Introduction to Biomechanics

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Musclo-Skeletal System
Biomechanical Terms
Lever Classes
The Role of a Physiotherapist

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Introduction to Biomechanics

  1. 1. Introduction to Biomechanics
  2. 2. The Musculo-skeletal System <ul><li>Muscular System </li></ul><ul><li>Almost ½ the body’s weight is muscle </li></ul><ul><li>There are more than 640 muscles in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles can shorten and pull but not push </li></ul><ul><li>Most muscles are arranged in opposing teams e.g. agonistic/antagonistic - as each team pulls, the other team relaxes and gets stretched </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Musculo-skeletal System <ul><li>Skeletal System </li></ul><ul><li>The skeleton has 3 major roles </li></ul><ul><li>It protects vitals organs </li></ul><ul><li>It provides body shape </li></ul><ul><li>It allows us to move as our muscles are attached to our bones – when our muscles move – our bones move to. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Skeletal System <ul><li>Skeletal System Factoids </li></ul><ul><li>You are born with 350 bones but only have 206 bones as an adult – some bones fuse together to form one bone </li></ul>
  5. 8. Bone Structure <ul><li>A typical bone has a strong outer layer of compact bone </li></ul><ul><li>Inside is a layer of flexible spongy bone which looks like honeycomb </li></ul><ul><li>The middle of some bones consist of a jelly-like substance called bone marrow which is where new red blood cells are produced </li></ul>
  6. 9. Bone Structure
  7. 10. Naming Skeletal Muscles: <ul><li>Location – e.g. intercostals </li></ul><ul><li>Shape of Muscles – e.g. Deltoid – triangle </li></ul><ul><li>Size – e.g. Longus, maximus </li></ul><ul><li>Direction of muscle fibres – e.g. transverse, oblique </li></ul><ul><li>Number of muscle parts e.g. quadriceps </li></ul>
  8. 11. Biomechanics <ul><li>The study of mechanics in the human body </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 2 areas </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetics – the forces producing motion e.g. muscles, gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Kinematics – the description of motion e.g. type, location, direction, planes of movement </li></ul>
  9. 13. Biomechanics <ul><li>The human skeleton is a system of levers </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle force moves the skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>3 types of levers in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Class 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Class 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Class 3 </li></ul>
  10. 14. Class 1 Levers
  11. 15. Class 2 Levers
  12. 16. Class 3 Levers
  13. 17. Note the contact point
  14. 18. The Lever Arm
  15. 19. Moments or Torque
  16. 20. Mechanical Disadvantage
  17. 21. Effort and Angles
  18. 22. Forces in Your Body <ul><li>When you walk, there is 2 to 3 times your body weight transmitted through each foot. </li></ul><ul><li>When you run, this is 7 to 8 times </li></ul><ul><li>The foot has 26 bones – everything must be functioning correctly to avoid injury </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. flat feet </li></ul><ul><li>Click here to view a graphical representation of flat feet (online) </li></ul>
  19. 23. Forces in Your Body <ul><li>When you sit with bad posture, there is a 200% increase pressure in your spine. </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching for your toes is a 300% increase </li></ul><ul><li>Human movement is very complex. There may be dozens of joints and muscles working to achieve a desired movement. </li></ul>
  20. 24. Biomechanics in Physiotherapy <ul><li>It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of what is “normal” for the human body. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. knowing the resultant action if a muscle contracts </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. knowing the possible result of a muscle not functioning correctly </li></ul>

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