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Logical fallacy examples


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Fallacy examples

Published in: Education

Logical fallacy examples

  1. 1. Logical Fallacies Errors in reasoning that invalidate the argument
  2. 2. Ad Hominem – “Argument against the man” • Unfairly attacking a person instead of the issue • Attacking the character and/or reputation of a position’s supporters; “Guilt by association” •Example: We cannot listen to John’s opinion on global warming because he is a tree hugger.
  3. 3. Begging the Question • The opinion to be proved is given as if it were already proved. • Example: Global warming doesn’t exist because the earth is not getting warmer.
  4. 4. False Cause (Cause and Effect) • Citing a false or remote cause to explain a situation • Example: The increase in global warming in the past decade is because more teenagers are using hairspray.
  5. 5. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (False Cause) • “After this, therefore because of this” • Assuming that because two things happened, the first one caused the second one • Example: Every time my brother Bill uses hairspray, it is an extremely hot day.
  6. 6. Either or Fallacy • Discussing an issue as if there are only two alternatives • This fallacy ignores any other possible alternatives • Example: We either ban hairspray or the world will end.
  7. 7. Evasion • Ignoring or evading the questions • Example: Reporter: “Senator, what is your view on global warming? Senator: “Global warming is definitely something we need to look into.”
  8. 8. False Analogy • Making a comparison between two subjects that have more dissimilarities than similarities. • Example: Using hairspray everyday is like launching a nuclear weapon.
  9. 9. Oversimplification • Making a complicated issue seem very simple by using simple terms or suppressing information • Example: Global warming is caused by using hairspray and other beauty products.
  10. 10. Rationalization • Giving incorrect reasons to justify your position • Example: I don’t believe in global warming because I like using hairspray.
  11. 11. Red Herring • Presenting an argument unrelated to your subject in order to distract the reader • Example: In order to really look at the problem of global warming, we must first consider how the homeless suffer when it is cold.
  12. 12. Slippery Slope • Implying that one small step in the wrong direction will cause catastrophic results • Example: If we use just one more can of hairspray this month, earth as we know it will no longer exist.
  13. 13. Two wrongs make a right • Defending something done wrong by citing another incident of wrong doing • Example American does not need to regulate pollution because China is producing more pollution than we are.
  14. 14. Hasty Generalization • An inference drawn from insufficient evidence • It is warmer this year in Las Vegas as compared to last year; therefore, global warming is rapidly accelerating.
  15. 15. Straw Man • An argument in which an opponent’s position is represented as being more extreme than it actually is • Al Gore feels that all companies are irresponsible and should be punished for allowing emissions which causes global warming.
  16. 16. Equivocation • Juvenile tricks of language • If there really is global warming, how come it is cooler in Fullerton this year?
  17. 17. Non Sequitur • “It does not follow” • Argument in which claims, reasons, or warrants fail to connect logically. • Example We should stop using hairspray because it is snowing in New York.