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Slaves, Witches and Colonists

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The strange events of witchcraft and politics in colonial New York and Connecticut during the 17th and 18th century.

The strange events of witchcraft and politics in colonial New York and Connecticut during the 17th and 18th century.

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Slaves, Witches and Colonists Slaves, Witches and Colonists Presentation Transcript

  • Slaves & Witches in the Bronx Special Thanks: Jacob Leisler Paper ProjectMonday, December 17, 2012
  • Triangle Trade Linked Old World and New to AfricaMonday, December 17, 2012
  • New Amsterdam and New York are at the center of the slave trade New York Slave Market on Wall St. Slave Auction in New AmsterdamMonday, December 17, 2012
  • Slaves are mostly imported from Barbados into New York and some are taken from Africa.Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Bronx in the 17th Century with modern subway map Hunts Inn Bronx River Leggett Estate Grove Farm Slave Burying Ground Hunts PointMonday, December 17, 2012
  • 1664 Jessup and Richardson Rose Bank estate on Hunts Point, NY 1890. This may certify whom it may concerne that we Shonearoekite, Wapomoe, Tuckorre, Whawhapenucke, Capahase, Quannaco, Shaquiski, Passachahenne, Harrawooke, have aleined and sold unto Edward Jessup and John Richardson, both of the place above said, a certain Tract of land bounded on the east by the River Aquehung or Bronxkx... -from original deed with native signers 1664 The first landholders on Hunts Point were Edward Jessup and John Richardson. They bought the land from Native Americans. The land was inherited by both Gabriel Leggett (1637-1700) who married Elizabeth Richardson daughter of John Richardson, and Thomas Hunt II of Grove Farm, who married Jessup’s daughter also named Elizabeth.Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Whitfield House - Guilford CT. oldest Thomas Hunt, born about 1615-20 (no documentation of his stone house in New England 1639 birth or age found), probably at Keston (Keyston), Northants, probably came from there to the New Haven Colony in 1639 as an indentured servant to William Leete who was to become a Governor of the New Haven Colony On the first of March 1643 Thomas and his wife Cicely Clark, who was born about 1619 were ordered out of New Haven for keeping company with a man disliked by the ruling elders of New Haven. 1898 map showing the Lorrilard estate In 1652 Thomas Hunt bought from Augustine Harmons land on Spicer and at the site of Bracketts Neck which became the nucleus for his famous Grove Farm. He “Grove Farm” near apparently did not move there at that time because of disputes between the today’s Throggs English and the Dutch who at that time occupied and claimed the New Neck bridge. York area. On Sept. 6, 1664, Col. Nichols took possession of "New Amsterdam" and the English took over from the Dutch. Thomas Hunt moved on to his Westchester Grove farm and in October 1664 he is described as "a delegate from Westchester." From 1664 until his death in 1695 he resided on his Grove Farm. He left a will in which he identified his children as Thomas, Joseph, John, Josiah, and Abigail, and left his Grove Farm, entailed (to pass on to eldest sons of successors) to his grandson Josiah, son of Josiah, who was subsequently known as "Grove Siah." The pioneer Thomas Hunt left his Grove Farm to his grandson Josiah who left it to his son Jacob who died without heirs and title passed to Jacobs brother Caleb and then to Calebs son Gilbert, who died without children leaving a Will which authorized his mother, brothers, and unmarried sisters to live on the farm for 12 years after which it was to be sold and the proceeds divided. The property was sold by Gilberts brother Marmaduke in 1760, and then purchased in 1775 by John Ferris who was m. to Marianne (usually seen as Miana or Myana) Hunt.Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Thomas Hunt 1 1 March 1643, Goodman Hunt and his banished from New wife were banished from the New Haven Colony. Quoting from the Haven colony records, "Goodman Hunt and his wife for keepeing the councells of the said Willaim Harding, bakeing him a pasty and plum cakes, and keeping company with him on the Lords day, and she suffering Harding to kisse her, they being onely admitted to sojourne in this plantation upon their good behavior, was ordered to be sent out of the town with one moneth after the date hereof, yea in a shorter time, if any miscaryage be found in them." Mr. Harding himself was convicted "of a great deale of base carryage and filthy dalliances with divers yong girles, together with his inticeing and corrupting divers servants in this plantation, haunting with them in night meetings and juncketting etc." Hunt then buys 50 morgen (about 100 acres) of land on Throckmorton (Throggs) Neck in 1652Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Witches in Westchester Son and father Hunt intervene in a case of “witchcraft” in 1670 Witchcraft Trials of Connecticut: The First Comprehensive, Documented History of Witchcraft Trials in Colonial Connecticut R.G. Tomlinson http://tinyurl.com/8blmnwxMonday, December 17, 2012
  • On May 29, 1664, Jacob Leisler made his first known slave purchase when he bought "a Negro for 615 florins" from a shipment of 40 slaves on the Sparrow. Howard Pyle, "The First Slave Auction at New Amsterdam in 1655" (1917). Giving Names to the Nameless My negro man Mungo is to live on the farm seven years and then to be free Thomas Hunt About 1615 - 8 Feb 1693/94 "I leave to my son Moses Hunt... 5 shillings and my negro Robin.” To my daughter Phebe, so much of the rest of my personal estate as my executors shall think reasonable, and she is to maintain my woman slave Maria while she lives. Josiah Hunt 1665-1732 Abstracts of Wills on File in the Surrogate’s Office: City of New York - Volume 25 - Page 249Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Thomas Hunt has a change of heart While a single young woman, Katherine Harrison worked as a servant. She enjoyed telling the other servants their fortunes after having read a book on the subject and one of her fortunes concerning whom one of the servants would marry came true. Her husband died in August of 1666 and she was not well liked by her neighbors and was harassed by them. On October 12, 1669 she was brought before a jury and found guilty of witchcraft.The court was hesitant to have her executed. It called on a panel of ministers for advice on establishing rules of evidence and procedures making it much more difficult to convict someone of witchcraft. Katherine was released with the understanding that she leave Wethersfield for her own safety. Katherine went on to live in Westchester, New York. Trial of Kathryn Harrison http://www.jud.state.ct.usMonday, December 17, 2012
  • European traders from New Amsterdam taken as slaves: In 1676 John Leggett (1628-1679)“the mariner” (brother of Gabriel 1637-1700) builds a ship for merchant Jacob Leisler named Susannah (Leisler’s mother’s name). Built on the Bronx River that boat inaugurates shipbuilding in New Amsterdam. Leisler sailed the Susannah to Chesapeake picking up a cargo of tobacco and cow hides. North African Barbary pirates seized the ship in the English channel. Leisler was freed on payment of nearly 2000 pieces of eight raised from New York merchants. Excess money was seized by Governor Andros to build a Dutch church. The Human Tradition in the Atlantic World, 1500-1850 By Karen Racine, Beatriz Gallotti MamigonianMonday, December 17, 2012
  • Slave Trader as Slave Leisler is taken to Algiers where he is ransomed. slave market Algiers The "Jew Salooment" was active in ransoming the crew of Leislers Susannah as Dr. Mose Rafael Salom, a physician resident of Amsterdam and the son of Louis dAzevedo, a Netherlands national then living in Algiers. It is still unclear who advanced the funds for Leislers ransom, but he apparently left Algiers for London at the end of March under cover of Sir John Narboroughs fleet.Monday, December 17, 2012
  • *Frederick Philipse, friend of John Leggett, “the mariner,” was a large land and slave owner in Westchester and Barbados. *"Will of John Leggett of Westchester, made at Port Royall, in the Island of Jamaica, dated Oct. 2nd, 1679. Letters testamentary granted to Ffredrich Phillips, as Executor by Sir Edmund Andros, Feb 2nd, 1680.” - Philipse was executor of Leggett’s will in 1679. Recreation of Philips Manor in Westchester Frederick Philipse founds Philipsburg Manor in 1693 importing slaves to run his farm and mills. In 1790 there were 23 Philipsburg Manor slaves here.Monday, December 17, 2012
  • slaveholding Quaker Merchant Lewis Morris 1690 Lewis Morris First lord of the manor of Morrisania (15 October 1671 – 21 May 1746)Monday, December 17, 2012
  • James Graham, Attorney General of New York and father- in-law to Lewis Morris prosecutes Leisler for treason. In 1691, William and Mary (whose sovereignty Leisler was defending) ordered his arrest.  Leisler barricaded himself inside the fort with troops, but surrendered after six weeks of intermittent gunfire.  Eight were sentenced to die in the following manner: "hanged by the Neck and being Alive their bodys be Cutt Downe to the Earth that their Bowells be taken out and they being Alive burnt before their faces that their heads shall be struck off and their Bodys Cutt in four parts and which shall be Desposed of as their Majesties Pages of the earliest Minute shall Assigne." This execution divided the Book; New York Supreme Court populace for decades.  Leislers head was 1691-2 Historical sewn back on and he was buried with Document Collection. fanfare twice.  Relics survived and were Library, Queens College Flushing, venerated as pieces of a NY. Protestant martyr.Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Jacob Leisler is accused of “stealing” the government After the overthrow of James II merchant Jacob Leisler seized the Government of the Province of Engraving depicting colonial New York Governor Henry New York and was appointed Commander-in-Chief Sloughter signing Jacob by the Committee of Safety... the anti-Leislerians Leislers death warrant. found their revenge by securing Leislers sentence to death, and he was executed in New York, May 16, 1691.Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Gabriel Leggett (1637-1700) shares enmity of the large landowners with Leister’s opposition the the deposed King James II sparking class conflict in New York (Leggett inherited a portion of Hunts Point through his wife Elizabeth daughter of the John RIchardson.) “Old Gabriel had with his boldness evidently a violent spirit...”Gabriel Leggett was a strong opponent of Leislers claims and was byhis nature, no doubt, an extreme partisan. When, therefore, Leislercalled for volunteers to go to Canada against the French, heresisted the call he could make his personal and political enemies "whistle for it" He knew Leisler was ruling without authority; he believed that soon his rule would come to a disastrous end, that then all his acts, and those of his subordinates, would be declared illegal. He would not accept bail when illegally arrested and imprisoned for he was shrewd enough to know that bye and bye he could make his personal and political enemies "whistle for it" and that he did by heavy penalties for false imprisonment, as will presently appear by their petitions to Gov. Fletcher from in prison. EARLY SETTLERS OF WEST FARMS REV. THEODORE A. LEGGETT “Will of Gabriel Leggett”Monday, December 17, 2012
  • “Here comes the father of rogues” "Capt. Barnes upon his oath as a Justice of the peace saith that Capt. Williams and Gabriel Leggett being at his house was drinking together and he thinks Gabriel was a little overtaken in drink, but he called Capt. Williams thief, murderer & Iyer, & he would prove it, and repeated over many times, upon which Williams being provoked got out a writt 17th century rum against him. bottle“notories ill behaved & wicked maletious nature” To his excellency Benjamin fifletcher Capt. Genl and Gov"" of the Province of New York... Now soe itt be may itt Please yr Excellence that said G Legat having married one of the daughters of sd Richardson may have a right in due court of law to some of the land, &c., butt that not contenting the said Gabriel Legatt he being a person of notories ill behaved & wicked maletious nature... is in dayley feare of his being violently assaulted and abused by said Legatt as he daily threatens &c... --Thomas Williams (stepfather to Gabriel Leggett)Monday, December 17, 2012
  • "land which my Lord of London obtained of John her Majestie for the church at Westchester." Richardson John Bartow, rector of St. Peters Church 1628-1679 daughter At Town meeting May 5, 1696, Gabriel Legat and Josiah Hunt were appointed to oversee repairs to be made upon the Meeting House. 1700 It was not until 1700 that the town meeting Mary Joseph son George house, previously used for religious services, Richardson Hadley Hadley was abandoned, and a church was erected. husband sold 8 acres le Jan. 10, 1687/8 ge s sa llen By John Richardsons cha will the bulk of his property was left Thos. Gabriel Williams Crown St. Peters to his wife during life Leggett founded without other died 1698 Lands conditions. She was a 1637-1700 1693 rich widow, and her escheated sold marriage to Captain March 3, 1695 Williams was apparently marriage a great trial to the 1684 marriage heirs; but what seemed 1676 to exasperate Gabriel Martha the most was that Capt. Richardson Williams would not vacate the house after widow of John Elizabeth Marthas death; as Richardson Richardson appears by his petition to Gov. Fletcher. died 1694 1656-1724 Mary’s sisterMonday, December 17, 2012
  • Thomas Hunt II (1639-1719) marries Elizabeth Jessup their daughter Cicily Hunt marries John Leggett (1698) and by 1777 their children own the slaves Dick, Sharp, Titus, Bill, Bell, Bett and the “boys” Bill, Harry and Lew. British Troops Arrive in 1776 It is said that during the occupancy of the homestead by Lord Howe that at the first opportunity the daughters were rowed across the sound in the night by a negro slave to their Uncle Floyds so as to take them out of harms way. Boltons History of Westchester, Vol. II Grove Farm was part of the Throckmorton grant, today known as Throggs Neck in the Bronx. Thomas Hunt Established Grove Farm Sold to John Ferris in 1775 Throggs Neck, NYMonday, December 17, 2012
  • Hunts Point’s Slaves Joseph Rodman Drake Cemetery Slave Burying Ground The Hunt Leggett Cemetery in Hunts PointMonday, December 17, 2012
  • Indians were enslaved and were inherited • “By deed dated April 2, 1705, Westchester Records, L. 3, p. 165: Elizabeth Legatt of West Farms, widow, to her daughter Mary Legatt, gives "unto the said Mary Legatt, her heirs and assigns forever my two negro children born of the body of Hannah my negro woman, and of the issue of the body of Robin My Indian slave, the boy being named Abram, and the girl named Jenny.*” *EARLY SETTLERS OF WEST FARMS, WESTCHESTER COUNTY, N. Y. Reprinted from the New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, July, 1913.]Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Some natives were hiding out in a dense wetland now Bronxdale There may have been a Native American settlement there at one time: in Bear Swamp the early 1800s a basin for grindingFording Place near the Indian Village on the Bronx River corn was found cut into a rock 1868 www.nycgovparks.org outcrop. bronxriver.org Before the coming of the white man, this tree stood near the fording-place of the Indian tribes whose trail passed nearby ; down through a gap between rock ledges dashed the stream in a rapid to the point where the fresh water mingled with the salt, for then the tide rose and fell at that point, and the Indians found that at the join- DeLancey Pine ing of the waters, there was at all tides a shoal place suitable for wading the stream. The Indians, on their was used by way to the summer camps at what was afterwards Hunts rebel snipers Point, crossed over to the west bank of the stream and continued southward on a trail following the windings aiming at of the stream, and this stream they named the "Stream of British troops the High Banks" or "Aquehung" on account of the ledges near the near the big pine. Fording PlaceMorris Park Race Track located in Bronxdale until 1913 Valentines manual of old New York on the BronxMonday, December 17, 2012
  • Slave rebellions rocked New York in 1712 and1741Monday, December 17, 2012
  • * 1755 Slave Census St. Peters on Westchester Ave. Ferris family cemetery & Quaker Cemetery Westchester Square, Bronx * John Ferris bought Grove Farm in October of 1775. It was in the family for over a hundred years. Entrance to the Ferris Estate with Whitestone Bridge under construction 1938. * Westchester included the Bronx in 1755Monday, December 17, 2012
  • “Leggets slave Mercy...” Gabriel Legget, (1698-1786) a patriot slaveowner in lower Westchester County... was turned out of his farm by Major Bearmore of the British army in 1779, who then occupied his farm. Leggets slave Mercy and her two children left Legget shortly before his eviction from his property to live on Long Island with Stephen De Lancey. Leggets wife then arranged for her to live with Mr. Davenport at Morrisania and then with Capt. Kip, who had succeeded Bearmore in occupying Leggets property. After Kip turned Mercy out, Legget asked Mercys husband to build a hut for her on the Legget farm where her third child was born. Legget used his slaves family to maintain and safeguard his property during the emergency. Upon the withdrawal of British troops from the farm, Mercy and her three children went to New York City, where she sought freedom under the British proclamation. Legget claimed her as his property prior to her embarkation to go to Nova Scotia with the 1783 British evacuation of New York and had her brought on shore for examination. The board ordered Mercy and her children to be returned to Legget* Petition of Gabriel Legget, August 7, 1783 Board Meeting, British Headquarters Papers, Document Granite marker placed by David John Leggett and 10427, Manuscript Room, New York Public Library. his father John Milton Leggett in 2001 *The proximity of the British lines in New York City also encouraged Westchester slaves to run away from their masters and seek freedom within the British camps. The number of slaves decreased by 63.7 percent from 1771 to 1786 in Westchester County. This lost black population did not reappear in the 1790 census, as it did in the other southern New York counties.Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Abolitionists The slavery question interested Mrs. Leggett deeply and she was an ardent and outspoken Abolitionist. She was closely in touch with the Underground Railroad and helped many a poor creature to escape into Canada. Detroit Free Press - 10 February 1900 A story of survival in the Bronx during the American Revolution: Mayanna Hunt (1738-1809) as told by granddaughter Eliza Seaman Leggett Gerrit Smith So many homes were left unprotected with women and a few servants, perhaps slaves in those days... in those days farms were not bought by the acre but by the mile so Grove Farm extended for many miles. Grandfather was often way with his sloop, perhaps taking a load of oysters or farm truck to the city, New York... Now too there came tramping a set of these outlaws; our little grandmother knew no fear - but she knew well enough what this sudden incoming meant. Sojurner Truth Always there was a plan laid, if an attack threatened. Oh, the grand-mothers of the war time. She joked with the boys saying youve caught us this time, you are more lucky than those fellow who came around last, but be easy with us. Ill treat you well. The cider began to work, the hot good cakes did their share and knowing the man of the house was away, they ate and snoozed a little. Finally they went to the barns - to find that all the live stock had been driven to West Chester, and a small army of neighbors had come Laura Smith with guns to help their neighbor - they had been fairly beaten and no Haviland blood shed - then our little grandmother laid her hands on her hips Eliza Seaman Leggett (1815-1900) and laughed for she was a merry woman, and old Sam, the master Abolitionist and Suffrage Activist par excellence among the servants, said, "We did better then the Eliza’s grandfather James Ferris masta could." And for his ready wit was filled with cider and dough- bought Grove Farm in 1775 and was nuts. Journal of Elizabeth Seaman Leggett Detroit Public Library, The Burton Historical Collection, Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan. listed as a slave owner in the 1755 slave census.Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Aunt Rose Thomas Leggett Jr. in 1830 had a large retinue of colored help, some of whom had been slaves to his father and others who were children but were free now. They were almost all born on the place, and looked upon it as their home * Grove Farm Ferris The old cook who was always called old "Aunt Rose" had been a slave up to the year 1827 but remained on the place as well as all her children and grandchildren up to the Hunt Hunts death of my grandfather in the year 1843, Point when my grandfather had provided for the Leggett support of the old ones so long as they should live... When I was a young boy in 1830, my grandfather was an old man of 75 years of age. His then coachman, [John Cornell] whom I remember very well, was a grandson of the old cook "Rose" and his head man in the stables was the oldest son of the old cook and a nice old fellow he was. * View from Leggett estate in 1861Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Quaker Church Cemetery Saratoga New York Thomas Leggett Jr. Mary Underhill 1755-1843 1770-1849 Quaker burying ground, Bronx** Item: I authorize and direct my executors to make a provision out of my residuary estate for my faithful colored servant woman Rose, for her life not to exceed the rate of One hundred and fifty dollars per annum* to be computed from my decease and to be applied by my executors in such manner as they may think fit to her use and comfort. -Signed, sealed and declared as a codicil to his will by Thomas Leggett 1840. *about equal to the average wage of a female worker in 1840. **It did not become common for Quaker spouses to be buried together until the late 19th centuryMonday, December 17, 2012
  • Conflicting Stories About Aunt Rose Quaker Burying Ground “A faithful woman...” Thomas (Leggett 1755-1843) lies in the St. Peter’s "Friends Burial Place" perhaps always part of Church St. Peters yard, but bought by the Quakers next door]- and his old slave Rose ...........lies at his feet by his request, a faithful woman indeed. The Quakers liberated their slaves at a very early date but as a rule they remained in the family rearing their children there. - Elizabeth Seaman Legett’s Journal 1888Or last burial in the old slave burying ground? Joseph Rodman Drake Cemetery A clear recollection of the last black interred in the slave plot. This was an old negress named "Aunt Rose." She had formerly been a slave in the Legget family, but she and her children had been manumitted. Aunt Rose was something of a character in her way and a memory of her has consequently survived to the present time in Mr. Tiffanys family. She was buried in the slave plot some time away back in the forties. --Valentine’s Manual of Old New York 1920 Henry D. Tiffany was a descendant of the Leggett and Fox families of Hunts Point.Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Forgotten: Leggett’s and slave burying ground “In the latter part of March, 1891, I went with Mr. Francis H. Leggett to West Farms to be present at the opening of certain graves, which proved to be those of William Leggett, 3rd son of Gabriel 1st, and of his family and others. On the lawn of the big white house which for half a century has stood on this estate (on Hunts Point), grew six cedar trees until comparatively recent times, and tradition had told the owners that within the mound where they grew was an Indian burying-ground. Mr. J. L. Spofford, who now has control of this property, had his Hunt Mansion men dig into this mound, and found underneath lying flat, a gravestone bearing this inscription: "1744, Sarah Leggett — died Aug. 30, 1744. aged 52 yrs." Nine bodies were removed from this mound, or what was found of them, and buried in St. Peters yard at Westchester. They should not have been disturbed, for I have since learned that when the property was sold by the Leggetts it was with the understanding that, the stones being laid flat, they never should be removed. Some of these stones, I am told, can be seen as forming in part a rookery made by Mr. Spofford.” REV. THEODORE A. LEGGETT EARLY SETTLERS OF WEST FARMS, WESTCHESTER COUNTY, N.Y. Paul N. Spofford father of J.L. Spofford (1792-1869)Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Saving theHunt-Leggettcemetery inHunts Point --NYTimes 1903 Albert E. Davis letter to the NYTimes 1903Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Slave pilots guided ships through the harbor.“A tall, intelligent Negro, belonging to the Hunt family of the Bronx.” 1780 the frigate Hussar sinks with British army gold while trying to escape NY Hunts Point King George III on a golden guinea used to pay soldiersMonday, December 17, 2012
  • Deceptively serene the waters of Hell Gate were treacherous. On Wards Island Negro Point and Negro Point Bluff may hearken back to the days when local slaves piloted ships safely past submerged hazards. 1885 demolition of Pot Rock in Hell GateMonday, December 17, 2012
  • 1790 slave census shows the settler families in Hunts Point own large numbers of slavesSome Black people in New York were free by 1790Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Freedom came in various ways Manumission the act of a slave owner freeing his or her slaves. Charity Thomas was born on Saturday, 3 July 1734. She was the daughter of John Thomas. Charity married James Ferris II, son of James Ferris and Anne Sands, on 19 September 1753 at New York. On 14 April 1747, James & his family resided on property inherited from his father at Throggs Neck, Westchester County, New York. Twelfthly with respect to my slaves it is my wish and desire and I do order and direct that they be manumitted and liberated in the manner following my wench* Phebe is to be free immediately after my decease. My wench Betty and her infant child Eliza and two men Elijah and Abraham are to remain in the service of my son David as usual in the Farm for the term of one year from the time of my decease and then to be manumitted according to Law but if the Overseers of the Poor for the Town of Westchester shall after time refuse to manumit them as the Law directs then I direct my Executors to do it in such way as they shall judge most proper so that they may be actually free. My boy Israel is to live in the service and employ of my said son David as usual on the Farm until he shall be twenty one years of age and then to be free. 9 September 1807 *wench: housemaidMonday, December 17, 2012
  • Freedom Denied Born near Philipse Manor Rose Butler Challenged her owners who used petty laws and rules to keep her about 1799 as New York enslaved. began gradual emancipation. Rose Butler was 20 on July 9, 1819 when she became the only known person hung in Washington Square Park. Her crime was arson against her owner - resulting in light damage and no injuries. Slave holders used her as an example. Rose Butler is buried with about 20,000 others in potters field beneath the park. Before They Could Vote The 310 year old Hangman’s Elm in Washington Square Park. American Womens Autobiographical Writing, 1819–1919 Edited by Sidonie Smith and Julia WatsonMonday, December 17, 2012
  • Two “white” men where implicated in the arson attempt but never questioned. Corlaer’s Hook in 1876 The “Hook” was notorious in early New York for its dance halls and brothels catering to sailors.Monday, December 17, 2012
  • Proof of Innocence? Why was the William L. Morris house targeted for arson? “They advised me to burn the house and I refused, the shortest of the men said ‘he would burn her out;’ and further said, if I told of their conversation they would take away my life?” Apparently attacks continued after Rose was imprisoned. Before They Could Vote American Womens Autobiographical Writing, 1819–1919 Edited by Sidonie Smith and Julia WatsonMonday, December 17, 2012