EFA GlobalMonitoring Report           2   0   1   2YOUTH AND SKILLSPutting education to work
Youth and skills:Putting education to work
Youth and skills:Putting education to work                                    UNESCO                                    Pu...
2 0 1 2 Education for All Global Monitoring Report                                              This Report is an independ...
FOREWORDForewordThis 10th edition of the EFA Global Monitoring Report could not be better timed. The thirdgoal of Educatio...
2 0 1 2                                                   FOREWORD                                                   We mu...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAcknowledgementsThis Report was made possible thanks to the support and advice of many individuals andorga...
2 0 1 2                                                                Acknowledgements                                   ...
contentsContents            Foreword. .......................................................................................
2 0 1 2                                                     contents                                                      ...
contentsYouth.skills:.pathways.to.a.better.future............................................................................
2 0 1 2                                                                   list of figures, tables and text boxes          ...
list of figures, tables and text boxes  Figure 1.49: Learning achievement varies by socio-economic status ...................
2 0 1 2                                                                  list of figures, tables and text boxes           ...
OVERVIEWOverviewWith just three years to go until the deadline        Monitoring the Educationfor the Education for All go...
2 0 1 2                                                  OVERVIEW                                                  there a...
OVERVIEWPeru and the United Republic of Tanzania,            40 million children of primary school age out ofchildren who ...
2 0 1 2                                                  OVERVIEW                                                  school ...
OVERVIEWSkills are not only developed in school.             if, for example, they do not feel empowered toInternational o...
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  1. 1. EFA GlobalMonitoring Report 2 0 1 2YOUTH AND SKILLSPutting education to work
  2. 2. Youth and skills:Putting education to work
  3. 3. Youth and skills:Putting education to work UNESCO Publishing United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
  4. 4. 2 0 1 2 Education for All Global Monitoring Report This Report is an independent publication commissioned by UNESCO on behalf of the international community. It is the product of a collaborative effort involving members of the Report Team and many other people, agencies, institutions and governments. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The EFA Global Monitoring Report team is responsible for the choice and the presentation of the facts contained in this book and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. Overall responsibility for the views and opinions expressed in the Report is taken by its Director. © UNESCO, 2012 All rights reserved Second edition Published in 2012 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 7, Place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France Graphic design by FHI 360 Layout by FHI 360 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available Typeset by UNESCO Cover illustration ISBN 978-92-3-104240-9 © UNESCO/Sarah Wilkins
  5. 5. FOREWORDForewordThis 10th edition of the EFA Global Monitoring Report could not be better timed. The thirdgoal of Education for All is to ensure that all young people have the opportunity to acquireskills. The urgency of reaching this goal has sharpened acutely since 2000.The global economic downturn is impacting on unemployment. One young person ineight across the world is looking for work. Youth populations are large and growing.The wellbeing and prosperity of young people depend more than ever on the skills thateducation and training can provide. Failing to meet this need is a waste of human potentialand economic power. Youth skills have never been so vital.This Global Monitoring Report reminds us that education is not only about making sureall children can attend school. It is about setting young people up for life, by giving themopportunities to find decent work, earn a living, contribute to their communities andsocieties, and fulfil their potential. At the wider level, it is about helping countries nurturethe workforce they need to grow in the global economy.There has been undeniable progress towards the six EFA goals — including an expansionof early childhood care and education and improvements in gender parity at primarylevel. However, with three years to go until the 2015 deadline, the world is still not ontrack. Progress towards some goals is faltering. The number of children out of school hasstagnated for the first time since 2000. Adult literacy and quality of education still demandfaster progress.Recent developments ascribe ever greater urgency to ensuring equitable access toappropriate skills development programmes. As urban populations grow rapidly,especially in low income countries, young people need skills to work their way out ofpoverty. In rural areas, young people require new coping mechanisms to deal with climatechange and shrinking farm sizes, and to exploit opportunities for off-farm work. ThisReport reveals that around 200 million young people need a second chance to acquire thebasic literacy and numeracy skills, which are essential to learning further skills for work.In all of this, women and the poor face particular hardship.We must see the growing numbers of young people who are unemployed or trapped inpoverty as a call to action — to meet their needs by 2015 and to keep momentum afterthen. We can achieve universal lower secondary education by 2030, and we must.Donors’ commitment to education may be waning, and this is deeply worrying.Government budgets are under pressure today, but we must not risk the gains madesince 2000 by reducing engagement now. Evidence in this Report shows that funds spenton education generate ten to fifteen times as much in economic growth over a person’slifetime. Now is the time to invest for the future. i
  6. 6. 2 0 1 2 FOREWORD We must think creatively and use all the resources at our disposal. Governments and donors must continue to prioritize education. Countries should look to their own Education for All Global Monitoring Report resources, which could be giving millions of children and young people skills for life. Whatever the source of funding, the needs of the disadvantaged must be a high priority in every strategy. Young people everywhere have great potential — this must be developed. I hope this Report will catalyse renewed efforts worldwide to educate children and young people so they can greet the world with confidence, follow their ambitions and live the lives they choose. Irina Bokova Director-General of UNESCO ii
  7. 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAcknowledgementsThis Report was made possible thanks to the support and advice of many individuals andorganizations. The EFA Global Monitoring Report team would like to thank everyone whocontributed to this endeavour.The EFA Global Monitoring Report’s Advisory Board plays a key role in providing guidanceand support at all stages of the Report’s cycle. We would like to thank each of itsmembers for their time, energy and enthusiasm. Particular thanks go to the chair of theAdvisory Board, Amina J. Mohammed. The publication was made possible by the generousfinancial support of a group of funders.We are very grateful for the advice and support of individuals, divisions and units withinUNESCO, both at headquarters and in the field. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS)plays a key role in the development of the Report. We warmly thank its director and staff,including Redouane Assad, Sheena Bell, Manuel Cardoso, Cesar Guadalupe, FriedrichHuebler, Alison Kennedy, Albert Motivans, Simon Normandeau, Saïd Ould Ahmedou Voffal,Pascale Ratovondrahona and Wendy Xiaodan Weng.We would also like to acknowledge the support from colleagues at the InternationalInstitute for Educational Planning (IIEP), the International Bureau of Education (IBE), theUNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL), and the International Centre for Technicaland Vocational Education and Training (UNEVOC).Special thanks to colleagues in UNESCO’s Education Sector as well as colleagues in theSector for External Relations and Public Information who play a vital role in supportingthe Global Monitoring Report. We are also grateful to our colleagues in the KnowledgeManagement Service and the Sections for Finance and Budget Administration and forHuman Resources for facilitating our work daily.Sincere gratitude goes to Kevin Watkins, the previous director of the Global MonitoringReport, who participated in the initial development of this Report.A number of experts generously gave their time to prepare think pieces, participate in meetingsand provide comments on the drafts of the Report. Special thanks go to members of the expertpanel, including Arvil Van Adams, Borhene Chakroun, Christopher Colclough, Kenneth King andFurio Rosati. We would also like to thank Ragui Assaad, David Atchoarena, Roland Baecker,Michaela Baur, Laura Brewer, Gareth Conyard, Marta Encinas-Martin, Mary-Luce FiauxNiada, Michael Härtel, Maria Hartl, Claudia Jacinto, Emmanuel Jimenez, Simon Junker,Mark Keese, Matthias Pilz, Bianca Rohrbach, Katja Römer, Roland Schwartz, Law SongSeng, Kate Shoesmith, Madhu Singh, Birgit Thomann, Richard Walther and Michael Ward.The Report would not have been possible without the advice and support of numerousresearchers who prepared background papers and other commissioned inputs toinform the analysis. We would like to thank them for sharing their expertise and time:Andrés Mejia Acosta, Peter Aggleton, Subhash Agrawal, Nadir Altinok, Monika Aring,Shubhashansha Bakshi, Farzana Bardai, Paul Bennell, Gabrielle D. Blumberg, Hong-MinChun, Yekaterina Chzhen, David Clarke, Ute Clement, Arne H. Eide, Jakob Engel, KyuCheol Eo, Ernesto Martins Faria, Ningwakwe George, Ursula Grant, Lorenzo Guarcello,Eric A. Hanushek, Kenneth Harttgen, Jo Hawley, Frances Hunt, Zoe James, Kate Jere,Jyotsna Jha, Hiromichi Katayama, Maria Kett, HyeJin Kim, Irena Kovarova, Scott Lyon, iii
  8. 8. 2 0 1 2 Acknowledgements Anna McCord, Scott Murray, Maurice Mutisya, Anne-Mari Nevala, Landon Newby, Nicole Nikolaidis, Christophe Nordman, Lee E. Nordstrum, Moses Oketch, Laure Pasquier-Doumer, Education for All Global Monitoring Report Francesco Pastore, Maro Ranzani, Caine Rolleston, Fiona Samuels, Roland Schwartz, Lucio Severo, Kate Shoesmith, Ratna Sudarshan, Daniela Ulicna, Justin van Fleet, Nermine Wally, Karin Wedig, Ludger Woessmann, Shoko Yamada and Kazuhiro Yoshida. We are also grateful to the Institute of Development Studies, GHK Consulting Ltd, the City & Guilds Centre for Skills Development, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Overseas Development Institute, the United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative, Understanding Children’s Work, Young Lives Programme and the World Bank for their support in providing research and analysis. We would like to extend our thanks to Interactive Things for the development of the World Inequalities Database on Education (WIDE) and Globescan for facilitating focus group discussions with young people around the world. We are also very grateful to Sarah Wilkins for the design of the cover and the illustration included in this Report. Warm thanks go to the young people who participated in the youth blog and took part in the art contest on youth, skills and work. Our congratulations in particular go to the winner, Khalid Mohamed Hammad Elkhateem from Sudan. Special thanks to all those who worked tirelessly to support the production of the Report, including Sylvaine Baeyens, Rebecca Brite, Laura Chan Aramendi, FHI 360, Jana Gough, David McDonald, Max McMaster, Cathy Nolan and Stefanie Schnell. Many colleagues within and outside UNESCO were involved in the translation and production of the Report and we would like to thank them all. The EFA Global Monitoring Report team Director: Pauline Rose Kwame Akyeampong, Manos Antoninis, Madeleine Barry, Nicole Bella, Stuart Cameron, Erin Chemery, Diederick de Jongh, Marcos Delprato, Hans Botnen Eide, Joanna Härmä, Andrew Johnston, Léna Krichewsky, François Leclercq, Elise Legault, Leila Loupis, Alasdair McWilliam, Patrick Montjourides, Karen Moore, Claudine Mukizwa, Judith Randrianatoavina, Kate Redman, Maria Rojnov-Petit, Marisol Sanjines, Martina Simeti, Asma Zubairi. The Education for All Global Monitoring Report is an independent annual publication. It is facilitated and supported by UNESCO. For more information, please contact: Previous EFA Global Monitoring Reports EFA Global Monitoring Report team 2011. The hidden crisis: Armed conflict and education c/o UNESCO, 7, place de Fontenoy 2010. Reaching the marginalized 75352 Paris 07 SP, France 2009. Overcoming inequality: why governance matters Email: efareport@unesco.org 2008. Education for All by 2015 — Will we make it? Tel.: +33 1 45 68 07 41 2007. Strong foundations — Early childhood care and education www.efareport.unesco.org 2006. Literacy for life efareport.wordpress.com 2005. Education for All — The quality imperative 2003/4. Gender and Education for All — The leap to equality 2002. Education for All — Is the world on track? Any errors or omissions found subsequent to printing will be corrected in the online version at www.efareport.unesco.org. iv
  9. 9. contentsContents Foreword. .............................................................................................................................................................. i Acknowledgements. ................................................................................................................................... iii List.of.figures,.tables.and.text.boxes........................................................................................... viii Overview............................................................................................................................................................... 1Part 1. Monitoring progress towards the EFA goals........................................................................ 34Chapter 1 The.six.EFA.goals....................................................................................................................................... 36 Goal 1: Early childhood care and education...................................................................................................... 39 Panel.1.1:.Early.childhood.nutrition.is.improving.globally,.but.progress.is.too.slow.and.uneven.................. 41 Panel.1.2:.The.ECCE.index,.a.new.instrument.for.monitoring.goal.1.............................................................. 45 . Policy focus: Preparing children for school by expanding pre-primary education........................................ 48 Goal 2: Universal primary education................................................................................................................. 58 . Panel.1.3:.Progress.in.reducing.numbers.of.children.out.of.school.has.stalled. ........................................... 60 . Panel.1.4:.Entering.school.on.time.is.critical.................................................................................................... 64 Panel.1.5:.Progression.through.primary.school.varies.between.and.within.countries................................... 66 Policy focus: Reducing costs of primary school for the poorest. .................................................................... 69 . Goal 3: Youth and adult learning needs............................................................................................................. 80 Panel.1.6:.Promising.progress.towards.measuring.skills.development......................................................... 82 Policy focus: Life skills education can help tackle HIV and AIDS.................................................................... 84 Goal 4: Improving levels of adult literacy.......................................................................................................... 90 Panel.1.7:.Progress.in.reducing.adult.illiteracy.has.been.slow........................................................................ 92 Panel.1.8:.LAMP.deepens.understanding.of.literacy.contexts......................................................................... 94 . Panel.1.9:.Completing.primary.school.does.not.guarantee.literacy.for.all. .................................................... 96 . Policy focus: Strengthening adult literacy in rich countries............................................................................ 98 Goal 5: Assessing gender parity and equality in education............................................................................ 106 Panel.1.10:.Girls.face.obstacles.in.entering.school........................................................................................ 108 Panel.1.11:.Gender.disparities.in.learning.outcomes.persist......................................................................... 111 Policy focus: Challenging disadvantage and disengagement among boys in secondary school.................. 113 Goal 6: The quality of education....................................................................................................................... 122 Panel.1.12:.Millions.of.primary.school-age.children.are.failing.to.learn.the.basics..................................... 124 Panel.1.13:.Learning.achievement.within.countries.varies.with.socio-economic.status.............................. 127 Policy focus: Addressing the crisis in early grade teaching. ......................................................................... 130 . World.Inequality.Database.on.Education.(WIDE). .............................................................136Chapter 2 Financing.Education.for.All...............................................................................................................138 Monitoring progress on financing Education for All....................................................................................... 141 Trends in financing Education for All, 1999–2010........................................................................................... 142 Has aid to education reached its peak?........................................................................................................... 145 v
  10. 10. 2 0 1 2 contents Aid to education: the challenge of effectiveness. ........................................................................................... 152 . Policy.focus:.Turning.the.‘resource.curse’.into.a.blessing.for.education...................................................... 156 Policy.focus:.Harnessing.the.potential.of.private.organizations. ................................................................... 164 . Education for All Global Monitoring Report Part 2. Putting education to work................................................................................................................170 Chapter 3 Youth,.skills.and.work.–.building.stronger.foundations. .............................................174 A large youth population presents challenges. .............................................................................................. 177 . Many young people lack foundation skills....................................................................................................... 179 Transferable skills: preparing for the world of work..................................................................................... 187 A hazardous transition from school to work................................................................................................... 190 Conclusion......................................................................................................................................................... 199 Chapter 4 Investing.in.skills.for.prosperity....................................................................................................200 Skills development is vital to reduce poverty and promote growth.............................................................. 203 Many governments neglect skills and the disadvantaged lose out most...................................................... 208 Boosting finance to bring skills to disadvantaged youth................................................................................ 213 Conclusion......................................................................................................................................................... 225 Chapter 5 Secondary.education.–.paving.the.way.to.work. ................................................................226 Global inequalities in secondary education..................................................................................................... 229 Removing the barriers to secondary education.............................................................................................. 233 Making secondary education more relevant to the world of work................................................................ 236 Strengthening the links between school and work........................................................................................ 242 . Providing alternative routes for early school leavers.................................................................................... 249 . Conclusion......................................................................................................................................................... 253 Chapter 6 Skills.for.urban.youth.–.a.chance.for.a.better.future.....................................................254 Urban poverty is widespread and increasing.................................................................................................. 257 Employment for poor urban youth is mostly informal................................................................................... 260 . Expanding skills training opportunities for disadvantaged youth. ................................................................ 263 . Conclusion......................................................................................................................................................... 275 Chapter 7 Skills.for.rural.youth.–.an.escape.route.from.poverty. .................................................276 Rural poverty limits opportunities for education and better livelihoods....................................................... 279 Addressing rural training needs...................................................................................................................... 283 Conclusion......................................................................................................................................................... 294 vi
  11. 11. contentsYouth.skills:.pathways.to.a.better.future................................................................................2961. Provide second-chance education for those with low or no foundation skills. ........................................ 299 .2. Tackle the barriers that limit access to lower secondary school.............................................................. 3003. Make upper secondary education more accessible to the disadvantaged and improve its relevance to work...................................................................................................................... 3004. Give poor urban youth access to skills training for better jobs................................................................. 3015. Aim policies and programmes at youth in deprived rural areas............................................................... 301 .6. Link skills training with social protection for the poorest youth............................................................... 3017. Make the training needs of disadvantaged young women a high priority................................................. 3028. Harness the potential of technology to enhance opportunities for young people.................................... 3029. Improve planning by strengthening data collection and coordination of skills programmes................. 30210. Mobilize additional funding from diverse sources to meet the training needs of disadvantaged youth.................................................................................................................... 303Conclusion......................................................................................................................................................... 303Annex.................................................................................................................................................................305The Education for All Development Index....................................................................................................... 306Statistical tables................................................................................................................................................ 311Aid tables........................................................................................................................................................... 392Glossary............................................................................................................................................................. 406Abbreviations..................................................................................................................................................... 409References. ....................................................................................................................................................... 412 .Index................................................................................................................................................................... 448 vii
  12. 12. 2 0 1 2 list of figures, tables and text boxes List of figures, tables and text boxes Education for All Global Monitoring Report Figures Figure 1.1: There has been considerable progress in reducing stunting, but it has been uneven............................................................41 Figure 1.2: Malnutrition is a greater problem in rural areas .....................................................................................................................42 Figure 1.3: In most countries, the gap in nutrition between the richest and the poorest exceeds the gap between urban and rural areas ........................................................................................................................................................43 Figure 1.4: Country experiences in tackling malnutrition in rural areas vary enormously .......................................................................44 Figure 1.5: Progress towards early childhood goals varies widely across key dimensions ......................................................................45 Figure 1.6: Pre-primary education has a positive impact on learning outcomes in school.......................................................................48 Figure 1.7: Participation in pre-primary education is lower than the system allows ................................................................................50 Figure 1.8: Enrolment in pre-primary education varies widely between and within regions ....................................................................51 Figure 1.9: Participation in pre-primary education varies significantly within countries ..........................................................................52 Figure 1.10: The number of out-of-school children decreased in the initial years after Dakar, but this has been followed by stagnation ....................................................................................................................................60 Figure 1.11: Almost one in two out-of-school children are expected never to enrol.................................................................................61 Figure 1.12: Almost half the world’s out-of-school children live in just twelve countries ........................................................................61 Figure 1.13: In Nigeria, the number of children out of school is large and has increased ........................................................................62 Figure 1.14: Countries with large numbers of out-of-school children have followed different trajectories ............................................63 Figure 1.15: In Ethiopia poor rural females are least likely to go to in school...........................................................................................63 Figure 1.16: Late entry into primary school is widespread in low and middle income countries .............................................................64 Figure 1.17: Late entry is more common among disadvantaged children .................................................................................................65 Figure 1.18: Pupils who are older than the official age for their grade are more likely to drop out .........................................................65 Figure 1.19: Inequality in primary education access and completion between the poorest and the richest is very large .......................66 Figure 1.20: Different patterns of access and progression can exist in the same country .......................................................................68 Figure 1.21: Countries can make progress over a short period, but can also lose ground .......................................................................68 Figure 1.22: Children from the poorest families are more likely to be out of school ................................................................................70 Figure 1.23: Across eight countries, school fees make up almost 15% of household spending on education .........................................71 Figure 1.24: In Nigeria, rich households spend more to improve the quality of schooling for their children...........................................71 Figure 1.25: Fee abolition has boosted primary school participation.........................................................................................................73 Figure 1.26: In Uganda the education expenditure gap between poorer and richer households widened after fee abolition .................74 Figure 1.27: Richer households are more likely to spend more on supplementary tuition for their children..........................................76 Figure 1.28: Knowledge about HIV and AIDS varies within countries.........................................................................................................86 Figure 1.29: Almost three-quarters of the world’s illiterate adults live in just ten countries ...................................................................92 Figure 1.30: Most countries will miss the adult literacy target, some by a wide margin ..........................................................................93 Figure 1.31: Even among countries with similar literacy rates, people use their literacy skills in different ways ..................................94 Figure 1.32: Community characteristics that help maintain literacy differ widely by country ..................................................................95 Figure 1.33: For many young people, six years of school are insufficient to build literacy skills..............................................................96 Figure 1.34: Literacy skills are not improving across sub-Saharan Africa ...............................................................................................97 Figure 1.35: In Ghana, not even lower secondary school is sufficient to guarantee literacy .....................................................................97 Figure 1.36: Many adults in rich countries have low literacy and numeracy skills....................................................................................99 Figure 1.37: Adults lose numeracy skills over time, but those with less education lose them faster ....................................................100 Figure 1.38: In Canada, indigenous people have lower literacy skills ......................................................................................................101 Figure 1.39: There has been progress in reducing gender disparity but girls still face major obstacles gaining access to school ......................................................................................................................................................109 Figure 1.40: Poor girls have a lower chance of starting primary school ..................................................................................................110 Figure 1.41: Girls outperform boys in reading while boys often do better in mathematics.....................................................................111 Figure 1.42: The gender gap in reading has widened ...............................................................................................................................112 Figure 1.43: In Bangladesh, there are increasingly more girls than boys in secondary school ..............................................................115 Figure 1.44: In Trinidad and Tobago, boys — especially from poor and rural households — face acute disadvantage in participation and achievement ..................................................................................................................116 Figure 1.45: Boys are more likely than girls to be engaged in economic activity, and those who work are more likely not to attend school ............................................................................................................................................................117 Figure 1.46: In several countries, socio-economic status amplifies the gender difference in learning achievement ...........................118 Figure 1.47: Even if they progress through the grades, many primary school children do not acquire basic knowledge and skills ......................................................................................................................................................125 Figure 1.48: Cross-country inequality in primary school participation is much smaller than inequality in learning outcomes ...........126 viii
  13. 13. list of figures, tables and text boxes Figure 1.49: Learning achievement varies by socio-economic status ......................................................................................................127 Figure 1.50: Learning outcomes are very low for disadvantaged students in middle income countries – but can improve rapidly ....128 Figure 2.1: Spending on education has increased or been maintained in most countries ......................................................................142 Figure 2.2: Aid to education is an important share of resources for poor countries ...............................................................................146 Figure 2.3: Aid to education stagnated in 2010..........................................................................................................................................148 Figure 2.4: The three donors that made the largest increases in aid in 2009 made cuts in 2010 ...........................................................148 Figure 2.5: The Gleneagles target was missed and total aid even decreased in 2011.............................................................................149 Figure 2.6: Most donors reduced aid as a share of their national income in 2011 ..................................................................................150 Figure 2.7: Projections show overall aid levels flattening out ..................................................................................................................151 Figure 2.8: Ghana’s increased revenue is set to boost expenditure on reducing poverty .......................................................................162 Figure 2.9: Natural resource revenue could significantly increase education budgets ..........................................................................163 Figure 2.10: The motivation of private engagement in education ranges from philanthropy to corporate interest ...............................165 Figure 2.11: Education funding from the largest foundations is dwarfed by donor aid ...........................................................................166 Figure 3.1: In many countries, more than half the population is younger than 25 ..................................................................................178 Figure 3.2: The youth population in sub-Saharan Africa will continue to grow at a fast pace.................................................................179 Figure 3.3: Many young people are unable to acquire foundation skills ..................................................................................................181 Figure 3.4: Youth from wealthy households are more likely to have foundation skills ...........................................................................183 Figure 3.5: Wealth gaps widen as education levels increase ...................................................................................................................184 Figure 3.6: Gender gaps are often larger among the poorest ..................................................................................................................185 Figure 3.7: Youth from urban areas are more likely to acquire foundation skills ...................................................................................186 Figure 3.8: Gender gaps in foundation skills are wide in some states in India ........................................................................................186 Figure 3.9: In rich countries, young people struggle with problem-solving skills ...................................................................................188 Figure 3.10: Education can improve problem-solving skills.....................................................................................................................189 Figure 3.11: Youth unemployment is more than double adult unemployment in many countries ..........................................................193 Figure 3.12: Young people with low levels of education have been hit harder by the economic crisis in Europe ..................................195 Figure 3.13: In Jordan and Turkey, many young women are not seeking work .......................................................................................195 Figure 3.14: Low levels of education lead to working poverty ..................................................................................................................197 Figure 3.15: Unemployment versus working poverty in Brazil and Cameroon ........................................................................................198 Figure 3.16: Young women are often confined to low paid work ..............................................................................................................199 Figure 4.1: The Republic of Korea’s investment in skills development has contributed to its impressive economic growth ...............205 Figure 4.2: Donors spend around US$3 billion on skills development ....................................................................................................216 Figure 4.3: Aid to general secondary education and vocational training has increased over the past decade.......................................217 Figure 4.4: Skills development is a prominent part of aid spending for some donors ............................................................................218 Figure 4.5: For some donors, a large proportion of ‘aid’ never leaves the country .................................................................................219 Figure 5.1: Some young people do not even enter secondary school, and many do not complete it ......................................................230 Figure 5.2: Many European Union countries are not on target to reduce early school leaving...............................................................232 Figure 5.3: Low secondary enrolment, a smaller share in technical and vocational education .............................................................238 Figure 6.1: Wide disparities between urban rich and poor .......................................................................................................................259 Figure 6.2: The urban informal sector employs large numbers in low and middle income countries ...................................................261 Figure 7.1: Young women in rural areas are the most likely to lack foundation skills ...........................................................................280 Figure 7.2: Better educated rural youth tend to be in non-farm work ....................................................................................................283Tables Table 1.1: Key indicators for goal 1 ..............................................................................................................................................................39 Table 1.2: The ECCE index and its components, 2010 .................................................................................................................................46 Table 1.3: Key indicators for goal 2 ..............................................................................................................................................................58 Table 1.4: Financial constraints matter when a household decides not to send a child to school............................................................69 Table 1.5: Key indicators for goal 3 ..............................................................................................................................................................80 Table 1.6: G20 Multi-Year Action Plan on Development proposed indicators on skills acquisition ..........................................................82 Table 1.7: Key indicators for goal 4 ..............................................................................................................................................................90 Table 1.8: Key indicators for goal 5 ............................................................................................................................................................106 Table 1.9: Countries where the gender parity index is below 0.90, 2010..................................................................................................108 Table 1.10: Boys’ disadvantage in secondary school participation is more common in richer countries ...............................................114 Table 1.11: Key indicators for goal 6 ..........................................................................................................................................................122 Table 1.12: Characteristics of sampled populations in PISA, selected middle income countries relative to the OECD average...........129 ix
  14. 14. 2 0 1 2 list of figures, tables and text boxes Table 2.1: Public spending on education, by region and income level, 1999 to 2010 ...............................................................................141 Table 2.2: Total aid disbursements to education and basic education, by region and income level, 2002 to 2010.................................147 Table 2.3: Trends in expected aid to education from the ten largest donors to education ......................................................................150 Education for All Global Monitoring Report Table 2.4: Many resource-rich countries could reach Education for All if they raised more revenue and increased focus on education...........................................................................................................................................161 Table 2.5: Funding provided by foundations identified as supporting education in developing countries ..............................................166 Table 2.6: Corporations spending above US$5 million a year on education (2010 or closest available year).........................................167 Table 3.1: Current education status of 15- to 19-year-olds ......................................................................................................................180 Text boxes Box 1.1: Pre-schooling has striking benefits for school performance .......................................................................................................49 Box 1.2: Variations in pre-school in Peru widen inequality.........................................................................................................................56 Box 1.3: The Right to Education Act in India ................................................................................................................................................73 Box 1.4: HIV and AIDS remain prevalent in some countries .......................................................................................................................84 Box 1.5: Schoolchildren are not learning enough about HIV and AIDS in southern and eastern Africa ...................................................86 Box 1.6: Botswana curriculum boosts HIV and AIDS awareness................................................................................................................87 Box 1.7: Scaling up life skills and HIV education in India and Nigeria ........................................................................................................89 Box 1.8: Adult literacy among indigenous populations in high income OECD countries .........................................................................101 Box 1.9: Boys’ disadvantage in secondary school enrolment in Bangladesh...........................................................................................115 Box 1.10: In Trinidad and Tobago, boys are at a disadvantage in secondary education...........................................................................116 Box 2.1: Estimating the contributions of national governments and aid donors to education spending ................................................145 Box 2.2: Aid cuts by the Netherlands jeopardize education gains ............................................................................................................149 Box 2.3: Aid effectiveness and the Global Partnership for Education ......................................................................................................153 Box 2.4: Getting a better deal for Zambia’s mineral resources................................................................................................................158 Box 2.5: Chad’s unsuccessful Oil Revenue Management Law..................................................................................................................159 Box 2.6: Ghana’s natural wealth: a new source of education financing ...................................................................................................162 Box 2.7: The many faces of private contributions to education ................................................................................................................165 Box 2.8: Leveraging private resources to improve the quality of education ............................................................................................168 Box 3.1: Measuring foundation skills of young people ..............................................................................................................................180 Box 3.2: How many young people need a second chance? .......................................................................................................................182 Box 3.3: Building self-esteem through education: evidence from Mumbai .............................................................................................190 Box 3.4: Decent and productive work for all: employment in the MDGs ..................................................................................................191 Box 3.5: In India and Pakistan, working women with more education reap benefits...............................................................................196 Box 3.6: High unemployment in Brazil, low paid work in Cameroon........................................................................................................198 Box 4.1: Prioritizing skills development as a response to youth unemployment ....................................................................................204 Box 4.2: Skills and growth — comparing Ghana and the Republic of Korea ............................................................................................207 Box 4.3: Ethiopia aims for growth through comprehensive skills planning .............................................................................................210 Box 4.4: Sierra Leone’s youth employment strategy needs to reach all those lacking foundation skills ...............................................212 Box 4.5: Measuring aid for skills development .........................................................................................................................................217 Box 4.6: Private foundations can reach disadvantaged youth through productive partnerships ............................................................222 Box 4.7: Tunisia’s training fund reaches large numbers of unemployed youth .......................................................................................225 Box 5.1: Early school leaving is a challenge in Europe .............................................................................................................................232 Box 5.2: Challenges of linking primary and secondary schooling in Zambia ...........................................................................................233 Box 5.3: Abolishing secondary school fees in Kenya.................................................................................................................................235 Box 5.4: In Ghana, technical and vocational subjects are better resourced in urban schools than in rural ones ..................................241 Box 5.5: How does Germany’s successful dual model work? ...................................................................................................................245 Box 5.6: Egypt adopts the German model with success ...........................................................................................................................246 Box 5.7: Affordable new and old technology can improve learning for disadvantaged groups ...............................................................248 Box 5.8: Reducing dropout in secondary education in the Philippines through flexible provision ..........................................................249 Box 5.9: Reconnecting young people with school and work in New York City..........................................................................................250 Box 6.1: Many young people in Nairobi slums lack education and training opportunities ......................................................................259 Box 6.2: Defining the urban informal sector .............................................................................................................................................260 Box 6.3: India’s skills strategy recognizes training needs for the urban informal sector .......................................................................264 Box 6.4: Enhancing outcomes of South Africa’s Expanded Public Works Programme through skills training ......................................268 Box 6.5: Peru’s PROJoven programme helps young people find better jobs ...........................................................................................269 Box 7.1: A second chance for Malawi’s primary school dropouts ............................................................................................................285 Box 7.2: Bringing skills to adolescent girls in rural Egypt ........................................................................................................................286 Box 7.3: BRAC tackles multiple faces of poverty with training .................................................................................................................287 Box 7.4: Camfed provides business skills to poor young rural women ....................................................................................................291 x
  15. 15. OVERVIEWOverviewWith just three years to go until the deadline Monitoring the Educationfor the Education for All goals that were setin Dakar, Senegal, it is vitally urgent to ensure for All goalsthat the collective commitments made by164 countries in 2000 are met. Lessons also The six Education for All goalsneed to be drawn to inform the definition offuture international education goals and the Expand early childhood care and educationdesign of mechanisms to make sure that all Early childhood is the critical period in which topartners live up to their promises. lay the foundations for success in education and beyond, so early childhood care and educationUnfortunately, this year’s EFA Global Monitoring should be at the centre of EFA and broaderReport shows that progress towards many of development agendas.the goals is slowing down, and that most EFAgoals are unlikely to be met. Despite the gloomy Children who are hungry, malnourished or illoutlook overall, progress in some of the world’s are not in a position to gain the skills needed forpoorest countries shows what can be achieved later learning and employment. There are signswith the commitment of national governments that early childhood health is improving, but fromand aid donors, including greater numbers a very low base in some countries and not fastof children attending pre-school, completing enough to meet international development goals.primary school and making the transition to The annual rate of decline in child mortalitysecondary education. accelerated from 1.9% in 1990–2000 to 2.5% in 2000–2010. Recent estimates suggest thatThe 2012 EFA Global Monitoring Report is divided just over half the decline in child deaths can beinto two parts. Part I provides a snapshot of attributed to more education among women ofprogress towards the six EFA goals, and towards reproductive age.spending on education to finance the goals. Part IIturns to the third EFA goal, paying particular While it is encouraging that today 3 moreattention to the skills needs of young people. children survive for every 100 born than in 1990, © Giacomo Pirozzi/PANOS 1
  16. 16. 2 0 1 2 OVERVIEW there are still 28 countries, 25 of which are in Recent evidence based on the 2009 survey in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 10 in 100 the OECD Programme for International Student Education for All Global Monitoring Report children die before the age of 5. Assessment (PISA) shows that in fifty-eight out of sixty-five countries, 15-year-old students An important factor behind child deaths is who had attended at least a year of pre-primary malnutrition, which also hinders children’s school outperformed students who had not, cognitive development and capacity to learn. even after accounting for socio-economic Stunting, or being short for one’s age, is the background. In Australia, Brazil and Germany, clearest sign of malnutrition. Globally, the average benefit after controlling for socio- 171 million children under age 5 were affected by economic background was equivalent to one moderate or severe stunting in 2010. By 2015, on year of schooling. current trends, the number of children suffering from stunting will still be as high as 157 million, Since 1999, the number of children enrolled in or around one in four children under 5. pre-school has risen by almost half. However, this still leaves more than one in two children not Children in rural areas and from poor attending, rising to five out of six in the poorest households suffer more because nutrition is countries. The groups that would benefit the not just a matter of general availability of food. most from pre-school are missing out the most. Rather it is also a matter of access to food, good In Nigeria, about two out of three children from health care, water and sanitation services, from the richest 20% of households attend pre-school, which the poorest are often denied. For example, compared with less than one in ten from the in Nepal, the stunting rate was 26% among the poorest 20% of households. richest children and 56% among the poorest, with corresponding rates of 27% in urban and Underinvestment is a key reason for low 42% in rural areas. Ongoing food price instability, coverage of pre-schooling. This level accounts climate change and conflict make improving for less than 10% of the education budget nutrition a challenge in many parts of the world. in most countries, and its share tends to be particularly low in poor countries. Nepal and the But the contrasting experience of many Niger spend under 0.1% of GNP on pre-school, countries shows that political commitment can and Madagascar and Senegal less than 0.02%. markedly improve nutrition. Within less than two decades, Brazil managed to eliminate an One consequence of low government investment urban-rural gap in malnutrition thanks to a is that the average share of enrolment in private combination of improved education of mothers, pre-school is 33%. In the Syrian Arab Republic, access to maternal and child health services, with a pre-primary gross enrolment ratio of provision of water and sanitation, and targeted 10%, the share of private provision was 72%. social transfers. Over the same period, rates This indicates demand that is not met by the of malnutrition, particularly in rural areas, in public sector. countries such as the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Guatemala and Peru, remained higher It seems unlikely that expanding fee-charging than expected for their income level. private pre-schools will reach more of the poorest households, whose children are those Good quality pre-school programmes are also least likely to be enrolled. In India’s Andhra vital to prepare young children for school. Pradesh state, pre-school enrolment in rural Evidence from places as diverse as Australia, areas is highest among the richest 20% of India, Mozambique, Turkey and Uruguay households, where almost one-third of children demonstrates the short- and long-term benefits attend private institutions. Almost all children of pre-primary education. These range from a in pre-school from the poorest households are head-start in literacy and numeracy skills to served by government providers. improved attention, effort and initiative – all of which lead to better education and employment Where children live can also determine the outcomes. quality of the service. In rural areas of China, 2
  17. 17. OVERVIEWPeru and the United Republic of Tanzania, 40 million children of primary school age out ofchildren who make it to pre-school are school, but have subsequently progressed at verymore likely than urban children to be in an different speeds. Between 1999 and 2008, theovercrowded class with fewer qualified teachers number of out-of-school children in South andand fewer learning resources. West Asia fell by 26 million, while the reduction in sub-Saharan Africa was a more modest 13To ensure that all children reap the benefits million. Between 2008 and 2010, out-of-schoolof pre-school, reforms are needed, including numbers increased in sub-Saharan Africa by 1.6expanding facilities and making sure they are million, but declined by 0.6 million in South andaffordable, identifying appropriate ways to West Asia. Sub-Saharan Africa now accounts forlink pre-schools with primary schools, and half of the world’s out-of-school children.coordinating pre-school activities with widerearly childhood interventions. Among countries with data, twelve account for almost half of the global out-of-schoolThe importance of making balanced efforts to population. Nigeria heads the list with one inimprove conditions for young children is further six of the world’s out-of-school children, a totalhighlighted by a new index developed for this of 10.5 million. It had 3.6 million more childrenyear’s Report, which evaluates progress on this out of school in 2010 than in 2000. By contrast,goal and its three main components: health, Ethiopia and India managed to reduce theirnutrition and education. numbers of out-of-school children dramatically. In India, there were 18 million fewer children outSome countries score almost equally well on of school in 2008 than in 2001.all three indicators (such as Chile) or equallypoorly (such as the Niger). Others have a very Among those out of school, some may enterhigh or very low score for one dimension relative late, while others may have dropped out andto their overall standing in the index scale, many may never enrol. In 2010, 47% of childrenwhich reveals specific challenges. For example, out of school were likely never to enrol. TheJamaica and the Philippines both have a child proportion was highest in low income countries,mortality rate of about 30 per thousand live where 57% of out-of-school children couldbirths but have very different education records. expect never to enrol. Girls were more likelyOnly 38% of children aged 3 to 7 were enrolled in than boys to belong to this group.a pre-primary or primary school programme inthe Philippines, compared with 90% in Jamaica. Just five years before 2015, twenty-nineThis highlights the need to invest in integrated countries had a net enrolment ratio of lessapproaches that give equal importance to all than 85%. These countries are very unlikely toaspects of early childhood development. achieve the goal of UPE by the deadline. Children of official school starting age whoAchieve universal primary education did not enter school by 2010 will not be able toOn current trends, the goal of universal primary complete the primary cycle by 2015. In 2010,education (UPE) will be missed by a large there were seventy countries with a net intakemargin. The major push towards getting more rate below 80%.children into school that was kick-started atthe World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000 The challenge of UPE is to get children intois grinding to a halt. The number of primary school at the correct age and to ensure thatschool age children out of school has fallen from they progress through the system and complete108 million to 61 million since 1999, but three- the education cycle. Analysis for this Reportquarters of this reduction was achieved between shows that, across twenty-two countries with1999 and 2004. Between 2008 and 2010, progress household survey data between 2005 and 2010,stalled altogether. 38% of students entering school were two or more years older than the official age. In theSouth and West Asia and sub-Saharan Africa sub-Saharan African countries included in thestarted from similar positions in 1999 with around analysis, 41% of the children starting primary 3
  18. 18. 2 0 1 2 OVERVIEW school were two or more years older than the Abolishing formal school fees has been a official school entry age. fundamental step towards realizing UPE. But Education for All Global Monitoring Report it is also important for governments to take More children from poor households start late, complementary measures, such as grants for usually because they live too far from school, schools to help them cover their costs so that their health and nutritional status is worse they do not informally impose other charges and/or their parents may be less aware of on parents. Social protection measures, such the importance of sending children to school as cash transfers, are vital to ensure that poor on time. In Colombia, 42% from the poorest households have the financial means to cover households started two or more years late, all school costs without compromising their compared with 11% from the richest households. spending on other basic needs. Steps also need to be taken to ensure that the ability of richer Late entry influences whether children complete households to spend more on private schooling the education cycle. By grade 3, children who and private tuition does not lead to widening have entered late can be four times as likely to of inequality. drop out as children who started school at the correct age. Promote learning and life skills Poverty also has a negative effect on children’s for young people and adults likelihood of leaving school early. In Uganda, The social and economic challenges of recent 97 out of every 100 children from the richest years have focused attention on the availability of quintile entered primary school and 80 reached skills and learning opportunities for the young. the last grade in 2006; of children from the As the thematic part of this Report details, these bottom quintile, 90 out of 100 entered school challenges are bringing a sense of urgency to but only 49 reached the last grade. an important goal that has not been given the attention it deserves because of the ambiguity To tackle the barriers that prevent disadvantaged of the commitments made when the EFA goals children from entering on time and progressing were established in 2000. through school, system-wide reforms are needed. In many countries, cost is the primary Formal secondary schooling is the most effective reason parents do not enrol their children in way to develop the skills needed for work and school or take them out of school. Even after life. Despite a global increase in the number of school fees have been formally abolished, children enrolling in secondary school, the gross official or unofficial fees still accounted for enrolment ratio for lower secondary school was almost 15% of such spending in eight countries just 52% in low income countries in 2010, leaving analysed for this Report. millions of young people to face life without the foundation skills they need to earn a decent Richer households are able to spend living. Worldwide, 71 million adolescents of lower significantly more on their children’s education, secondary school age were out of school in 2010. improving their opportunities for better quality The number has stagnated since 2007. Three out schooling. This includes spending more on of four out-of-school adolescents live in South private schooling or private tuition. In Nigeria, and West Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. the richest 20% of households spend more than ten times as much as the poorest 20% There are 25% more children in secondary for children to attend primary school. Even low school today than in 1999. Sub-Saharan Africa fee private schooling is out of reach for the has doubled the number of students enrolling poorest households. Sending three children to over the period, yet has the world’s lowest total a school in a Lagos slum costs the equivalent secondary enrolment ratio, at 40% in 2010. of 46% of the minimum wage. In Bangladesh and Egypt, the richest households spend four Some young people develop skills through times as much as the poorest households on technical and vocational education. The proportion supplementary tuition, and are more likely to of secondary school pupils enrolled in such invest in such tuition in the first place. programmes has remained at 11% since 1999. 4
  19. 19. OVERVIEWSkills are not only developed in school. if, for example, they do not feel empowered toInternational organizations have a range of take the right action at the right time.frameworks for categorizing skills and skillsdevelopment programmes. But twelve years Life skills education with a focus on HIV andafter the EFA goals were established in Dakar, AIDS encourages young people to adoptthe international community is still a long way attitudes and behaviour that protect theirfrom agreeing what constitutes progress in health, for example by empowering them‘equitable access to appropriate learning and life to negotiate sexual relations. It does this byskills programmes’ (the core of goal 3), agreeing addressing psychosocial and interpersonalon a coherent set of internationally comparable skills such as assertive communication,indicators and assessing whether progress is self-esteem, decision-making and negotiation.being made. There are promising signs that Life skills programmes that approach sensitivethe situation may be changing, but recent issues in ways that allow student engagementdevelopments will not produce sufficient data should be introduced to complement topics inin time to measure goal 3 adequately before the the curriculum such as health education anddeadline has passed. broader HIV and AIDS education.Any post-2015 international goals for skillsdevelopment need to be more precisely defined Reduce adult illiteracy by 50%and to set out clearly how progress can be Literacy is crucial for adults’ social andmeasured. This should be based on a realistic economic well-being – and that of their children.assessment of information that can be collected, Yet progress on this goal has been very limited,in order to avoid the problems that have plagued largely as a result of government and donorefforts to monitor goal 3. indifference. There were still 775 million adults who could not read or write in 2010. Half wereThe Dakar Framework for Action specified in South and West Asia, and over a fifth insome risks from which young people need to be sub-Saharan Africa.protected by developing the relevant life skills.One of those risks was HIV and AIDS. HIV-related In 81 out of the 146 countries with data forknowledge remains low. Recent global estimates 2005–2010, more women than men are illiterate.based on 119 countries show only 24% of young Of these countries, twenty-one display extremewomen and 36% of young men aged 15 to 24 gender disparity, with fewer than seven literatebeing able to identify ways of preventing the women for every ten literate men.sexual transmission of HIV and to reject majormisconceptions about its transmission. Globally the adult literacy rate has increased over the past two decades, from 76% in 1985–1994Knowledge of HIV and AIDS is low even in to 84% in 2005–2010. But among forty-threecountries with high prevalence rates. In 2007, countries with an adult literacy rate below 90% inabout 60,000 grade 6 students (aged around 13, 1998–2001 only three will reach the target ofon average) in 15 countries of southern and reducing illiteracy by 50% by 2015. Some countrieseastern Africa were assessed on their knowledge are likely to miss the target by a very wideof HIV and AIDS. The test focused on the official margin. And while some in the latter group havecurriculum frameworks for HIV education made significant gains – such as Mali, whichadopted by ministries of education in the doubled its literacy rate – others, like Madagascar,participating countries. The results suggest have experienced a decline in the last decade.ineffective implementation and possibly poordesign of the official curriculum. On average, Almost three-quarters of adults who areonly 36% of students reached the minimum illiterate live in just ten countries. Of the globalrequired knowledge levels and just 7% reached total, 37% live in India. In Nigeria, the number ofthe desirable level. illiterate adults has increased by 10 million over the past two decades, to reach 35 million.It is not enough to ensure that youth know how to An important question is whether these dataprotect their own health and the health of others present the full extent of the problem. Adults are 5

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