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Public Service for Large-Scale Digital Collections
 

Public Service for Large-Scale Digital Collections

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Slides from a working session at the DLF Forum, October 31, 2011, by Chris Powell, Jeremy York, Leslie Johnston, and John Mark Ockerbloom.

Slides from a working session at the DLF Forum, October 31, 2011, by Chris Powell, Jeremy York, Leslie Johnston, and John Mark Ockerbloom.

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    Public Service for Large-Scale Digital Collections Public Service for Large-Scale Digital Collections Presentation Transcript

    • Public
Service
for
Large‐Scale
 Digital
Collec5ons
 John
Mark
Ockerbloom
(Penn)
 
Leslie
Johnston
(Library
of
Congress)

 Chris
Powell
and
Jeremy
York
(Michigan)
 DLF
forum
working
session
 
October
31,
2011

    • It’s
all
about
collabora5on
•  We
collaborate
 with
users
•  We
collaborate
 with
each
 other
•  A
dis5nc5ve
 quality
of
 libraries
 From
a
photo
by
Colleen
McMahon,
CC‐BY
 


hQp://www.flickr.com/photos/gatz125/5134393346/

    • Issues
we’ll
discuss
•  What
digital
public
service
accomplishes
•  Implemen5ng
digital
public
services
•  Evalua5ng
and
scaling
up
digital
public
services
•  We’ll
present
quick
takes
on
these
issues,
as
 we’ve
dealt
with
them
in
our
collec5ons,
in
the
 first
half
of
this
session
•  The
second
half
is
your
turn
to
discuss,
and
ask
 and
answer
ques5ons

    • Different
collec5ons,
different
scales
•  MLibrary
Digital
Collec5ons
 –  Presented
by
Chris
Powell
•  HathiTrust
Digital
Library
 –  Presented
by
Jeremy
York
•  Lib.
of
Congress
Digital
Collec5ons
&
Services
 –  Presented
by
Leslie
Johnston
•  The
Online
Books
Page
 –  Presented
by
John
Mark
Ockerbloom

    • Qs:
Goals
of
digital
public
service
•  How
do
you
find
out
who
your
users
are,
and
 what
they
most
need?
•  What’s
the
most
useful
thing
users
can
do
for
 you,
and
how
can
you
best
get
them
to
do
it?
•  How
do
you
ensure
you’re
paying
aQen5on
to
 the
people
and
issues
you
should?
•  How
does
the
type
of
collec5on,
interface,
or
 audience
affect
your
interac5ons?

    • Qs:
Implemen5ng
digital
public
service

•  Do
you
have
service
quality
goals
and
 benchmarks?
How
do
you
evaluate
them?
•  Who
does
the
work?

How
do
you
allocate
 labor,
and
do
triage?
•  What
kinds
of
technologies
or
 implementa5ons
do
you
find
most
useful?
•  Has
user
feedback
prompted
you
to
change
 your
design
or
what
you
do?

How?

    • Qs:
Evalua5ng
and
scaling
up

 digital
public
service

•  Do
you
use
public
service
data
to
jus5fy
 collec5ons
and
service
work?
If
so,
what
data

 do
you
find
most
effec5ve?
•  How
can
different
services
and
ins5tu5ons
 most
effec5vely
collaborate
with
each
other?
•  What
else
is
good
to
know
about
suppor5ng
 large‐scale
digital
collec5on
services?


    • University
of
Michigan
Digital
Library
Produc5on
Service
 Chris
Powell

    • Lots
of
stuff
•  Various
formats:
 –  Con5nuous
tone
image
collec5ons
 –  Full‐text
collec5ons:
encoded
XML
and
page
 images
 –  Non‐MARC
metadata
collec5ons
 –  EAD‐encoded
finding
aid
collec5ons
•  Various
sources
•  Various
access
models

    • Lots
of
ques5ons
•  Via
email
from
1996‐2004
•  Moved
to
Footprints
in
June
2004
•  Hard
to
quan5fy
the
early
days
 –  No
formal
protocol
 –  No
aQempt
to
preserve
the
ques5ons
or
answers
 –  IntermiQently
included
in
overall
library
reference
 sta5s5cs

    • Footprints
•  Centralize
email
from
users
of
our
online
 resources
•  Reply
to
people
who
provide
contact
 informa5on
•  Act
on
those
that
we
can,
even
without
 contact
informa5on
•  Delete
those
we
cannot
follow
up
on
•  Assigned
to
those
responsible
for
the
content

    • A
few
numbers
•  Just
over
5000
“5ckets”
in
the
system,
open
 and
closed
•  25,000
5ckets
have
been
deleted

 –  Spam
 –  Anonymous
and
not
ac5onable
•  Roughly
650
of
the
5000
5ckets
are
 categorized
as
MBooks
or
HathiTrust
•  Moved
HathiTrust
to
its
own
system
in
March

    • Who
are
we
serving?
•  University
of
Michigan
affiliates
•  Affiliates
of
universi5es
who
subscribe
to
 materials
we
host
•  Other
librarians
and
academics
•  Other
students
•  The
general
public

    • What
are
they
asking?
•  Topics
consistent
regardless
of
collec5on/site
 –  Did
you
know
this
was
broken/wrong?
 –  Now
that
I’ve
found
this,
how
can
I
get
access?
 –  Can
I
use
this
image
in
my
book/project?
 –  I
have
this
old
book
–
is
it
valuable?
 –  Can
you
help
me
with
this
very
complex
query?
•  The
percentages
vary
in
HathiTrust
 –  More
about
content
errors
and
access
desires

    • What
are
they
not
asking
about
 HathiTrust?
•  Ques5ons
related
to
the
content
•  Many
repeated
ques5ons
in
some
of
our
 collec5ons
 –  What
is
Apocrypha?
Why
is
Ecclesiates
9
showing
as
Qoh.
9?
Why
isn’t
 this
quote
in
your
online
Collected
Works
of
Abraham
Lincoln?
Why
can’t
I
 find
the
verse
9:11
about
the
wrath
of
the
eagle
in
your
online
Koran?
•  Also
general
ques5ons
 –  This
census
from
1901
lists
people
born
in
this
town,
but
none
of
the
 gazeQeers
or
atlases
show
a
town
of
this
name.
The
Philadelphia
 Centennial
exhibiFon
history
says
this,
a
souvenir
medallion
from
a
 relaFve
says
something
else.

Which
is
right?
Is
it
fake?
Are
you
sure
 these
poems
in
Catholic
World
are
by
William
Gibson?

    • Observa5ons
•  HathiTrust
feedback
forms
guide
you
to
error/ access
repor5ng,
not
subject
inquiries
•  Single
5tle
sites
(Bibles,
Koran,
Lincoln)
get
the
 most
repeated
content
ques5ons
•  MoA
gets
many
content
ques5ons,
but
has
a
 unifying
(if
general)
theme

•  Affilia5on
with
MLibrary
may
make
content
 ques5ons
seem
more
welcome
•  Data
skewed
by
so
much
past
prac5ce

    • HathiTrust
User
Support
 Jeremy
York

    • Timeline
•  October
2008
–
HathiTrust
launched
 –  hathitrust‐info@umich.edu
•  February
2010
–
star5ng
regular
sta5s5cs
•  August
2010
–
Chris
joined
hathitrust‐info
•  User
support
group
since
April
2011

    • What
Digital
Public
Service
 Accomplishes
(1)
•  How
do
you
find
out
who
your
users
are,
 and
what
they
most
need?
 –  User
feedback
via
the
feedback
link
 –  Frequent
discussions
with
reference
&
instruc5on
 librarians
who
share
their
"front‐line"
encounters
with
 users
 –  HathiTrust
UX
Advisory
Group
&
UX‐SIG
for
interested
staff
 at
partner
ins5tu5ons
to
discuss
and
bring
issues
to
the
 table
 •  Developing
set
of
personas
and
scenarios
 –  Watch
blogs
&
twiQer
for
unsolicited
feedback
 –  Somewhat
regular
user
research
(surveys)

    • Use
sta5s5cs
 Visits
 %
new
visits
 Page
views
 Pages/visit
 Time
on
site
Jan‐Jun2010
 253,129
 69%
 2,154,385
 11.6
 6.3min
Jul‐Dec2010
 907,524
 75%
 8,443,692
 9.3
 5.3min
Jan‐Jun2011
 2,154,385
 83%
 14,945,119
 6.9
 4min
Jul‐Oct2010
 2,274,468
 84%
 12,072,991
 5.3
 3.3min

    • What
Digital
Public
Service
 Accomplishes
(1)
•  What’s
the
most
useful
thing
users
can
do
for
 you,
and
how
can
you
best
get
them
to
do
it?
 –  Let
us
know
of
problems,
issues,
desires
(content
 and
services)
 –  People
who
are
interested
let
us
know

    • User
Support
Issues
450
400
350
300
 Content
250
 Cataloging
 Access
and
Use
200
 Web
Applica5ons
150
 Partner
Ingest
100
 General
 50
 0
Apr‐Jun2011
 Jul‐11
 Aug‐11
 Sep‐11

    • Issue
Type
 August
Issues
 September
Issues
Content
 110
 171
 Quality
 96
 154
 Non‐partner
Digital
Deposit
 3
 2
 Collections
 8
 4
Cataloging
 26
 25
Access
and
Use
 111
 127
 Copyright
 58
 73
 Permissions
 23
 12
 Takedown
 2
 3
 Print
on
Demand
 6
 17
 Inter‐library
loan
 0
 5
 Full‐PDF
or
e‐copy
requests
 14
 24
 Datasets
 1
 1
 Data
Availability
and
APIs
 1
 7
 Reuse
of
content
 7
 5
Web
applications
 27
 22
 Functionality
problems
 5
 5
 Problems
with
login
 1
 0
 speciNically
 General
Questions
about
login
 3
 2
 Partners
setting
up
login
 4
 5
 Usability
issues
 11
 6
 Feature
requests
 7
 2
Partner
Ingest
 2
 0
General
 59
 65
 Partnership
 13
 12
 Infrastructure
 1
 0
 Miscellaneous
 45
 53

    • hQp://www.hathitrust.org/wg_user_support_issue_types

    • What
Digital
Public
Service
 Accomplishes
(2)
•  How
do
you
ensure
you’re
paying
aQen5on
to
 the
people
and
issues
you
should?
 –  Ensure
that
we
look
at
many
different
sources
to
 get
the
largest
variety
possible.
 –  We
receive,
find,
and
solicit
feedback
in
ways
 noted
above

    • What
Digital
Public
Service
 Accomplishes
(3)
•  How
does
the
type
of
collec5on,
interface,
or
 audience
affect
your
interac5ons?
 –  We
are
preQy
uniform

    • Implemen5ng
Digital

 Public
Services
(1)
•  Do
you
have
service
goals
and
benchmarks?
 How
do
you
evaluate
them?
 –  Respond
to
feedback
within
1
business
day
 –  Handle
issues
such
as
take‐down
no5ces
and
 cri5cal
systems
problems
immediately
 –  No
goals
for
resolving
other
problems,
but
 correc5ons
happen
preQy
quickly
 –  User
support
as
outreach
mechanism
 •  Important
to
how
we
are
seen
by
the
community

    • Implemen5ng
Digital

 Public
Services
(2)
•  How
do
you
allocate
staff,
and
do
triage?
 –  User
support
group
 –  Rota5on
of
24‐hour
“on‐call”
periods

    • Implemen5ng
Digital

 Public
Services
(3)
•  What
kinds
of
technologies
or
 implementa5ons
do
you
find
most
useful?
 Users
(partner
and
non)
 All
HathiTrust
 University
of
Michigan
 Contacts
 Contacts
 User
Support
 •  Copyright
 Working
Group
 •  Quality
 •  Print
on
Demand
 Documenta5on
 JIRA

    • Implemen5ng
Digital

 Public
Services
(4)
•  Have
you
changed
your
design
or
what
you
do
 based
on
user
feedback?

How?
 –  PageTurner
improvements
 •  BookReader
integra5on
and
accompanying
interface
 reorganiza5on;
full‐screen
mechanism
 •  Advanced
search
features
for
full‐text
search
 •  Labeling
for
PDF
download

    • Evalua5ng
and
Scaling
Up
Digital
Public
 Service
(1)
•  Do
you
use
public
service
data
to
jus5fy
 collec5ons
and
service
work?
If
so,
what
do
 you
find
most
effec5ve?
 –  No,
but
key
factor
in
expanding
to
working
group
 and
having
partner
system
was
communica5on

    • Evalua5ng
and
Scaling
Up
Digital
Public
 Service
(2)
•  How
can
different
services
and
ins5tu5ons
 most
effec5vely
collaborate
with
each
other?
 –  Commonly‐usable
system
 –  Defined
roles
(contacts,
etc.)
 –  Defined
workflows
and
procedures
•  What
else
is
good
to
know
about
suppor5ng
 large‐scale
digital
collec5on
services?
 –  Factor
it
in,
don’t
underes5mate
5me
needed

    • Library
of
Congress
 Digital
Collec5ons
 Leslie
Johnston

    • So
Much
Stuff,
It’s
Used

 as
a
Unit
of
Measure
•  What
cons5tutes
a
“Library
of
Congress”
worth
of
 digital
content
changes
all
the
5me.
•  A
huge
variety
of
formats:
Full
Text,
Page
Images,
 Image
Collec5ons,
Finding
Aids,
Electronic
Serials,
 Video,
Audio,
Legisla5on,
Web
Archives.
 –  An
es5mate
of
24.6
million
files
in
the
main
LC
web
 presence
at
the
end
of
2010.
•  A
variety
of
acquisi5on
methods,
including
 through
the
US
Copyright
Office
•  A
variety
of
access
rules
(included
classified)
and
 access
methods
and
systems.

    • Ques5ons
are
Always
Coming
In
•  Via
email
•  Via
“Ask
a
Librarian”
Online
Reference
•  In
Person
•  In
2010,
Library
staff
answered
over
191,000
 email
or
online
reference
ques5ons.

    • Who
are
we
serving?
•  Congress
•  Librarians
at
other
ins5tu5ons
•  Academic
Researchers
•  The
General
Public

    • What
Do
They
Want
to
Know?
•  Do
you
have
this
thing
that
I
couldn’t
find?
You
must
have
 it,
because
the
Library
of
Congress
has
everything.
•  Why
isn’t
everything
full
text?
•  How
do
I
get
the
rights
to
use
your
collec5ons,
and
get
 permissions
to
use
them
in
my
research
or
in
a
publica5on?
•  How
can
I
get
copies
of
your
digital
files?
•  Will
you
digi5ze
something
in
your
collec5ons
for
me?
•  How
do
I
cite
your
online
collec5ons?
•  Please
fix
this
error
in
your
web
site,
or
in
your
 bibliographic
or
authority
records.
•  Can
I
donate
digital
collec5ons
to
the
Library?
•  Will
the
Library
help
me
digi5ze
my
collec5on?
•  What
standards
do
you
use
for
digi5zing?

    • What
Digital
Public
Service
Accomplishes
•  How
we
learn
something
about
who
out
 users
are,
and
what
they
need
most:
 – Interac5ons
with
Digital
Reference
librarians
 – User
feedback
via
the
Contact
Form
 – Comments
on
the
Library’s
blogs
 – Share
Tool
and
Web
log
sta5s5cs
 •  Over
580
million
page‐views
of
the
Library’s
 website
in
2010.


    • What
Digital
Public
Service
Accomplishes
•  What
we
learn:
 –  What
are
we
doing
wrong?
One
issue
is
the
 complexity
of
the
Library’s
web
presence.
We
now
 have
an
ini5a5ve
to
make
it
easier
to
find
digital
 collec5ons
without
knowing
about
them
in
the
 first
place.
 –  What
are
we
doing
right?
We
get
more
posi5ve
 reac5ons
and
thanks
for
doing
what
we
do
than
 nega5ve.

    • What
Digital
Public
Service
Accomplishes
 •  How
do
you
ensure
you’re
paying
 aQen5on
to
the
people
and
issues
you
 should?
 –  We
read
the
messages
that
we
get.
 –  We
hold
ourselves
to
a
very
high
standard
of
 responding
to
all
reference
inquiries.

    • What
Digital
Public
Service
Accomplishes
•  How
does
the
type
of
collec5on,
 interface,
or
audience
affect
your
 interac5ons?
 – Our
feedback
from
Congress
is
different
 from
our
feedback
from
the
public
 •  Congress
makes
direct
digital
collec5on
building
and
 services
depending
on
the
tasks
at
hand
 •  Researchers
and
the
public
are
rela5vely
uniform

    • Implemen5ng
Digital
Public
Services
•  Do
you
have
service
goals
and
benchmarks?
 How
do
you
evaluate
them?
 –  Respond
to
ques5ons
and
feedback
within
5
 business
days
 –  4‐6
week
5meframe
for
digital
reproduc5on
 requests
 –  No
benchmarks
for
resolving
other
issues

    • Implemen5ng
Digital
Public
Services
•  How
do
you
allocate
staff,
and
do
triage?
 – Varies
by
custodial
unit
and
collec5on
 – Digital
Reference
Teams
has
posted
chat
 hours,
and
a
rota5ng
duty
roster

    • Implemen5ng
Digital
Public
Services
•  What
kinds
of
technologies
or
 implementa5ons
do
you
find
most
 useful?
 –  Online
Chat
 –  Contact/Feedback
Forms
 –  Online
FAQs
 –  Documented
online
guidelines
for
use
of
the
 collec5ons
 –  Documented
standards
online

    • Implemen5ng
Digital
Public
Services
•  Have
you
changed
your
design
or
what
 you
do
based
on
user
feedback?

How?
 – Of
public
services?
Not
really.
 – Of
our
overall
web
presence?
That
is
 happening
now,
to
help
users
beQer
 discover
our
collec5ons.

    • Evalua5ng
and
Scaling
Up
 Digital
Public
Service
•  Do
you
use
public
service
data
to
jus5fy
 collec5ons
and
service
work?
If
so,
what
 do
you
find
most
effec5ve?
 – No,
we
do
not.

But
that
doesn’t
mean
that
 we
don’t
report
on
them.

    • Evalua5ng
and
Scaling
Up
 Digital
Public
Service
•  How
can
different
services
and
ins5tu5ons
most
 effec5vely
collaborate
with
each
other?
 –  Share
more
informa5on
about
what
collec5ons
and
 digi5zed
collec5ons
we
have
 •  Explicitly
document
rights
for
media
files
and
metadata
 •  Make
them
available
as
linked
open
data
where
we
can
 –  Common‐ish
standards,
or
at
least
well‐documented
 standards
 –  Consistent,
documented
workflows
•  What
else
is
good
to
know
about
suppor5ng
large‐ scale
digital
collec5on
services?
 –  The
scale
really
does
make
a
difference.
Our
response
 5mes
are
always
going
to
be
slower.

    • The
Online
Books
Page
 John
Mark
Ockerbloom

    • Tes5ng
the
limits
of
a
low‐resource
 catalog
project,
since
1993
•  1
person
working
part‐5me
falls
behind
 –  Both
in
catalog,
and
in
responding
to
public
•  Scaling
up
the
catalog
 –  Metadata
automa5cally
downloaded
from
HathiTrust,
 other
sources
 –  I
con5nue
to
add
new
entries,
“curate”
auto‐loaded
 entries,
on
my
own
and
at
user
request
•  Scaling
up
user
service
 –  Invite
people
to
standard
forms
 –  Make
efficient
back
end
to
deal
with
requests
•  Ul5mately,
no
subs5tute
for
human
investment

    • Feedback
links
in
results

    • Request
cura5on

    • Users
tell
me
what
they
want

    • And
can
hear
something
back

    • What
I
see
on
my
end

    • Ensuring
I
get
to
everyone

    • Looking
ahead:
Collabora5on
•  Number
of
online
books
s5ll
to
grow
lots
 –  Especially
as
I
add
more
automa5cally
loaded
sources
•  Staff,
budget
not
likely
to
grow
 –  User
feedback
helps
me
determine
where
effort
best
spent
•  Enhanced
back‐end
interface
may
make
mul5ple
 maintainers
feasible
•  May
be
useful
collabora5ons
with
interns,
volunteers
 –  A
way
to
get
hands‐on
experience
with
librarianship

•  Sharing
data
helps
other
services
build
on
my
work
 –  Enhancing
“regular”
library
collec5ons
may
enable
support

    • Discuss:
Goals
of
digital
public
service
•  How
do
you
find
out
who
your
users
are,
and
 what
they
most
need?
•  What’s
the
most
useful
thing
users
can
do
for
 you,
and
how
can
you
best
get
them
to
do
it?
•  How
do
you
ensure
you’re
paying
aQen5on
to
 the
people
and
issues
you
should?
•  How
does
the
type
of
collec5on,
interface,
or
 audience
affect
your
interac5ons?

    • Discuss:
Implemen5ng
 digital
public
service

•  Do
you
have
service
quality
goals
and
 benchmarks?
How
do
you
evaluate
them?
•  Who
does
the
work?

How
do
you
allocate
 labor,
and
do
triage?
•  What
kinds
of
technologies
or
 implementa5ons
do
you
find
most
useful?
•  Has
user
feedback
prompted
you
to
change
 your
design
or
what
you
do?

How?

    • Discuss:
Evalua5ng
and
scaling
up

 digital
public
service

•  Do
you
use
public
service
data
to
jus5fy
 collec5ons
and
service
work?
If
so,
what
data

 do
you
find
most
effec5ve?
•  How
can
different
services
and
ins5tu5ons
 most
effec5vely
collaborate
with
each
other?
•  What
else
is
good
to
know
about
suppor5ng
 large‐scale
digital
collec5on
services?

 –  What
have
you
learned
that
you
didn’t
expect?

    • Collabora5on
Photo
by
Mary
Mark
Ockerbloom