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Low carbon Transition in the Cement Industry


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Low carbon Transition in the Cement Industry

  1. 1. 1 IEA-CSI Technology Roadmap: Low-carbon Transition in the Cement Industry Online launch: Friday, 6 April 2018 International Energy Agency Cement Sustainability Initiative World Business Council for Sustainable Development
  2. 2. 2 Agenda Afternoon session 17h30 - 17h40 Opening Alvaro Lorenz, WBCSD-CSI Vice Chair LD Cecilia Tam, IEA Senior Energy Analyst 17h40 - 18h05 Cement Roadmap: technical analysis Araceli Fernandez, IEA Manuela Ojan, HeidelbergCement Group, WBCSD-CSI 18h05 - 18h10 Cement Roadmap: policy, finance and international collaboration Alvaro Lorenz, WBCSD-CSI Vice Chair LD 18h10 - 18h30 Moderated Q&A 18h30 - 18h35 The way forward Philippe Fonta, Managing Director, WBCSD-CSI
  3. 3. 3 24 member companies around the world Operating in more than 100 countries; accounting for about one-third of global cement production About the CSI
  4. 4. 4 WorldBusiness Council for Sustainable Development Our mission is to accelerate the transition to a sustainable world by making moresustainable business more successful. Our vision is tocreate a world where more than nine billion people are all living well and within the boundaries of ourplanet, by2050. WBCSD is a global, CEO-led organization of 200 forward thinking businesses working together to accelerate the transition to a sustainableworld. GLOBAL Our 200 members spanacross the globe and all economic sectors. We also work with 60+ Global Network partners whoengage with sustainable business at a nationallevel. UNIQUE PLATFORM Our members enjoy access to a sustainable business community and a safe space to exchange ideas and information with their peers. Together, we develop business solutions that no single company could achieve alone. MARKET-DRIVEN We put business at the center of sustainable development. CEO-LED WBCSD is oriented towards and led by our member-company CEOs. About the WBCSD
  5. 5. 5 • Global urbanization leading to increasing demand for cement and concrete • Need for significant reduction of direct CO2 emissions from the global cement manufacture • CSI members have long been taking action to reduce CO2 emissions • Continued collaboration with other stakeholders to accelerate the sustainable transition Turning challenges into opportunities
  6. 6. 6 Our mission is to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for our 30 member countries and beyond. ENERGY SECURITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS ENGAGEMENT WORLDWIDE The International Energy Agency © OECD/IEA 2018
  7. 7. 7 IEA: the global clean energy hub The IEA works around the world to support accelerated clean energy transitions that are enabled by real- world SOLUTIONS, supported by ANALYSIS, and built on DATA This map is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries, and to the name of any territory, city or area. © OECD/IEA 2018
  8. 8. 8 • Since 2009, 22 Technology Roadmaps and How2Guides (33 publications) IEA Technology Roadmaps 2011 2012 2013 2014 20152009 2010 2016 2017 © OECD/IEA 2018 • Re-endorsed at G7 Energy Ministerial Meetings in 2016 (Japan) and 2017 (Italy) “(G7 Ministers) welcomed the progress report on the Second Phase of IEA’s Technology Roadmaps, focused on viable and high impact technologies”
  9. 9. 9 IEA-CSI: a long-standing collaboration 2009 GLOBAL Roadmap NATIONAL Roadmaps INDIA 2013 2018 Engaging local stakeholders and financing bodies • Confederation of Indian Industry • National Council for Cement and Building Materials • International Finance Corporation
  10. 10. 10 The Cement Technology Roadmap process Developing an implementable long-term sustainable vision for the cement sector Energy and CO2 emissions related data collection (CSI database, local data) (energy, materials availability, costs, etc.) Analysis and modelling, (building on long-term least-cost scenarios) Technology papers (improvement potential and costs) Stakeholders review (authorities, academia, trade associations)
  11. 11. 11 CSI ECRA Technology Papers 2009 CSI ECRA Technology Papers 2017 IEA 2017 ETP modelling • Roadmaps • … 33 technologies 52 technologies • New papers (…), amendments • Major updates • Reference to 2014 data Applications • CO2 • Energy Refinement on WHR Pre-treatment of fuels Energy efficiency and management Optimized grinding technologies New binding materials Carbon capture and use (CCU) CSI ECRA Technology Papers developed as scientific reference
  12. 12. 12 61%13% 9% 2% 3% 13% Coal Oil Gas Biomass Waste Electricity 37% 63% Energy-related CO2 Process CO2 Opportunities and challenges in the cement sector Global cement sector indicators, 2014 Final energy use (3rd industrial energy user) (2nd industrial coal use) Direct CO2 emissions (2nd industrial CO2 emitter) (1st industrial process CO2 emitter) Estimated average cement composition (Reliance on industrial by-products) Reference: IEA-CSI, 2018. 65% 13% 6% 8% 2% 5% Clinker Blast furnace & steel slag Fly ash Limestone Natural pozzolana Gypsum Calcined clay
  13. 13. 13 Cement production by region Strong growth in cement production growth in Asian countries compensates for the decline in Chinese cement sector activity, but the region still loses 10% of its global production share by 2050. 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Mtcement/yr Africa Middle East Eurasia Europe America Other Asia Pacific India China World high-variability case World low-variability case Reference: IEA-CSI, 2018.
  14. 14. 14 Strategies to reduce CO2 emissions from cement production CARBON EMISSIONS REDUCTION IN CEMENT Energy efficiency Reducing clinker-to- cement ratio Innovative technologies Switching to alternative fuels Carbon emissions reduction levers can influence the potential for emissions reductions of other options. The equivalent of almost 90% of today’s direct global industrial CO2 emissions are cumulatively avoided from cement production in the 2DS compared to RTS. 1 500 1 700 1 900 2 100 2 300 2 500 2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Thermal energy efficiency (3%) Fuel switching (12%) Reduction of clinker to cement ratio (37%) Innovative technologies (incl. carbon capture) (48%) 2DS RTS Direct CO2 emissions from global cement production (Mt/yr) Reference: IEA-CSI, 2018.
  15. 15. 15 The role of energy efficiency Energy efficiency levels reach best performing levels by 2050 but savings are offset by additional energy demand from implementing other carbon mitigation levers. Global average thermal energy intensity of clinker Global average electric intensity of cement © OECD/IEA 2018 Reference: IEA-CSI, 2018.
  16. 16. 16 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 2014 2DS 2030 2DS 2040 2DS 2050 2DS 2030 2DS 2040 2DS 2050 Low-variability case High-variability case Waste Biomass Gas Oil Coal The role of alternative fuels Greater use of waste and biomass reduces the share of fossil fuels in cement thermal energy demand by 27% in average in the 2DS by 2050. The direct energy-related CO2 intensity of cement decreases by 34%. Global thermal energy mix in cement Reference: IEA-CSI, 2018.
  17. 17. 17 65% 13% 6% 8% 2% 5% 2014 Clinker Blast furnace & steel slag Fly ash Limestone Natural pozzolana Gypsum Calcined clay 60% 7% 1% 18% 2% 4% 8% 2050 2DS Can we solve the challenge of process CO2 emissions from cement production? The increased use of emerging cement constituents instead of clinker and greater market penetration of blended cements reduce the global clinker to cement ratio to 0.60 by 2050 in the 2DS. Global average estimates of cement composition Reference: IEA-CSI, 2018. © OECD/IEA 2018
  18. 18. 18 Innovations creating low carbon solutions • High performance cements and concretes resulting in the reduction of CO2 • Impact of very high / very low lime saturation factor • Further reduction of clinker content in cement by: o Use of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) o Use of fly ash o Use of natural pozzolanas o Use of calcined clays o Use of other materials Use of calcined clay Reference: CSI ECRA Technology Paper 2017 Calcined clay, natural pozzolana:
  19. 19. 19 Alternative binding materials offer further CO2 reduction potentials 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 PC clinker Belite clinker CSA clinker BCSA clinker CACS clinker MOMS clinker Alkali-activated binders kgprocessCO2/tbindingmaterial Potential comparative process CO2 savings Process CO2 intensity Commercial Demonstration-pilot phase R&D phase Limitations to further deployment: • Raw materials & operational costs • Limited market applicability & standards • Further R&D needed in some cases Reference: IEA-CSI, 2018; adapted from Quillin, 2010; UNEP, 2016; Gartner and Sui, 2017.
  20. 20. 20 The role of carbon capture Between 25% and 29% of total generated direct CO2 emissions in cement are captured annually in 2050 globally in the 2DS. Reference: IEA-CSI, 2018. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 CapturedMtCO2/yr Full oxy-fuel Partial oxy-fuel Post-combustion Captured CO2 - Low-variability case Captured CO2 - High-variability case Captured CO2 share of generated CO2 - Low-variability case Captured CO2 share of generated CO2 - High-variability case Global deployment of carbon capture in the cement sector in the 2DS
  21. 21. 21 Scaling up carbon capture Oxyfuel technology Reference: CSI ECRA Technology Paper 2017
  22. 22. 22 Roadmap milestones From a sectoral approach… … to a systemic perspective Energy efficiency Switching to alternative fuels and raw materials Reduction of the clinker-to-cement ratio Emerging and innovative technologies Alternative binding materials Transitioning to a low-carbon built environment
  23. 23. 23 Key collaborative actions to 2030 & beyond Governments and industry must collaborate to accelerate the sustainable transition by: • Creating an enabling, level playing field • Putting technological change into action • Facilitating uptake of sustainable products
  24. 24. 24 Investment requirements and financial support Realising the RTS would require between USD 107 and 127 billion global additional cumulative investments by 2050 compared to the status quo. Achieving the 2DS would require increasing those investments by between USD 176 and 244 billion cumulatively. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 No action Additional investments RTS Additional investments 2DS - Roadmap vision USDbillion Net additional cumulative investments high-bound cost Net additional cumulative investments low-bound cost Overall cumulative investment Overall cumulative investments by scenario (2015-2050) Reference: IEA-CSI, 2018.
  25. 25. 25 Moderated Q & A CarbonTransitionintheCementIndustry.pdf
  26. 26. 26 The way forward • Adopt a whole life-cycle approach and work collaboratively along the whole construction value chain • Mobilize public-private investment to support the sustainable transition of the cement industry • Leverage international collaboration to support the 2DS vision
  27. 27. 27 Thank you for your attention. on/TechnologyRoadmapLowCarbonTransitionintheCe mentIndustry.pdf
  28. 28. 28 References and notes Reference: • IEA (International Energy Agency) and CSI (Cement Sustainability Initiative) (2018), Technology Roadmap: Low-Carbon Transition in the Cement Industry, IEA and CSI, Paris and Geneva. • ECRA (European Cement Research Academy) and CSI (eds.) (2017), Development of State of the Art Techniques in Cement Manufacturing: Trying to Look Ahead, ECRA, Düsseldorf and Geneva, • Gartner, E. and T. Sui (2017), “Alternative cement clinkers”, Cement and Concrete Research, • UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (2016), Eco-efficient Cements: Potential, Economically Viable Solutions for a Low-CO2, Cement-based Materials Industry, UNEP, Paris. • Quillin, K. (2010), Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cements: CO2 Reduction, Concrete Properties and Applications, Buildings Research Establishment, Watford, United Kingdom. Notes: Slide 15: thermal energy intensity of clinker and electricity intensity of cement refer to the low-variability case. Slide 19: PC = Portland cement, CSA = calcium sulphoaluminate, BCSA = belite calcium sulphoaluminate, CACS = carbonation of calcium silicates, MOMS = magnesium oxide derived from magnesium silicates. OPC clinker mainly contains 63% alite, 15% belite, 8% tricalcium aluminate and 9% tetracalcium alumino-ferrite. Belite clinker is considered to mainly contain 62% belite, 16% alite, 8% tricalcium aluminate and 9% tetracalcium alumino-ferrite. CSA clinker is considered to mainly contain 47.5% ye’elimite, 23.9% belite, 12.9% wollastonite and 8.6% tetracalcium alumino-ferrite. BCSA clinker is considered to mainly contain 46% belite, 35% ye’elimite and 17% tetracalcium alumino-ferrite. Commercial compositions of CACS clinker are not currently available. CACS clinker in this assessment is considered to primarily consist of wollastonite but commercial composition is likely to be different at some extent, and possibly higher in process CO2 emissions. Process CO2 emissions generated in CACS clinker making are in principle re-absorbed during the curing process.