Asserting carbon offsets from landfill gas flaring at regina’s landfill site


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Asserting Carbon Offsets from Landfill Gas Flaring at Regina’s Landfill Site - Presented at SWANA 5th Canadian Waste Symposium, Banff, Alberta April 21, 2010 By: Paresh Thanawala, P.Eng; QEP

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Asserting carbon offsets from landfill gas flaring at regina’s landfill site

  1. 1. Asserting Carbon Offsets from Landfill Gas Flaring at Regina’s Landfill Site Presented at SWANA 5th Canadian Waste Symposium, Banff, Alberta April 21, 2010 By: Paresh Thanawala, P.Eng; QEP
  2. 2. Objectives • Explain LFG Collection & Flaring Project • Other LFG Experience • Regulatory Aspects of Credits/Offsets • Validation/Verification Steps • Emission Assertion – Approach • Conclusion
  3. 3. Fleet Street Landfill
  4. 4. PROJECT SCOPE Phase 1 (North Hill) Main Components: • 27 vertical gas wells • Gas collection headers • Condensate removal sump and tank • Blower building • Instrumentation and Control Room • Flare header, flame arrestor and candlestick flare System Commissioned in July 2008
  5. 5. Gas Wells & Collection System
  6. 6. Flare & Blower Building
  7. 7. Typical Quantity and Quality • 250 – 350 acfm Compound Mol % • HHV 16 – 18 MJ/m3 CH4 50 • Up to 1.5 MW potential CO2 40 N2 9 O2 0.5 H 2O Trace H 2S Trace Siloxanes Trace
  8. 8. LFG UTILIZATION IN CANADA Number of Sites Surveyed by Environment Canada, January 2009 Year Utilization (U) Flaring (F) U&F Year Power (P) Heating (H) CPH 2006 26 44 12 2006 17 9 0 2007 29 50 15 2007 17 10 2 Number of Landfills Capturing LFG in Canada 70 60 50 Landfill 40 30 20 10 0 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2006 2007 Year
  9. 9. Experience of Selected Landfills Western Canada Cogeneration (Electricity + Waste heat). 4 x 1.7 MW Cat Engines. Waste Vancouver heat for greenhouse heating Prince George Gas recovery system. No power or heat recovery Generate electricity (kW TBC) + Waste heat utilization. Micro-turbines. Kelowna (Glenmore) Export power Victoria 1.6 MW Cat engine Edmonton (Clover Bar) 3 x 1.6 MW Cat engines Calgary (Shepard) Gas recovery/clean up - 400 kW engine Calgary East 70 kW micro-turbine. Expand to install 1 -2 MW engines Open flare. MB to buy LFG credits. Discussing “design – build – operate – Brandon, MB finance” scheme for LFG energy use with IGR
  10. 10. Carbon Credits Value of GHG emission reduction as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2E) in tonnes CER Certified emission reductions, CDM, Kyoto ERU Emission reduction unit, JI, Kyoto VER Verified emission reductions, Voluntary GHG CO2 CH4 N2O GWP 1 21 310 CO2E 1*CO2 + 21*CH4 + 310*N2O
  11. 11. Regulatory Framework Framework Key Highlights Website Draft Offset System Documents (summer 2009). Finalization delayed – awaiting US directive. Administer under CEPA. Must achieve real, Federal incremental, quantifiable, verifiable and unique reductions of offsets/default.asp?lang=En&n=92CA76F4-1 greenhouse gases LFG not regulated and hence eligible. Bill 126. Target 20% reduction by 2020. Registry for offsets. Adopt/merge with AB. Reduction SK Targets for regulated emitters. Climate R&D Corp. Expect regulated 2009/Bill-126.pdf frame work in place by summer 2010. Bill 18 - Greenhouse Gas Reduction Cap & Trade Act 2008. Partner BC with WCI. Registry, trading, verification as of 2010. Compliance unit tracking system Climate Change Central. Offset registry in place. Trade within AB AB only. LFE > 100,000 t CO2E to meet targets or pay to carbon fund. Quantification protocols in place and under development. Bill 15 - the climate change and Emissions Reduction Act. MB will MB buy out credits from LFG operators. Launched Cap & Trade Program in 2008. Partners are: Arizona, Western Climate California, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, and Washington, Initiative Manitoba, BC, ON and Quebec. AB and SK oppose the scheme (cash grab) Montreal Carbon Created in 2006. CO2E futures contracts. Joint venture between CCX Exchange (MCeX) and MCeX. Chicago Climate Voluntary Cap & Trade System. Sell surplus allowances or purchase Exchange (CCX) carbon financial instrument (CFI)
  12. 12. Project Validation • Eligibility [real, additional, quantifiable, verifiable, unique] • Description/Quantification methods • Assertion [relevance, completeness, consistency, accuracy, transparency, conservativeness] • Monitoring • Document so 3rd party can verify • Follow ISO 14064(3) Generally occurs once, before registration
  13. 13. Verification • Systematic, independent and documented process to confirm assertion of credits • Reasonable (high level) or limited (low level) assurance • Occurs after emission reductions have occurred • Usually once a year • Validated project/documentation must be in place • 3rd party, knowledgeable of industry, no conflict • Follow ISO 14064 (3) guidance
  14. 14. Project Registration • After project is validated • SK or Federal System • “License” for creating carbon credits • Can occur as part of verification
  15. 15. REGISTRATION OF PROJECT Project Validates the project. Applies to the Project Authority to Proponent register GHG reduction report Reviews the project and registers the Project Project Authority Document REPORTING & VERIFICATION OF REDUCTIONS Project Implements the Project Proponent Asserts/reports the GHG reductions in the Reduction/Removal Report Engages verifier to verify the assertion/claim Verifier Conducts verification Submits Verification Report to Project Authority ISSUANCE OF OFFSET CREDITS Certifies all conditions for credit issuance have Project Authority been satisfied Issues instructions to deposit offset credits in account in the tracking system
  16. 16. Schematic of Flare & Monitoring System
  17. 17. Data Management
  18. 18. Asserting LFG Offsets • CO2E Offsets = CO2E Baseline – CO2E Project • CO2E Offsets = 21(mass of methane in LFG that is destroyed in the flare) • MR = (QLFG)(CCH4)( t)(ρCH4)( η)(1 tonne/1,000 kg) )/(35.31 ft3/m3) MR = Mass of methane reductions (tonnes CH4/day) QLFG = Average flow of LFG collected (sft3/min) @ 1 atmosphere and 0 °C CCH4 = Mol fraction of CH4 in LFG t = Net operational period (min/day) ρCH4 = Density of methane (kg/m3) =0.7174 @ 1 atmosphere and 0 °C η = Methane destruction efficiency of flare (~ 93%) Calculated Offsets: 2008 15,582 t CO2E 2009 21,829 t CO2E
  19. 19. About DRE and CE Destruction & Removal η (DRE) DRE = 100* (Wt. of Compound in –Wt. of Compound Out)/(Wt. of Compound in) DRE indicates how well a specific compound is destroyed during combustion _______________________________________________________________ Combustion η = 100* (Mass Rate of Carbon in fuel converted to CO2)/(Mass Rate of Carbon in Fuel) CE is a measure of how much carbon is converted to CO2
  20. 20. Flare Testing: DRE of CH4 CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O •Grab samples at various points •Testing by Maxxam Analytics, Nov, 2009 •Follow Alberta Stack Sampling Code/ •US EPA Methods
  21. 21. Impact of Wind on Flare Efficiency Ref: Efficiency Measurements of Flares in a Cross Flow, by M.R. Johnson, O. Zastavniuk, D.J. Wilson and L.W. Kostiuk, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Presented at Combustion Canada 1999, Calgary Alberta, May 26, 1999
  22. 22. DRE of Methane • Flare gas testing in November 2009 indicated DRE of 99%. Some testing occurred in non-combustion zone due to first attempt in testing • Flame color – blue or colorless (mostly) • HHV ~ 16 MJ/m3 indicating good combustion • Flare velocity and design comply with 40 CFR60.18 which recommends a minimum DRE of 93% (for compliant flares) • Auto pilot ignition • KO Pot to remove water. No free liquids or hydrocarbons carried to the flare – which may impair combustion • Wind guard to minimize wind impacts and loss of DRE • O/M procedures in place • 3% reduction allowed due to possible wind impacts • Additional 3% reduction allowed to add conservativeness • 93% DRE assumed for offsets calculations
  23. 23. Anticipated Price of Carbon • AB – Trades between $12/t - $15/t • SK – Expect AB trend. +$15/t anticipated (once offset framework in place) • BC – Pacific Carbon Trust proposed to buy @ $25/t • FED – LFE to comply if cost of reduction < $15/t • CCX – $0.15/t • MCEx – $2.00 settlement price for March 2011 contract • Voluntary – ($3/t - $8/t)
  24. 24. Conclusion • Carbon offsets from flaring of LFG at the Regina landfill are eligible for registration and trading • Need to have Federal or Provincial legislation framework for trading in place soon. SK Bill 126 expected to finalize this summer • Regina LFG offsets verification to be completed soon • Carbon trading prices expected around ~ $15/t