Periodic Table Of Programming Languages


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Visualisation of the evolution of programming languages over the last 60 years

Periodic Table Of Programming Languages

  1. 1. THE PERIODIC TABLE OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES © Paul Bowler A E 1 2 Analytical Engine Visualisation of the evolution of popular programming languages ENIAC Short Order Code Code Mechanical Functional Ft Ag Cb L 3 4 5 6 Imperative Dynamic Fortran ALGOL Object Oriented Concurrent COBAL LISP Scripting Multi-paradigm Sn Bs Sm P B Lg 7 8 9 10 11 12 Declarative SNOWBOL BASIC Simula PL/1 B LOGO Fo Pc St Sq Pg C M Ml Sc 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Forth Pascal Smalltalk SQL Prolog C Modula ML Scheme Ad Cp Ef Oc Ps Tc Ht Pl Cl Er 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Ada C++ Eiffel Objective C PostScript Tcl HyperTalk Perl Common LISP Erlang Vb Dp Jv Py As Cf Js Pp Fs Hk 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Visual BASIC Delphi Java Python AppleScript Coldfusion JavaScript PHP F# HaskelEach row represents roughly a decade, The colours denote the programming Cs Sl Gv Rb G Cjstarting on the second row with the 1950s 42 43 44 45 46 47 paradigm that the language in questionup to the 2000s on the final row. The first originally supported or the primaryrow is pre-1950 with the two mechanical paradigm for which it is known. Someprogramming systems from which all others languages may have evolved to supporthave evolved - the first from around 1837 C# Scala Groovy Ruby GO Clojure other paradigms over time which are notcreated by Charles Babbage and Ada shown.Lovelace.