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Logical Fallacies
Errors in
reasoning that
invalidate the
argument
Ad Hominem – “Argument against
the man”
• Unfairly attacking a person instead of the
issue
• Attacking the character and/or reputation
of a position’s supporters; “Guilt by
association”
•Example: We cannot listen to John’s opinion
on global warming because he is a tree hugger.
Begging the Question
• The opinion to be proved is given as if it
were already proved.
• Example:
Global warming doesn’t exist because the
earth is not getting warmer.
False Cause (Cause and Effect)
• Citing a false or remote cause to explain a
situation
• Example:
The increase in global warming in the past
decade is because more teenagers are
using hairspray.
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
(False Cause)
• “After this, therefore because of this”
• Assuming that because two things
happened, the first one caused the
second one
• Example:
Every time my brother Bill uses hairspray,
it is an extremely hot day.
Either or Fallacy
• Discussing an issue as if there are only
two alternatives
• This fallacy ignores any other possible
alternatives
• Example:
We either ban hairspray or the world will
end.
Evasion
• Ignoring or evading the questions
• Example:
Reporter: “Senator, what is your view on
global warming?
Senator: “Global warming is definitely
something we need to look into.”
False Analogy
• Making a comparison between two
subjects that have more dissimilarities
than similarities.
• Example:
Using hairspray everyday is like launching
a nuclear weapon.
Oversimplification
• Making a complicated issue seem very
simple by using simple terms or
suppressing information
• Example:
Global warming is caused by using
hairspray and other beauty products.
Rationalization
• Giving incorrect reasons to justify your
position
• Example:
I don’t believe in global warming because I
like using hairspray.
Red Herring
• Presenting an argument unrelated to your
subject in order to distract the reader
• Example:
In order to really look at the problem of
global warming, we must first consider
how the homeless suffer when it is cold.
Slippery Slope
• Implying that one small step in the wrong
direction will cause catastrophic results
• Example:
If we use just one more can of hairspray
this month, earth as we know it will no
longer exist.
Two wrongs make a right
• Defending something done wrong by citing
another incident of wrong doing
• Example
American does not need to regulate
pollution because China is producing
more pollution than we are.
Hasty Generalization
• An inference drawn from insufficient
evidence
• It is warmer this year in Las Vegas as
compared to last year; therefore, global
warming is rapidly accelerating.
Straw Man
• An argument in which an opponent’s
position is represented as being more
extreme than it actually is
• Al Gore feels that all companies are
irresponsible and should be punished for
allowing emissions which causes global
warming.
Equivocation
• Juvenile tricks of language
• If there really is global warming, how come
it is cooler in Fullerton this year?
Non Sequitur
• “It does not follow”
• Argument in which claims, reasons, or
warrants fail to connect logically.
• Example
We should stop using hairspray because it
is snowing in New York.

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Logical fallacy examples

  • 1. Logical Fallacies Errors in reasoning that invalidate the argument
  • 2. Ad Hominem – “Argument against the man” • Unfairly attacking a person instead of the issue • Attacking the character and/or reputation of a position’s supporters; “Guilt by association” •Example: We cannot listen to John’s opinion on global warming because he is a tree hugger.
  • 3. Begging the Question • The opinion to be proved is given as if it were already proved. • Example: Global warming doesn’t exist because the earth is not getting warmer.
  • 4. False Cause (Cause and Effect) • Citing a false or remote cause to explain a situation • Example: The increase in global warming in the past decade is because more teenagers are using hairspray.
  • 5. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (False Cause) • “After this, therefore because of this” • Assuming that because two things happened, the first one caused the second one • Example: Every time my brother Bill uses hairspray, it is an extremely hot day.
  • 6. Either or Fallacy • Discussing an issue as if there are only two alternatives • This fallacy ignores any other possible alternatives • Example: We either ban hairspray or the world will end.
  • 7. Evasion • Ignoring or evading the questions • Example: Reporter: “Senator, what is your view on global warming? Senator: “Global warming is definitely something we need to look into.”
  • 8. False Analogy • Making a comparison between two subjects that have more dissimilarities than similarities. • Example: Using hairspray everyday is like launching a nuclear weapon.
  • 9. Oversimplification • Making a complicated issue seem very simple by using simple terms or suppressing information • Example: Global warming is caused by using hairspray and other beauty products.
  • 10. Rationalization • Giving incorrect reasons to justify your position • Example: I don’t believe in global warming because I like using hairspray.
  • 11. Red Herring • Presenting an argument unrelated to your subject in order to distract the reader • Example: In order to really look at the problem of global warming, we must first consider how the homeless suffer when it is cold.
  • 12. Slippery Slope • Implying that one small step in the wrong direction will cause catastrophic results • Example: If we use just one more can of hairspray this month, earth as we know it will no longer exist.
  • 13. Two wrongs make a right • Defending something done wrong by citing another incident of wrong doing • Example American does not need to regulate pollution because China is producing more pollution than we are.
  • 14. Hasty Generalization • An inference drawn from insufficient evidence • It is warmer this year in Las Vegas as compared to last year; therefore, global warming is rapidly accelerating.
  • 15. Straw Man • An argument in which an opponent’s position is represented as being more extreme than it actually is • Al Gore feels that all companies are irresponsible and should be punished for allowing emissions which causes global warming.
  • 16. Equivocation • Juvenile tricks of language • If there really is global warming, how come it is cooler in Fullerton this year?
  • 17. Non Sequitur • “It does not follow” • Argument in which claims, reasons, or warrants fail to connect logically. • Example We should stop using hairspray because it is snowing in New York.