Doing interview


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Doing interview

  1. 1. Doing InterviewBy Steinar KvaleSummarized by Joseph Ato Forson
  2. 2. Background of Author• Born in Norway and graduatedfrom university of Oslo• Professor of EducationalPsychology and Director of theCentre of Qualitative Research atthe University of Aarhus
  3. 3. Introduction Conversation are old way of obtaining systematic knowledgeo Thucydides- history of warso Socrates- philosophical knowledge through dialoguesThe term “ interview” is of recent origino Literally an inter-view, i.e. an exchange of views between twopersons conversing about a theme of common interest.In social science research, qualitative interviews are employedas research methodso Glaser and Strauss’s sociological study of hospitals (1967)played a pioneering role in qualitative ResearchTechnical, epistemological and cultural reason accounts for thegrowing use of qualitative research interviews
  4. 4. Introduction (cont..)Forms of interviewso Structured- conversation that is purpose determined by theinterviewero Semi-structured life interview- describes the life world of theinterviewee in respect to interpreting the meaning of thedescribed phenomena.Ethical issues permeate interview researcho Knowledge produced depends on the social relationship ofinterviewer and interviewee
  5. 5. Epistemological issues of interviewingAspects of Semi-structured life interview1. Life world- interviewee’s lived everyday world2. Meaning – understanding the meaning of central themes ofsubjects’ lived world.3. Qualitative- knowledge expressed in normal languagedevoid of quantification4. Descriptive- interviewee encouraged to describe as possibletheir experience and feeling and how they act.5. Specificity- actions and situations elicited to the point, notgeneral opinions6. Qualified naïveté- the interviewer exhibits openness to newand unexpected phenomena (rather than ready madecategories)
  6. 6. Aspects of Semi-structured life interview (cont)7. Focus- subjects allowed to bring forth dimension foundimportant8. Ambiguity- interviewer task is to clarify9. Change- subjects may discover new aspects of themes10. Sensitivity11. Interpersonal situation12. Positive experience- rare and enriching experience to thesubject (New insight)
  7. 7. Ethical Issues of interviewingMain DiscussionInterview as a moral inquiryo Concerns the means as well as the ends of an interview inquiryo Complexities in researching private lives and placing account inpublic domainEthical issues at seven research stageso Thematizing- go beyond scientific value of knowledge toimproving human situation (formulation of research questions)o Designing- obtain the subjects consent, secure confidentialityand possible consequences to the subjecto Interview situation- consider the consequences to the subjecte.g. tiredness/stress etc.o Transcription- protect the confidentiality of the intervieweeo Analysis- involve the subject in how statements are interpreted
  8. 8. Ethical issues at seven research stages (cont)o Verification- report knowledge that is secured and verifiedo Reporting- again issue of confidentialityWhen not to use interviewWhen predicting the behavior of larger groups e.g. votingbehaviorStudying people’s behavior and their interaction with theirenvironment
  9. 9. Conducting an interviewSetting the interview stageo Brief introo Round off with interviewer mentioning key points - debrief Scripting the interviewo Thematically- “what” of an interview (theoretical conceptual)o Dynamically – “how” of an interview (keeping the interaction)Interviewer questionso Brief and simpleoIntroduction questions, follow-up questions, probing questions,specificying questions, direct/indirect question, structuringquestions , silence and interpreting questionsThe art of second questionso Identifying the key item among the many dimensions
  10. 10. Interview VariationsInterview subjectso Across cultures- cultural factors that affects relationship (i.e.observing taboo etc)o Children- allow them to give voice to experiences and understandtheir worldo Elites- power asymmetry, interviewer should be knowledgeable togain respectInterview Formso Factual – e.g. witness psychologyo Conceptual- conceptual clarification e.g. studying kingshipstructures in foreign cultureso Focus group – consist of 6-10 subjects led by a moderator meant tobring different views without consensuso Narrative – stories told by the subject spontaneouslyo Discursive- how knowledge and truth is created within discourses,and the power relations of discourses
  11. 11. Interview Variations (cont…)Confrontational Interviewso Brings the conflict and power dimensions of the interviewconversation (Direct confrontation)o The interviewer may challenge what the interviewee says
  12. 12. Interview Quality
  13. 13. Interview Quality (cont…)Standard Criticism of Qualitative Interviewsa. Not scientific, only reflects a common senseb. Not quantitative, only qualitative and thus not scientificc. Research interview is not objective, but subjectd. Qualitative interviews do not test hypotheses; only exploratoryand thus not scientifice. Too person-dependent and not scientificf. Interview results not trustworthy; they are biasedg. Interview results due to leading questions and thus unreliableh. Interpretation of interview results subjectivei. Depends on subjective impressionsj. Interview findings are not generalisable; there are too fewsubjects
  14. 14. Transcribing InterviewsOral and written languageo A transcript is a translation from one narrative mode-oraldiscourse-into another narrative mode-written discourseMethods of recordingo Audiotape, videotape, note-taking and rememberingQuality transcription dependso Nature of the materials and the purpose of the investigationo Time and moneyo Availability of reliable and patient typist
  15. 15. Analyzing interviewsModes of interview analysisAnalyses focusing on meaningoMeaning codingoMeaning condensation-abridgement /shortening longexpressionoMeaning interpretation- e.g. critics interpretations ofpoem or a film, patient’s dreams etc.Analyses focusing on languageoLinguistic analysisoConversation analysisoNarrative analysisoDiscursive analysisoDeconstructionAnalysis as bricolageono analytical method followedAnalysis as theoretical readingoReflecting theoretically on specific themes of interest
  16. 16. Other issues discussedReliability and validity of interview knowledgeo Bothers on method, theoretical conceptionReporting interview knowledgeo Quotes should be contextualized, rendered in readable style, beloyal to the habitual language of an intervieweeo Findings reported as interviewso Researcher’s dialogue with the interview textso Structured in narrative modeso Dialogues with stylistically edited
  17. 17. Thanks you!!!!!!!!!!