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Narrative research

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Narrative research

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Narrative research

  1. 1. / 381 NARRATIVE RESEARCH CEIT 712: Qualitative Research in Instructional Technology: Theory and Applications
  2. 2. / 38 Narrative Research 2 1. What is narrative research? 2. What are the types of narrative designs? 3. What are the key characteristics of narrative designs? 4. What are some potential ethical issues in gathering stories? 5. What are the steps in conducting narrative research? CEIT 712
  3. 3. / 38 What is narrative research? A study of individuals’ life experiences told to researchers or obtained in documents and archival material 3 1
  4. 4. / 38 What is narrative research? 4 1 It focuses on • Studying a single person, • Gathering data through the collection of stories, • Reporting individual experiences, and • Discussing the meaning of those experiences for the individual. ----------- ----------- --------
  5. 5. / 38 What is narrative research? 5 1 HistoryLiterature Human Sciences Anthropology SociologySociolinguistics Education
  6. 6. / 38 What is narrative research? 6 1 Narrative Research in Education Emphasis on teachers’ reflection Emphasis on teachers’ knowledge Bringing teachers’ voices to the forefront
  7. 7. / 38 Narrative Research 7 1. What is narrative research? 2. What are the types of narrative designs? 3. What are the key characteristics of narrative designs? 4. What are some potential ethical issues in gathering stories? 5. What are the steps in conducting narrative research? CEIT 712
  8. 8. / 38 What are the types of narrative designs? 8 2 • Who writes or records the story? • How much of a life is recorded and presented? • Who provides the story? • Is a theoretical lens being used? • Can narrative forms be combined?
  9. 9. / 38 Who writes or records the story? 9 2 What are the types of narrative designs? > Biography vs.Autobiography
  10. 10. / 38 How much of a life is recorded and presented? 10 2 What are the types of narrative designs? > Life history vs.Personal experiences
  11. 11. / 38 Who provides the story? 11 2 What are the types of narrative designs? > Children Teacher Administrator Other educational personnel
  12. 12. / 38 Is a theoretical lens being used? 12 2 What are the types of narrative designs? > A theoretical lens in narrative research is a guiding perspective or ideology that provides structure for advocating groups or individuals in the written report. The narrative researcher provides a voice in particular for marginalized individuals in the research.
  13. 13. / 38 Can narrative forms be combined? 13 2 What are the types of narrative designs? > Biography Personal story Teacher’s story Feministic perspective Narrative study
  14. 14. / 38 Narrative Research 14 1. What is narrative research? 2. What are the types of narrative designs? 3. What are the key characteristics of narrative designs? 4. What are some potential ethical issues in gathering stories? 5. What are the steps in conducting narrative research? CEIT 712
  15. 15. / 38 What are the key characteristics of narrative designs? 15 3 • Individual experiences • Collecting individual stories • Chronology of the experiences • Restorying • Coding for themes • Context or setting • Collaborating with participants
  16. 16. / 38 Narrative Research 16 1. What is narrative research? 2. What are the types of narrative designs? 3. What are the key characteristics of narrative designs? 4. What are some potential ethical issues in gathering stories? 5. What are the steps in conducting narrative research? CEIT 712
  17. 17. / 3817 4 What are some ethical issues in gathering stories? • Distorting data • Inability to tell the story because it is horrific • Forgetting story
  18. 18. / 38 Narrative Research 18 1. What is narrative research? 2. What are the types of narrative designs? 3. What are the key characteristics of narrative designs? 4. What are some potential ethical issues in gathering stories? 5. What are the steps in conducting narrative research? CEIT 712
  19. 19. / 38 Steps in conducting narrative research Identify a phenomenon to explore that addresses an educational problem 1 Purposefully select an individual from whom you can learn about the phenomenon 2 Collect the story from that individual 3 Restory or retell the individual’s story 4 Collaborate with the participant– storyteller 5 Write a story about the participant’s experiences 6 Validate the accuracy of the report 7 19 5
  20. 20. / 38 1. Identify a phenomenon to explore that addresses an educational problem 20 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > Stories about what E.g.: Stories about difficulties novice teachers have in meeting diverse needs of students Determining a research problem to study and identifying a central phenomenon
  21. 21. / 38 2. Purposefully select an individual from whom you can learn about the phenomenon 21 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > Selecting one or more volunteer individuals who can provide an understanding of the phenomenon
  22. 22. / 38 3. Collect the story from that individual 22 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > Several ways to collect stories (field texts) from individuals: • Have the individual tell about his or her experiences through personal conversations or interviews. • Have the individual record his or her story in a journal or diary. • Observe the individual and record field notes. • Collect letters sent by the individual. • Assemble stories about the individual from family members. • Obtain photographs, and other personal/family/social artifacts.
  23. 23. / 38 4. Restory or retell the individual’s story 23 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > Chronological sequence Logical connections among ideas Analyzing it for key elements Rewriting the story
  24. 24. / 38 4. Restory or retell the individual’s story 24 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > Narrative researchers differ about the elements to select in the raw data before chronologically sequencing them. Two approaches regarding these elements are problem solution and three-dimensional space approaches.
  25. 25. / 38 Problem solution approach 25 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > 4. Restory or retell the individual’s story > Characters Setting Problem Actions Resolution Individual’s archetype, personality, behaviors, style, and patterns Context, environment, conditions, place, time, locale, year and era Question to be answered or phenomena to be described or explained Movements through the story illustrating character’s thinking, feelings, intentions, actions, and reactions about failed and successful attempts Answers the question and explains what caused the turning point or the character to change
  26. 26. / 38 Problem solution approach 26 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > 4. Restory or retell the individual’s story > Let’s examine a transcript and then find elements of problem solution approach
  27. 27. / 38 Three-dimensional space approach 27 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > 4. Restory or retell the individual’s story > Interaction Continuity Situation Personal Social Past Present Future Place Look inward to internal conditions, feelings, hopes, aesthetic reactions, moral dispositions Look outward to existential conditions in the environment with other people and their intentions, purposes, assumptions, and points of view Look backward to remembered stories and experiences from earlier times Look at current stories and experiences relating to actions of an event. Look forward to implied and possible experiences and plot lines Look at context, time and place situated in a physical landscape or in a setting bounded by characters’ intentions, purposes and different points of view.
  28. 28. / 3828 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > 4. Restory or retell the individual’s story > Comparing two approaches Problem solution approach Three-dimensional space approach Focus is to solve the problem Focus is the experiences and interactions of the individuals Researchers use more linear and highly sequenced approach Researchers use more holistic and broad lens to tell the story by focusing on different elements The sequence of events is characters, setting and problem, and then actions and resolution There is no an ideal order in sequencing events
  29. 29. / 3829 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > 4. Restory or retell the individual’s story > Coding for themes Chan (2010) divided a Chinese immigrant student’s stories about changes in her cultural identity into four themes. They are: • Home language conflicting with school language, • School language conflicting with home language, • Parent values conflicting with peer values and • Teacher expectations conflicting with parent expectations. The researcher can segment stories into themes or categories.
  30. 30. / 3830 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > 4. Restory or retell the individual’s story > Coding for themes Dvir (2015) created three themes to indicate how student teachers with physical disabilities gain professional identity incrementally. They are: • Past exclusion based on physical difference, • Significant turning point and • Construction of an educational approach to difference.
  31. 31. / 38 5. Collaborate with the participant–storyteller 31 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > This collaboration might involve • Negotiating on how to enter to the research site, • Working closely with the participant to get field texts and • Writing and telling the individual’s story in the researcher’s words. Collaboration between the researcher and the participant decreases the potential gap between the narrative told and the narrative reported.
  32. 32. / 38 6. Write a story about the participant’s experiences 32 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > • Restory has a central place in the narrative report. • Specific themes that derived from the story should be emphasized. • It is not necessary to write a specific literature section. The literature about the problem might be added to the final sections of the study.
  33. 33. / 38 6. Write a story about the participant’s experiences 33 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > • The setting in which the individual experiences the central phenomenon should be described in detail. • A section about the importance of narrative research and the procedures involved in it can be written. • The researcher can use the first-person pronoun to refer to yourself.
  34. 34. / 38 7. Validate the accuracy of the report 34 5 What are the steps in conducting narrative research? > Collaboration Triangulation Member checking
  35. 35. / 38 Narrative Research 35 1. What is narrative research? 2. What are the types of narrative designs? 3. What are the key characteristics of narrative designs? 4. What are some potential ethical issues in gathering stories? 5. What are the steps in conducting narrative research? CEIT 712
  36. 36. / 38 References Chan, E. (2010). Living in the space between participant and researcher as a narrative inquirer: examining ethnic identity of chinese canadian students as conflicting stories to live by. The journal of Educational Research, 103, 113-122. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Dvir, N. (2015). Does physical disability affect the construction of professional identity? Narratives of student teachers with physical disabilities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 52, 56-65. Fraenkel, J., Wallen, N., & Hyun, H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Ollerenshaw, J.A. (1998). A study of the impact of a supplemental storytelling (oral narrative) strategy on fourth grade students’ understanding of the physics of sound. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa, Iowa City. Ollerenshaw, J. A., & Creswell, J. W. (2002). Narrative research: a comparison of two restorying data analysis approaches. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(3), 329-347. Webster, L., & Mertowa, P. (2007).Using narrative inquiry as a research method: an introduction to using critical event narrative analysis research on learning and teaching. Oxon: Routledge. 36 CEIT 712
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