INDIA AND OLYMPISM                                          By                             Neeraj Kumar Mehra             ...
ContentsIntroduction  I.        Historical Development of Olympism in India  II.       Olympic Values as Part of National ...
Introduction                                  “Play the game in the spirit of the game."                                  ...
Historical Development of OlympismThe seeds of the Indian Olympic Movement were first sown by Sir Dorabjee J. Tata towards...
Solidarity (1980-1984), Olympic Movement (1983-1987, 1992-1996), Mass Media (1983-1989),preparation of the XII Olympic Con...
the gold medal. For the next 6 successive Olympics spanning 28 years from 1928-1956, Indiansretained their gold medal for ...
Olympic Values as Part of National Curriculum at schoolOlympic ideals in Physical Education suggests activities in which s...
From the time of independence health education and physical education were included in thecurriculum separately as non-sch...
PE Teachers and Youth sport coach trainingThe concept of Olympic Education in 20th century includes promotion of physical ...
National Olympic AcademyThe Olympic Movement has always been highly respected in India. National Olympic Academyin India w...
Under the aegis of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the Indian Olympic Association(IOA) conducted its first ever...
part, together with many sportsmen from both national teams and local clubs, not only athletesbut shooters, skaters, boxer...
Conclusions and SuggestionsToday many young people do not strive to broaden their knowledge about Olympism, theOlympic mov...
BibliographyWebsiteshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Asia_Summithttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G8%2B5http://www.la84foundat...
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India and Olympism

  1. 1. INDIA AND OLYMPISM By Neeraj Kumar Mehra Research Scholar An Essay Submitted to International Olympic Academy & University of Peloponnese Athens January, 2010 IndiaIndia and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  2. 2. ContentsIntroduction I. Historical Development of Olympism in India II. Olympic Values as Part of National Curricula in School III. PE Teacher and Youth Sport coach Training IV. National Olympic Academy, Programme and Activities V. Conclusion VI. Bibliography India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  3. 3. Introduction “Play the game in the spirit of the game." Jawaharlal NehruOlympism or Olympic Education is a philosophy of sports and its related life styles developed byCoubertin.1 The practice of this philosophy is targeted at not only the elite athletes, but everyone;not for just a short truce period, but for the whole of life; not just competition and winning; butalso the value of participation and cooperation; not just sport as an activity, but also as aformative and developmental influence contributing to desirable characteristics of individualpersonality and social life 2 The history of Physical culture in India dates back to the Vedic era.When in ancient India it was fed by a powerful fuel: religious rites. There were some well-defined values like the mantra in the Atharva-Veda, saying," Duty is in my right hand and thefruits of victory in my left". In terms of an ideal, these words hold the same sentiments as thetraditional Olympic oath: "For the Honour of my Country and the Glory of Sport. On 15 August1947, India got independence. On 26 January 1950, India became a republic and a newconstitution came into effect under which India was established as a secular and a democraticstate. It is a founding member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the WorldTrade Organization, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the East AsiaSummit, 3 the G20 and the G8+5;4 a member of the Commonwealth of Nations; and an observerstate in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. India had been the host for SAF Games, themulti-disciplinary games, in Kolkata in the year 1987 and in Chennai 1995. India hosted theAsian Games in 1951 &1 9 8 2, t h e 1st Afro-Asian Games, 2003 in Hyderabad, theCommonwealth Youth Games 2008 in Pune and XIX Commonwealth Games 2010 New Delhi Asian Games 19511 .Gulbe.Antra, in Report of the IOA’s Special Sessions and Seminars2004, Athens 2005 p.417.2 .Chuamaas.Ah.Tok, in Report of the IOA’s Special Sessions and Seminars 2004, Athens 2005 p.69.3 .http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Asia_Summit(accessed December23,2010)4 . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G8%2B5(accessed December21,2010) India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  4. 4. Historical Development of OlympismThe seeds of the Indian Olympic Movement were first sown by Sir Dorabjee J. Tata towards theend of 1919, the well-known philanthropist who was the son of the founder of the famous TataSteel Company. In 1919, Punes Deccan Gymkhana invited Sir George Lloyd, the then Governorof Bombay, where Dorabjee Tata made a suggestion for according a separate representation toBritish India in the 1920 Olympic Games. In 1920, India got direct affiliation to the InternationalOlympic Committee and it sent six sportsmen — P.F. Chugle and A. Dattar ( marathon and10,000 m), K.Kaikadi (cross-country), P.C.Banerjee (440 yards), G. Navale and N. Shinde(wrestling) to the Antwerp Olympic Games. This brought India on the horizon of internationalsports. Sir Dorabjee. Tata Prof. G.D .Sondhi Raja Bhalendra SinghIn 1928 Maharaja of Patiala, Bhupendra Singh, and G.D. Sondhi (first Secretary of the PunjabOlympic Association) were elected President and Secretary of the Indian Olympic Association,respectively, after both Dorabjee Tata and A.G. Neohren resigned. In 1932, when Dorabjee Tatadied, G.D. Sondhi became a member of the International Olympic Committee in his place. RajaBhalendra Singh and Ashwini Kumar were the other IOC members. It was G.D. Sondhi thatpaved the way for the first and the only Western Asiatic Games in New Delhi in 1934. AfterMaharaja Bhupendra Singhs death in 1938, his son Yadavindra Singh was elected President. In1938, G.D. Sondhi quit as secretary of IOA and Ashwini Kumar was elected the secretary. In1959, Raja Bhalendra Singh, father of Randhir Singh, became President of the IOA, andcontinued in office till the early ‘80s.5Presently, Raja Randhir Singh,Secreatry General of Indian Olympic Association and Olympic Council of Asia is member of I.O.C Mr. Ashwini KUMAR He was member of different commissions in IOC since 1973to 2000 and Honorary Member since 2000; During his tenure he was member of the Executive Board (1980-1987, 1992-1996); Vice-President of the IOC (1983- 1987); member of the following Commissions: Olympic5 http://www.olympic.ind.in/( accessed December30,2010) India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  5. 5. Solidarity (1980-1984), Olympic Movement (1983-1987, 1992-1996), Mass Media (1983-1989),preparation of the XII Olympic Congress – Congress of Unity (1985-1987), Radio (1983-1987),Council of the Olympic Order (1983-1987); security delegate (1983-2001)6Indian Olympic AssociationIOA the apex Sports Organization of Olympic Sport in the country is responsible for the Indiancontingent’s participation in the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games(Outdoor-Indoor-Beach) and South Asian Games. Each Olympic and Non-Olympic Sport has aseparate federation at national levels which are affiliated/recognized to/ by IOA. A specialfeature of the Indian Olympic Association is that, in addition to the national federation for eachsport, there are State Olympic Associations in various states in the country. The State bodiescontrolling the different sports are affiliated to the national federations and to the State OlympicAssociations. The aim of the State Olympic Associations is to ensure the promotion of sports intheir respective States, in conjunction with the State bodies for the different games and sports.The overall responsibility for participation in the Olympic Games rests with the Indian OlympicAssociation. The other responsibilities undertaken by the IOA are as follows: 7  Deciding the organisation of National Games  Maintaining liaison between the Government of India and member federations or associations  Protecting the amateur status of sportsmen  Promoting and developing the Olympic Movement Raja Randhir SINGH He is Secretary General ,Indian Olympic Association and Olympic Council of Asia and member of different commissions in IOC since 2001 like Olympic Games Study (2002 -2003), Sport for All (2004), Women and Sport (2006), Coordination for the 1st Summer Youth Olympic Games in Singapore in 2010 (2008); Olympic Truce Foundation (Since 2007)India in OlympicsIndia first participated in Olympics in 1900 in Paris. The country was represented by NormanPritchard, an Anglo Indian. Then after a gap of 20 years India again participated with twoathletes in 1920 Antwerp Olympics and with eight but the more organised, official representationby India, was made in 1928 Amsterdam, with the formation of Indian Olympic Association in1927. That year, Indian Hockey team participated in their first Olympic hockey event and won6 http://www.olympic.org/en/( accessed December31,2010)7 http://www.olympic.ind.in/( accessed December31,2010) India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  6. 6. the gold medal. For the next 6 successive Olympics spanning 28 years from 1928-1956, Indiansretained their gold medal for the hockey event. India again won two more gold medals inOlympic hockey in the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and the 1980 Moscow Olympics Apart from 8gold medals, one silver medal and two bronzes in Hockey, two silver medals in athletics, Indiahas won bronzes for wrestling ( Khashaba Dadasaheb Jadhav 1952 Helsinki), shooting ( DrKarni Singh 1964 Tokyo), tennis ( Leander Paes 1996 Atlanta) and weightlifting ( KarnamMalleswari 2000 Sydney). 8 Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore was silver medalist in Athens 2004Olympics and Indian athletes won the first ever individual gold medal when Abhinav Bindracaptured the 10m air-rifle event in Beijing Olympics. Vijender Kumar 75 kg in Boxing and 66 kgwrestler Sushil Kumar were also two bronze medal winners in Beijing Olympics.IOC Session in IndiaThe IOC in its entirety was welcomed in the Indian capital when India hosted 88th IOC Session.Raja Bhalendra Singh, welcoming his peers, on that occasion stressed how: “By our faith in theideals of the Olympic spirit, we demonstrate to everyone, directly or indirectly connected withsports, that the Olympic movement is livelier and stronger than ever before. In our country,which has a vast population, the Olympic movement spreads through north and south, east andwest, embracing people of diverse religions, faiths, cultures and civilizations. However, throughthis Olympic movement, the diversity is narrowed down to goodwill, fraternity and friendship.9 The eternal Indian greeting: H. E. Sardar Buta Singh. Minister of Sports and Mrs. Gandhi Prime Minister of India. In the background, H.E. Mr. Juan Antonio Samaranch and Raja Bhalendra Singh.8 http://www.webindia123.com/sports/olymp/indiaolympics.htm(accessed December22,2010)9 http://www.la84foundation.org/( accessed December26,2010) India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  7. 7. Olympic Values as Part of National Curriculum at schoolOlympic ideals in Physical Education suggests activities in which students can consider how,through sport and physical activity, people can develop positive social attitudes, values andpatterns of bahaviour.The students may then be better able to co-operate with others on a basis ofunderstanding and mutual respect and to strive to be the best they can be in a spirit of friendship,unity, and fair play. 10The present education system in India mainly comprises of primaryeducation, secondary education, senior secondary education and higher education. Elementaryeducation consists of eight years of education. The 86th constitutional amendment has also madeelementary education a fundamental right for the children between the age group- 6 to 14. Eachof secondary and senior secondary education consists of two years of education. According toFundamental Principal 2 (p 8) of the Olympic Charter (1996), it is stated that: “Olympism is thephilosophy of life, exalting and combining in a balanced whole the qualities of body, will andmind, blending sport with culture and education, Olympism seeks to create away of life based onthe joy found in effort, the educational value of good example and respect for universalfundamental ethical principles .The ideals of Olympism do not differ too much from thehumanistic ideals which are taught in Physical Education.1110 Kazungu, D.John, in Report of the IOA’s 16th International Post Graduate Seminar, 2008 Athens 2009, p.332.11 Chuamaas.Ah.Tok, in Report of the IOA’s Special Sessions and Seminars 2004, Athens 2005.p.69. India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  8. 8. From the time of independence health education and physical education were included in thecurriculum separately as non-scholastic subjects. The curriculum framework has emphasized thatthese areas are essential for all around development of the child’s personality. Health andphysical education area focuses on the holistic health of the learner and the community, therebyestablishing the important place of mental and emotional, as well as physical health. The first tenyears of content focuses on general promotion of healthful living as well as on major healthproblems of the country. In physical education, sports and games, the emphasis is given toindigenous traditional games. Furthermore, as a system which promotes the integral developmentof body and mind, yoga receives special attention.The National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, has provided for introduction of traditionalelements such as Yoga into the Indian secondary school system. National Youth Policy 2003stresses that the youth of the country should enjoy greater participation in the processes ofdecision-making and execution at local and higher levels with wider access to Sports, PhysicalEducation, Adventure, Recreational opportunities and such participation would be facilitated byidentifiable structures, transparent procedures and wider representation of the youth inappropriate bodies, with the emphasis being more on working with the youth than for the youth..National Sports Policy 2001 lays special emphasis on “Broad-basing of Sports” throughgrassroots level sport activity and Promoting Excellence in Sports” at the national andinternational levels. It is, therefore, essential that sport development is given adequate thrust sothat it could permeate through other aspects of social life and make the youth health conscious,positive and productive.The National Curriculum Framework 2005 by NCERT advocates a holistic definition of healthwithin which physical education and yoga contribute to the physical, social, emotional andmental development of a child. With a view to ensuring sport development as an integral aspectof youth development and youth development as critical to accelerated national development, theThe draft Comprehensive National Sports Policy, 2008 prepared by this Ministry of YouthAffairs and Sports proposes the implementation of a nation-wide rural sports infrastructurescheme christened the Panchayat Yuva Krida Aur Khel Abhiyan. which aims at achieving theobjectives by providing basic sports infrastructure and equipment at the panchayat level andencouraging sports and games in rural areas through annual competitions at the block and districtlevels. PYKKA will help States in promoting sport at the grassroots level, which they have notbeen able to achieve on their own so far due to severe resource constraints. It will also deepenand widen the seedbed of sporting talent, leading to better performances by our sportspersons innational and international events. 1212 http://www.sportsauthorityofindia.nic.in/( accessed December24,2010) India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  9. 9. PE Teachers and Youth sport coach trainingThe concept of Olympic Education in 20th century includes promotion of physical educationthrough emancipation from and by sport.13Since pre-historic times, physical activity has been animportant sphere in human activity within formal and informal settings. In its formal institutionalform, Physical Education has enjoyed a continuing presence in school curriculum. Although a lotof distracters have affected its smooth growth, its continuing presence as a school curriculumsubject implies that it has passed the test of time.14 In India PE Teachers are trained throughvarious Physical Education colleges and universities .Except these teacher training colleges anduniversities, Sports Authority of India plays an important role which was established by theGovt. of India in 1984 as a society under Societies Registration Act, with the twin objective ofbroad basing of sports and to achieve excellence at the national and international level. Over theyears, SAI has emerged as a field arm of Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports It was also one ofthe stakeholders in Commonwealth Game 2010 and is entrusted with the challenging task ofpreparing the national teams in different disciplines on behalf of the government in collaborationwith the concerned national sports federation .Its main aim and objectives are to establish ,run,manage and admister the institutions to produce high caliber coaches, sports scientists andphysical education teachers. It initiates, undertake, sponser and encourage research projectsrelated to various sports sciences for upgradation of sports, sportspersons and coaches. It is alsoresponsible for other incidental issues concerning promotion, development and excellence insports. It initiate, undertake, sponsor, stimulate and encourage research projects related to varioussports sciences for upgradation of sports, sportspersons and coaches. It is also responsible forother incidental issues concerning promotion, development and excellence in sports. Varioussports promotional schemes are also being implemented by SAI through its Regional Centres forspotting and nurturing talented children by providing them requisite facilities in terms of sportsinfrastructure, sports equipments, competition exposure and scientific coaching etc throughCentres of Excellence Scheme SAI Training Centres (STC), Scheme Special Area Games (SAG)Scheme National Sports Talent Contest (NSTC) Scheme Army Boys Sports Companies (ABSC)Scheme.SAI has got two Academic Wings, namely, Netaji Subhas National Institute of Sports(NSNIS), Patiala for coaches which conducts various programmes like Diploma Course in SportsCoaching, Masters Course in Sports Coaching, Certificate Course in Sports Coaching, Post-graduate Diploma Course in Sports Medicine, Refresher Courses and the other one isLakshmibai National College of Physical Education (LNCPE) at Thiruvananthapuram which hasBachelor and Master of Physical Education (BPE& MPE) and Regular and Part-time Ph.Dprogrammes.1513 Ionescu.Simona,in Report of the 9th International session for Directors of N.O.A’s ,2007,Athens,2009 p.41.14 Agyei, Michael, in Report of the IOA’s 15th International Post Graduate Seminar, 2007 Athens 2009, p.222.15 http://www.sportsauthorityofindia.nic.in/( accessed December27,2010) India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  10. 10. National Olympic AcademyThe Olympic Movement has always been highly respected in India. National Olympic Academyin India works closely with Indian Olympic Association for the promotion of Olympism andOlympic values among citizens of India. It was established in 1980. NOA, India sendsparticipants to IOA Sessions. Every participant makes a report of the session and they have verypositive attitudes for the Olympic Movement and Olympism, but different aspects of Olympismneed to be scoped in much wider context in future.Programme and Activities of National Olympic AcademyOlympic EducationThe OVEP Programme and National Club Games of India had been launched in India by theIOC President, Dr. Jacques Rogge during the Commonwealth Youth Games held at Pune inOctober, 2008. Launch of by Dr.Jacques Rogge, Hon’ble President, International Olympic Committee,Sh.Suresh Kalmadi, President,Indian Olympic Education and Raja Randhir Singh,Secreatry General, Indian Olympic Association on 16 October 2008, Pune, India India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  11. 11. Under the aegis of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the Indian Olympic Association(IOA) conducted its first ever national workshop on the IOC’s Olympic Values EducationProgramme (OVEP) from 22-26 March 2010 in the capital city of Delhi, Inductive andexplorative teaching methods were implemented by workshop leader, Dr. Deanna Binder whereIOC Director, Department of International Cooperation and Development, Mr. T.A. GandaSithole was also present 16IOC Member and Secretary General, Mr. Randhir Singh expressed thecommitment of the IOA to the IOC’s OVEP programme and emphasized that this programmewould be embedded as part of the activities of the Indian National Club Games which will betargeting 800’000 clubs in the country. It is estimated that 20% of the population would betouched and exposed to OVEP during its roll-out.17The OVEP toolkit has been developed in order to help educators, coaches and youth groupleaders not only to encourage the young generation to practice sport but also to teach them theeducational values of the Olympic Movement: joy of effort, fair play, respect for others, pursuitof excellence, and balance between body, will and mind. Opportunities for dialogue, self-reflection, background information and the instructional methods for delivery of the differenttopical areas to promote these values was the cornerstone of the workshop methodology andpedagogical outcomes.Olympic Day RunIn 1987, in an effort to encourage all National Olympic Committees to commemorate andcelebrate Olympic Day, the IOC Sport for All Commission launched the Olympic Day Runconcept with the objective of promoting the practice of participation in sport by men, women andchildren from all corners of the world and all walks of life, regardless of athletic ability. The firstOlympic Day Run was held in 1987, over a distance of 10km, with 45 participating NOCs.In India two schools declared holidays so that their pupils could take part in the Olympic DayRun in Ahmadabad, the capital city of Gujarat, on 24th June where five hundred youngsters took16 http://www.olympic.ind.in/ovpe.html(accessed December30,2010)17 http://www.olympic.org/en/(accessed December31,2010 ) India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  12. 12. part, together with many sportsmen from both national teams and local clubs, not only athletesbut shooters, skaters, boxers, wrestlers, basketball and hockey players, cricketers. The totalnumber of participants was a staggering fifteen thousand, causing a few traffic jams along theway !18.To commemorate the birth of Baron Pierre de Coubertin, the Hyderabad athleticsinstitute in India organized a series of events , including a walk for children .Some fifty familiesand five hundred children took part in this traditional Olympic New Year celebration19, aimed atpromoting world peace and brotherhood. In the state edition for Olympic run at Dhanbad, 2000runners from various walks of life participated in the run. 20.Olympic SolidarityOlympic Solidarity’s aim is to organise assistance for all the National Olympic Committees(NOCs), particularly those with the greatest needs, so that they can develop their own structuresto favour the expansion of sport in their country.21The IOC Solidarity FIMS Asian course insports medicine was organised jointly by the Indian Olympic Association and the IndianAssociation of Sports Medicine at the Netaji Subhas National Institute of Sport in Patiala (IND)from 5th to 25th November, 197O.On 8th to 23rd March at Patiala (India), continentalinstruction course for athletics trainers and organisers held jointly by IOC Olympic Solidarityand the International Amateur Athletic Federation.22 .Olympic Related Other Activities in IndiaAn Olympic Week was held in Asansol (IND) from 18th-24th June 1983 in commemoration ofthe 90th anniversary of the revival of the Olympic Games. Organised in the form of a sportsexhibition with seminars, film shows and exhibits from various Olympic Associations and sportsbodies, this ambitious project was aimed at popularizing the Olympic movement andencouraging sport throughout India, particularly amongst the country’s youth.23The Referees Association in the town of Asanol, located in the eastern portion of the country,staged a “Foundation day” to highlight the development of the Olympic movement in thecountry. In addition to a ceremony honouring Pierre de Coubertin during which the modernfounder of Olympism’s ties with India were given special attention, the event featureddiscussions on officiating and on proposed innovations for Indian sport2418 http://www.la84foundation.org/( accessed January 1,2011)19 http://www.la84foundation.org/( accessed January 1,2011)20 Chourasia, Namita, the Telegraph Dhanbad, July 11,2004(accessed January 2,2011)21 http://www.olympic.org/olympic-solidarity-commission(accessed January 2,2011)22 http://www.la84foundation.org/(accessed January 1,2011)23 http://www.la84foundation.org/( accessed January 2,201124 http://www.la84foundation.org/(accessed January 5,2011) India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  13. 13. Conclusions and SuggestionsToday many young people do not strive to broaden their knowledge about Olympism, theOlympic movement, ideals and values. Most often they have a rather shallow notion about thesethings obtained by chance from different sources. A lot of teacher activity is necessary to involvechildren and young people in active sports trainings, as well as to develop a correct notion aboutsports human value, to encourage the new generation to observe the principles of fair play, aswell as to solve other important tasks of Olympic education. A study of the early OlympicCongresses indicates a clearer definition that Olympic Education through sports is an importantaspect of the Olympic Movement as written by Mr.Ah-Tok-ChuaMaas. However, As per theUniversity Grants Commission recommendations 2.1.1 given in Issues, concerns and newdirections in Higher Education in India on December 2003 ,New Delhi ,”Olympics Educationmay be included from the elementary/ secondary level to higher secondary level of education todevelop sports awareness among the children.”There should be some good strategies forelectronic and print media. Educational exchanges at the level of special lecture level should beexplored. Olympic exhibitions, network of friendship, Pierre de Coubertin awards are some moreexamples which can be good for promotion of Olympism throughout the country. India has greatperspectives for spreading and organisation of the ideas of Olympism and Olympic Educationand It is true that Olympism have a great future, but for their development it is necessary to workmuch more to do. India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese
  14. 14. BibliographyWebsiteshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Asia_Summithttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G8%2B5http://www.la84foundation.org/http://www.olympic.ind.in/http://www.olympic.ind.in/ovpe.htmlhttp://www.olympic.org/en/http://www.olympic.org/olympic-solidarity-commissionhttp://www.sportsauthorityofindia.nic.in/http://www.webindia123.com/sports/olymp/indiaolympics.htmOtherReport of the 9th International session for Directors of N.O.A’s, 2007Report of the IOA’s 15th International Post Graduate Seminar, 2007Report of the IOA’s 16th International Post Graduate Seminar, 2008Report of the IOA’s Special Sessions and Seminars 2004The Telegraph Dhanbad, July 11, 2004. India and Olympism, Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Research Scholar, l .O. A and University of Peloponnese

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