Ad Hominem – “Argument against
• Unfairly attacking a person instead of the
• Attacking the character and/or reputation
of a position’s supporters; “Guilt by
•Example: We cannot listen to John’s opinion
on global warming because he is a tree hugger.
Begging the Question
• The opinion to be proved is given as if it
were already proved.
Global warming doesn’t exist because the
earth is not getting warmer.
False Cause (Cause and Effect)
• Citing a false or remote cause to explain a
The increase in global warming in the past
decade is because more teenagers are
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
• “After this, therefore because of this”
• Assuming that because two things
happened, the first one caused the
Every time my brother Bill uses hairspray,
it is an extremely hot day.
Either or Fallacy
• Discussing an issue as if there are only
• This fallacy ignores any other possible
We either ban hairspray or the world will
• Ignoring or evading the questions
Reporter: “Senator, what is your view on
Senator: “Global warming is definitely
something we need to look into.”
• Making a comparison between two
subjects that have more dissimilarities
Using hairspray everyday is like launching
a nuclear weapon.
• Making a complicated issue seem very
simple by using simple terms or
Global warming is caused by using
hairspray and other beauty products.
• Giving incorrect reasons to justify your
I don’t believe in global warming because I
like using hairspray.
• Presenting an argument unrelated to your
subject in order to distract the reader
In order to really look at the problem of
global warming, we must first consider
how the homeless suffer when it is cold.
• Implying that one small step in the wrong
direction will cause catastrophic results
If we use just one more can of hairspray
this month, earth as we know it will no
Two wrongs make a right
• Defending something done wrong by citing
another incident of wrong doing
American does not need to regulate
pollution because China is producing
more pollution than we are.
• An inference drawn from insufficient
• It is warmer this year in Las Vegas as
compared to last year; therefore, global
warming is rapidly accelerating.
• An argument in which an opponent’s
position is represented as being more
extreme than it actually is
• Al Gore feels that all companies are
irresponsible and should be punished for
allowing emissions which causes global
• Juvenile tricks of language
• If there really is global warming, how come
it is cooler in Fullerton this year?
• “It does not follow”
• Argument in which claims, reasons, or
warrants fail to connect logically.
We should stop using hairspray because it
is snowing in New York.