Logos• Effective presentation of the argument• Quality of the thesis/claim, the evidence, and the organization• Logos relies on logic or reason• Depends on the use of inductive or deductive reasoning
Using Logic: Inductive Reasoning• Scientific method• Collect evidence on which to base a generalization• Specific Examples- General Statement• Most common
Using Logic: Deductive Reasoning• More formal & complex• Generalization- Specific Conclusion• Syllogism – Major Premise – Minor Premise – Conclusion
Avoiding Logical Fallacies• Oversimplification• Generalization• Post Hoc• Circular Reasoning• False Analogy• Either/or thinking• Non Sequitur• Ad hominem
NAME THE LOGICALFALLACY!
Maple got a shock right after she came home from the hair salon.Therefore, Maple should never go to the hair salon again.
Comparing highschool to a prison isa(n) ______________
The president of a corporation praises hisemployees’ productivitybut then claims that theconference room needs more plants.
Romantic comedies are the best type of movie because romantic comedies are better than horror movies, dramas, other comedies, and foreign films.
We need to continue testing medicine onanimals. If we stop, we’llnever again find another cure for a disease.
Ethos• Based on the character, credibility, or reliability of the writer. Establish this by: – Using only credible, reliable sources and cite properly – Respecting the reader by stating the opposing position accurately – Establishing common ground with your audience. – Disclosing why you are interested in this topic or what personal experiences you have had with the topic – Organizing your argument in a logical, easy to follow manner – Proofreading the argument
Pathos• Emotional appeal• Appeals to an audiences needs, values, and emotional sensibilities.• Sources: – Interviews – Anecdotes
ELEMENTS OF ANARGUMENT
Claims• Thesis Statement• Position that the writer will argue for• Appears in introduction• 4 Types: – Claim of Fact – Claim of Value – Claim of Policy/Statement – Claim of Cause and Effect
Evidence• Sources: – Facts & statistics – Examples & narratives – Quotations• Criteria: – Accuracy: taken from reliable sources – Representation: reflect reality – Relevance: current – Adequacy: sufficient and appropriate
Assumptions• Warrants/Bridges• Connection between the evidence and the claims
Counterclaims & Rebuttals• Consider and acknowledge well- known opposing arguments. Why?• Offer evidence that either negates, disagrees, or weakens the counterclaim. Why?
Choosing a Topic• Ask yourself: – Does the topic interest you? – Is this idea generally accepted? – Have you considered both sides? – Is it appropriate in scope? • If not, include specific information, connections, and reasons. Try it with these: – American high schools do not adequately prepare students for college. – The drinking age should be changed.
Considering the Audience What are the interests and values of your audience? Has your audience already established a position? What evidence or reasons will they find compelling? What is the temperament of your audience?• Establish tone• Establish common ground with your audience• State positions that you have in common• Designate areas of mutual agreement/possible compromise
Organization• Introduction: – Set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. – Explain why the topic is important or why readers should care about the issue. – Present a clear, concise, and defined thesis statement.• Body Paragraphs – Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea – Must have some logical connection to the thesis statement – Explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis• Conclusion – Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, and review your thesis. – Offer a suggestion for future research and/or implications