Programmatic approach for proven and climate friendly technologies


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Programmatic approach for proven and climate friendly technologies

  1. 1. Programmatic approach towards sustainable refrigeration, air conditioning and foam production GIZ Proklima International UNEP ECA Network Meeting 10th May 2011, Belgrade Bernhard Siegele, GIZ-ProklimaProjects funded by 24.05.2011 24.05.2011 Page 1 Seite 1
  2. 2. Since the 1st January 2011 the GTZ changed it’s name to GIZ dueto a merger with: DED – Deutscher Entwichlungsdienst GmbH InWent – Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH 24.05.2011 Page 2 Seite 2
  3. 3. Introduction GTZ Proklima GIZ Ltd. (GmbH) International cooperation enterprise for sustainable development with worldwide operations, established in 1975. Currently, ca. 2,600 development projects and programmes in 126 countries with 67 own offices. App. 18,000 employees, of which 1,400 people employed at the Head Office in Eschborn near Frankfurt am MainPROKLIMA – a programme within GIZ Since 1996 following guidelines and resolutions adopted in the 1987 “Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer”. Advises governments of partner countries, companies on drafting local regulations , setting policies and replacement of ozone depleting technologies. Cooperates with 30 countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America in the fields of refrigeration, foam blowing, fire fighting equipment and agriculture Since 1996 over 235 projects in almost 40 countries, with an overall volume of close to US$ 45 million. 24.05.2011 Page 3 Seite 3
  4. 4. Proklima15 years worldwide initiatives~ 235 projects~ 40 countries~ 8,000 ODP tons reduced~ 100 Mio tons CO2eq.reduced Focus on natural refrigerants with low-GWP and energy- efficient applications 24.05.2011 Page 4 Seite 4
  5. 5. HCFC phase-out and HFC phase down Montreal Protocol Obligation to phase out the use of HCFCs until 2030 Proposals to phase-down the use of HFCs until 2030s HCFC Phase out HFC-Phase down proposals100% 100%80% 80%60% 60% NAProposal40% 40% FSM Proposal20% 20% 0% 0% 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 24.05.2011 Page 5 Seite 5
  6. 6. worldwide HFC-emissions 40 projection till 2050 35 30 total CO2 emissions target in order to 25 achieve 450 ppm atmosphericGt CO2eq concentration levels (IPCC 3rd 20 Assessment Report) 15 2050: 43,5% of total CO2eq 10 2010: 1,3% of total emissions CO2eq emissions 5 HFC-emissions 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 24.05.2011 Page 6 Seite 6
  7. 7. US-EPA’s Opinion September 2010“Available Options in Commercial Refrigeration”: 24.05.2011 Seite 7
  8. 8. RAC equipmentRAC equipment that has high energy consumption Efficiency of refrigerating system Efficiency of ancillary components (lighting, motors, heaters, etc) RAC equipment that currently uses HCFCs, HFCs, etc Reduce refrigerant leakage, handling losses Substitute with natural refrigerant 24.05.2011 Page 8 Seite 8
  9. 9. RAC equipmentConsiderations based on developing country national emissions factor 24.05.2011 Page 9 Seite 9
  10. 10. emissions factor (kgCO2/kWh) . 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Botswana Cambodia Bosnia and Herzegovina India Malta Oman Cuba Bahrain Libyan Arab Jamahiriya South Africa Brunei Darussalam United Arab Emirates Iraq Turkmenistan Jamaica Hong Kong, China Gibraltar Israel Cyprus Peoples Rep. of China FYR of Macedonia Focus on efficiency Trinidad and Tobago Saudi Arabia Netherlands Antilles Senegal Morocco Benin Indonesia Estonia Yemen Bangladesh Eritrea Chinese Taipei Other Africa Kuwait Serbia Lebanon Qatar Dominican Republic emissions factor Malaysia Syrian Arab Republic Algeria Jordan Zimbabwe RAC equipment Mongolia Tunisia Mexico Islamic Rep. of Iran Thailand Singapore Nicaragua Sudan Bulgaria Haiti Republic of Moldova Bolivia Kazakhstan Turkey DPR of Korea Korea Uzbekistan Egypt Philippines Gabon Romania Azerbaijan Pakistan Honduras Vietnam Nigeria Togo Sri Lanka Croatia Chile Slovenia Côte dIvoire Guatemala Ghana Ukraine Argentina Myanmar Former Soviet Union Ecuador Russian Federation Panama Kenya Cameroon Belarus – Dictates the focus (although may also be both) El Salvador United Rep. of Tanzania Venezuela Canada Peru Latvia Armenia Georgia24.05.2011 Angola Colombia Lithuania Uruguay Congo Namibia Kyrgyzstan Brazil Costa Rica AlbaniaSeite 10Page 10 Ethiopia Tajikistan Zambia (emissions and Focus on refrigerant type) refrigerant Nepal Considerations based on developing country national Dem. Rep. of Congo Mozambique
  11. 11. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants IntroductionThe “default” replacement for R22 is HFCsDecision 60/44, ExCom recommends that climate (GWP,energy) be considered when choosing alternatives toHCFCs If R22 is replaced with HFCs, the “average” GWP from the mix is around 3,000 (compared to 1,800 for R22) With >10% annual growth of HCFC use in Article 5 countries significant increase in GHG emissions For 2009, emissions approx. 400 m tCO2-eq 670 m tCO2-eq if HFC used 1,300 m tCO2-eq in 2010One option to help avoid such emissions is through use ofalternative refrigerants with low-GWP 24.05.2011 Page 11 Seite 11
  12. 12. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Refrigerants to consider• Those under consideration, and their main technical issues R-717 (ammonia) ― Higher toxicity, low flammability, cannot use copper systems HCs – R-290 (propane), R-1270 (propylene) ― High flammability R-744 (carbon dioxide) ― Very high working pressures, low critical temperature / transcritical cycle at higher ambient temperatures Unsaturated HFCs – R1234yf, R1243zf, etc ― Very new, probably rather costly, not commercialised yet 24.05.2011 Page 12 Seite 12
  13. 13. Barriers and solutions forapplication of natural refrigerantsBarriers Solution/approachflammability, Implementation of relevant safety measuresrisk of explosion, Capacity building measurestoxicity For conversions of production lines: support for re-design (safety and energy efficiency)restrictive standards Advice on new standards, considering the application of natural refrigerantshigher investment Demonstration projects in order to prove operativecosts savings and to allow sound decisions 24.05.2011 Page 13 Seite 13
  14. 14. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants General recommendationsNine fields where opportunities lie for encouraginguptake of low-GWP alternatives Awareness-raising, Training, Guidance, Technical development, Market development, Financial incentives, Regulatory infrastructure, Montreal Protocol substantive issues, ENGOs 24.05.2011 Page 14 Seite 14
  15. 15. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants General recommendationsAwareness-raising Highlight the importance of the (climate) problem and the possibilities of (low-GWP) options availableTraining Critical to adopt dedicated training – specific to each individual low-GWP alternative and specific to application/end useGuidance High quality guidance of what low-GWP alternative, when, where and how; also targeted to specific stakeholder groupsTechnical development Improving efficiency of R744 AC systems for warm climates, reducing refrigerant charge sizes for HC systems, safety control mechanisms for system using flammables 24.05.2011 Page 15 Seite 15
  16. 16. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants General recommendationsMarket development Stimulate industry involvement with low-GWP alternatives; encourage local manufacturing, develop product directories, etcFinancial incentives Subsidies for using low-GWP, tax incentives for low-GWP / tax disincentives for high-GWPRegulatory infrastructure Impose better control of industry to work safely, modify regulations that inhibit low-GWP alternatives, ensure safety standards are constructiveMontreal Protocol substantive issues Decision-making bodies to introduce more incentives, HPMP consultants should be better assisted to embrace low-GWP alternativesENGOs to more actively lobby on the high/low-GWP issue 24.05.2011 Page 16 Seite 16
  17. 17. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants General recommendationsHow & where stakeholders can affect process 24.05.2011 Page 17 Seite 17
  18. 18. Programmatic approach Cross sectoral Cross-conventional (Montreal/Kyoto/Basel/Stockholm) From technology demonstration to sector conversions Optimized application of natural refrigerants/blowing agents Cooperation with all main stakeholders – massive involvement of private industry; Local added value (localization of technology, local assembly; value chain) Capacity development (individuals, organisations, institutions, networks) Complementary funding Accessibility to climate negotiations & future climate regime 24.05.2011 24.05.2011 Page 18 Seite 18
  19. 19. Environmental technology transfer to developing countries Sector development CFC (HCFC HFC ) LOW GWP + EE applications and systems Capacity Management/ Networking development Support• Policy advise • Cooperation models • Public relations• Institutional/ (PPP, JV, ... ) • Marketing legal frame • R&D partnerships • Promotion and conditions • Brokerage between dissemination of• Pilot projects associations results• Standards/ Labelling • Co-financing• Qualification/ Training • Measuring, verification, reporting 24.05.2011 Page 19 Seite 19
  20. 20. Programmatic approach Cold Moderate Hot/dry TropicalDomestic Greenfreeze, R600a ref.,Refrigeration worldwide Swasiland, SolarChillICR NH3/CO2 Solar Ref. NH3 AC, supermarket, Jordan/Gulf Mauritius; South Africa; Solar Ref. Refrigerated Mexico, transport IndonesiaRAC R290 split, R290 split, China, India China, worldwidePU foam SwasilandXPS foam Ukraine China, IranServicing Iran, India India BrazilRecycling/De Ukraine Brazilstruction 24.05.2011 24.05.2011 Page 20 Seite 20
  21. 21. Proklima IntroductionProklima Promotes Technology Transfer through mutual partnerships Assists partner enterprises in developing countries to acquire, useand further develop technology know-how for sustainable businessdevelopment Recognizes that environmental protection will work best, when it isalso good business. Environmentally safe, sustainable technology must be widelyintroduced through business partnerships to effectively protect thefuture of our children. Germany, as an industrialized country, did a lot of the environmentaldamage we are trying to fix today. ECA fast growing economies are developing in a similar way( EU harmonisation/accession). 24.05.2011 Seite 21
  22. 22. International Climate Initiative (ICI) 24.05.2011 24.05.2011 Page 22 Seite 22
  23. 23. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriersExample: Demonstration project ofproduction of climate-friendly airconditioners (China) Project introduces HCs to the production of room air-conditioning systems using HCs at Gree Electric Appliances Inc. Conversion to HC will reduce emissions from currently used ozone- and climate-damaging HCFCs Enables manufacturer to develop experience of handling production and design of ACs using HCs 24.05.2011 Page 23 Seite 23
  24. 24. 24.05.2011 24.05.2011 Page 24 Seite 24
  25. 25. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriersExample: Conversion of largeair-conditioning systems in publicbuildings (Mauritius) Replacing old, inefficient central air- conditioning systems in public buildings With new (R717) ammonia chillers in country with tropical climate Project avoids emissions of high- GWP, ODS refrigerants Meets all safety requirements of European safety standard 24.05.2011 Page 25 Seite 25
  26. 26. The old Liquid Chillers 24.05.2011 Page 26 Seite 26
  27. 27. The new Liquid Chillers 24.05.2011 Page 27 Seite 27
  28. 28. The Ammonia Absorber (safety) 24.05.2011 Page 28 Seite 28
  29. 29. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriersExample: Conversion ofsupermarket systems (SouthAfrica) Replacing conventional centralised supermarket systems, Pick and Pay With R744 (carbon dioxide) and R744/R717systems in country with hot climate 20-25% higher energy-efficiency Project avoids emissions of high- GWP, ODS refrigerants Meets all safety requirements of European safety standard 24.05.2011 Page 29 Seite 29
  30. 30. Energy efficiency Cape Town Gauteng 400 400 [kWh/m2 gekühlter Displayfläche] Displayfläche[kWh/m2 gekühlter Displayfläche] Displayfläche 300 300 Energieverbrauch, Energieverbrauch Energieverbrauch, , 200 200 100 100 0 0 Strand Average Cape Town Randpark Ridge Average Gauteng 24.05.2011 24.05.2011 Page 30 Seite 30
  31. 31. COMMERCIAL PLANT ENERGY USE31 Copyright Aruba Seite 31 24.05.2011 Page 31 Cooling (Pty)
  32. 32. Outcomes – Contractors view25% to 30% higher than HCFC systems after re-costing usinglocally manufactured plant (local components, local know-how)Store energy use is at least 15% better than comparable modernstoresROI 3-4 yearsSafety requirements in installation and operation is new tocommercial industry; industrial companies are used to thisPlant rooms planned preferably on the roofAmmonia leaks are rare and quickly attended toSystem life expectancy is at least 5 years longer than traditionalsupermarket systemsNew technology for natural refrigerants are being developed andthus will be increasingly part of future commercial refrigerationsystemsChallenges from continued store operations while installation 24.05.2011 24.05.2011 Page 32 Seite 32
  33. 33. Outcomes – Pick ‘n Pay viewNew strategy on climate friendly stores Revision of company standards No more HCFCs in new or refurbished stores Pilots to include Air Conditioning in NR-system (Natural Refrigerants)Allocations in annual budgetCooperation and exchange with other players in themarket (benchmarking scheme being discussed)Main competitors (Checkers, Spar, Woolworth, Shopwise,Makro) taking up technology and converting stores 24.05.2011 24.05.2011 Page 33 Seite 33
  34. 34. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriersExample: Demonstration project ofproduction of climate-friendlycommercial refrigeration(Swaziland) Project introduces the production of stand-alone commercial refrigeration units HCs at Palfridge Conversion to HC will reduce emissions from previously used ozone- and climate-damaging refrigerants Product range redesigned to meet international safety standards Up to 40% improvement in energy use 24.05.2011 Page 34 Seite 34
  35. 35. Success of Greenfreeze technology diffusion in China Greenfreeze Technology Diffusion ino 1995: Company Quingdao Chinese Refrigerator and Freezer Production Haier introduced Greenfreeze Technology, 80% supported by GTZ 70% % of Production using Greenfreeze 60%o 2009: 93 mio units (ca.75% of Chinese 50% production) with 40% Greenfreeze Technology 30%o Saved (since introduction): ca. US$ 350 mio; 20% ca. 150 mio tCO2eq 10%o With Palfridge project 0% technology also introduced 1995 2003 2008 in Africa 24.05.2011 Seite 35
  36. 36. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriersExample: action plan in Chinato implement flammablerefrigerants in air conditioningsector Development of plan in collaboration with industry for widespread use of low-GWP flammable refrigerants Includes development activities, training, standards and codes of practice Helps smooth the transition from ODS, high-GWP to climate-friendly options 24.05.2011 Page 36 Seite 36
  37. 37. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers• Example: Comprehensive guidance on low-GWP technology ― Translated/translating into many languages 24.05.2011 Page 37 Seite 37
  38. 38. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriersExample: training onthe use of HCs insouthern Africa region Thorough, dedicated training-the-trainer to use HCs Helps smooth the transition from ODS, high-GWP to climate- friendly options Increases confidence of technicians Safety information does not get “lost” 24.05.2011 Page 38 Seite 38
  39. 39. Implementation of TrainingOpen Screw CompressorMaintenance and Repair 24.05.2011 Page 39 Seite 39
  40. 40. Current project proposals National Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) in refrigeration, AC and foam sectors (IN, TH, RSA, MEX) Transport Refrigeration (South Africa) Solar Refrigeration and Air Conditioning for Commercial and Industrial Applications) – JO, MX, Cool Chain for commercial applications (e.g. fruit juice industry South Africa) Cold Stores (China) German Green Cooling Initiative (global) Harmonization of Refrigeration and AC standards & WEEE – European Standard (Ukraine) 24.05.2011 24.05.2011 Page 40 Seite 40
  41. 41. Potential cooperation with ECA countriesGerman International Climate Initiative (IKI) Technology Demonstration (foam, refrigeration with natural, non-ODS, low-GWP alternatives) Sector Approach Harmonisation of standards, regulations, systemsTri-Generation (steam, heat, cooling)Refrigeration and Air Conditioning / Energy Efficiency forCommercial and Industrial ApplicationsPilot area for HC room air conditioning unit (tourism resort)Development Partnerships with private sector (PPP) on topicslike standards, vocational training (along cool chain) 24.05.2011 24.05.2011 Page 41 Seite 41
  42. 42. Thank you!Contact:Proklima InternationalDeutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbHDag-Hammarskjöld-Weg1-565760 Eschborn, GermanyEmail: bernhard.siegele@giz.deInternet: 24.05.2011 24.05.2011 Page 42 Seite 42