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Introduction to Biomechanics
 

Introduction to Biomechanics

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Musclo-Skeletal System

Musclo-Skeletal System
Biomechanical Terms
Lever Classes
The Role of a Physiotherapist

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    Introduction to Biomechanics Introduction to Biomechanics Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Biomechanics
    • The Musculo-skeletal System
      • Muscular System
      • Almost ½ the body’s weight is muscle
      • There are more than 640 muscles in the body
      • Muscles can shorten and pull but not push
      • Most muscles are arranged in opposing teams e.g. agonistic/antagonistic - as each team pulls, the other team relaxes and gets stretched
    •  
    • The Musculo-skeletal System
      • Skeletal System
      • The skeleton has 3 major roles
      • It protects vitals organs
      • It provides body shape
      • It allows us to move as our muscles are attached to our bones – when our muscles move – our bones move to.
    •  
    • Skeletal System
      • Skeletal System Factoids
      • You are born with 350 bones but only have 206 bones as an adult – some bones fuse together to form one bone
    •  
    • Bone Structure
      • A typical bone has a strong outer layer of compact bone
      • Inside is a layer of flexible spongy bone which looks like honeycomb
      • The middle of some bones consist of a jelly-like substance called bone marrow which is where new red blood cells are produced
    • Bone Structure
    • Naming Skeletal Muscles:
      • Location – e.g. intercostals
      • Shape of Muscles – e.g. Deltoid – triangle
      • Size – e.g. Longus, maximus
      • Direction of muscle fibres – e.g. transverse, oblique
      • Number of muscle parts e.g. quadriceps
    • Biomechanics
      • The study of mechanics in the human body
      • Divided into 2 areas
      • Kinetics – the forces producing motion e.g. muscles, gravity
      • Kinematics – the description of motion e.g. type, location, direction, planes of movement
    •  
    • Biomechanics
      • The human skeleton is a system of levers
      • Muscle force moves the skeleton
      • 3 types of levers in the body
      • Class 1
      • Class 2
      • Class 3
    • Class 1 Levers
    • Class 2 Levers
    • Class 3 Levers
    • Note the contact point
    • The Lever Arm
    • Moments or Torque
    • Mechanical Disadvantage
    • Effort and Angles
    • Forces in Your Body
      • When you walk, there is 2 to 3 times your body weight transmitted through each foot.
      • When you run, this is 7 to 8 times
      • The foot has 26 bones – everything must be functioning correctly to avoid injury
      • E.g. flat feet
      • Click here to view a graphical representation of flat feet (online)
    • Forces in Your Body
      • When you sit with bad posture, there is a 200% increase pressure in your spine.
      • Reaching for your toes is a 300% increase
      • Human movement is very complex. There may be dozens of joints and muscles working to achieve a desired movement.
    • Biomechanics in Physiotherapy
      • It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of what is “normal” for the human body.
      • i.e. knowing the resultant action if a muscle contracts
      • i.e. knowing the possible result of a muscle not functioning correctly