The Roots of Empathy” Program in Promoting Children’s Emo-Noddings, N. (2002). Educating moral peo- tional and Social Competence: A Sum- ple: A caring alternative to character ed- mary of Research Findings. In Mary Gor- ucation. New York: Teachers College don, The Roots of Empathy: Changing the Press. world child by child. Toronto, Ontario: Thomas Allen Publishers.Noddings, N. (2005). The challenge to care in schools: An alternative approach to edu- Schonert-Reichl, K. & Hymel, S. (2007). Ed- cation. New York: Teachers College Press. ucating the heart as well as the mind: Social and emotional learning for schoolOfford Centre for Child Studies; and life success. Education Canada, 47, 20-25.Offord, D. R., Boyle, M., & Racine, Y. A. 217
  • 193. Country Chapter #1 | CanadaShariff, Shaheen, Wanda Cassidy, David Oborne, Ying Ho, Lois Gander, and Wendy Taylor. 2000. Identifying Suc- cessful School and Community Programs for Youth: An Evaluation Rubric and Com- pendium of Sources. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada and Youth Justice Edu- cation Partnership.Smythe, E.M. (2003). “It should be the cen- tre…of professional training in education.” Theme: Traditions and Transitions in Teacher Education Special Issue. Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 3(4), pp. 135-150.Smolewski, M., & Wesley-Esquimaux, C.C. (2003). Historic trauma and Aboriginal healing. Ottawa: Aboriginal Healing Foun- dation Research Series. Social Responsi- bility Framework. /sintro.pdfTrocme, N., Knoke, D., & Blackstock, C. (2004). Pathways to the overrepresenta- tion of Aboriginal children in Canada’s child welfare system. Social Service Re- view, December, 577-600.Walton, G. (2004). Bullying and homophobia in Canadian schools: The politics of poli- cies, programs, and educational leader- ship. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 1(4), 23-36.Witherell, Carol S. 1991. “The Self in Narra- tive: A Journey into Paradox.” In Stories Lives Tell: Narrative and Dialogue in Edu- cation, ed. Carol Witherell and Nel Nod- dings. New York: Teachers College Press.218
  • 194. Evaluation
  • 195. Results of the Botín Foundation’s Social and EmotionalEducational ProgrammeBotín Foundation and Cantabria UniversitySummaryThis chapter details the results reached in three of the one hundred schools which took partin the Botín Foundation’s educational programme. The University of Cantabria has, over threeschool years, carried out two external evaluations (one on the programme’s psychological im-pact and the other on pedagogical effects of the programme) in three schools in Cantabria(Spain) with 73 teachers and 1,102 students and their families.The chapter begins with an explanation of the educational work done by the Botín Founda-tion and continues with two separate summaries of the research undertaken by the two uni-versity teams.The aim of the psychological evaluation was to verify if changes had come about in the socialand emotional competence and/or in the psychosocial adjustment behaviour of students andascertain to what extent these changes were due to the implementation of the project. A quasi-experimental design of repeated pre-test/intervention/post-test measures was carried outwith a control group.The results express in definite terms significant improvements with respect to the groups ofstudents which took part in the project in the following variables: Emotional intelligence,specifically clarity or emotional comprehension to identify and differentiate th