Broadband Internet access became a rapidly developing market in many areas in the early 2000s
Broadband is often called high-speed Internet , because it usually has a high rate of data. In general, any connection to the customer of 256 kbit/s (0.256 Mbit/s) or more is considered broadband Internet.
DSL , is a family of technologies that provide digital data transmission over the wires used in the " last mile " of a local telephone network. Typically, the download speed of DSL ranges from 128 kilobits per second (kbit/s) to 24,000 kbit/s depending on DSL technology and service level implemented.
The origin of DSL technology dates back to 1988, when engineers at Bellcore (now Telcordia Technologies ) devised a way to carry a digital signal over the unused frequency spectrum available on the twisted pair cables running between the telephone company's central office and the customer premises. Implementation of DSL could permit an ordinary telephone line to provide digital communication without interfering with voice services.
The local loop of the Public Switched Telephone Network was initially designed to carry POTS voice communication and signaling, since the concept of data communications as we know it today did not exist. For reasons of economy, the phone system nominally passes audio between 300 and 3,400 Hz , which is regarded as the range required for human speech to be clearly intelligible. This is known as commercial bandwidth .
The subscriber end of the connection consists of a DSL modem . This converts data from the digital signals used by computers into a voltage signal of a suitable frequency range which is then applied to the phone line.
A "splitter" was installed near the demarcation point , from which a dedicated data line was installed.
All the phone wires are carrying both POTS and DSL signal frequencies; therefore the customer generally needs to plug a DSL filter into each telephone outlet.
The line length limitations from telephone exchange to subscriber are more restrictive for higher data transmission rates. Technologies such as VDSL provide very high speed, short-range links as a method of delivering " triple play " services.
A cable modem is a special type of modem that is designed to modulate a data signal over cable television infrastructure. Cable modems are primarily used to deliver broadband Internet access, taking advantage of unused bandwidth on a cable television network
The term cable Internet access (or simply cable ) refers to the delivery of Internet service over this infrastructure.
There is greater differentiation in bandwidth, or the rate at which one can send and receive data, between cable and the various types of DSL. A dial-up modem can download and upload at some 40 kbs, or 0.04 Mbs. Cable modems across most services consistently attain 3-6 Mbs down / 0.3-0.4 MBs up.
In comparison, DSL tends to offer less speed and more variance between service packages and prices. Service quality is also far more dependent on your location in relation to the local ISP.
Integrated Services Digital Network ( ISDN ) is a type of circuit switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds than available with analog systems. More broadly, ISDN is a set of protocols for establishing and breaking circuit switched connections, and for advanced call features for the user.
In a videoconference, ISDN provides simultaneous voice, video, and text transmission between individual desktop videoconferencing systems and group (room) videoconferencing systems
In ISDN, there are two types of channels, B (for "Bearer") and D (for "Delta"). B channels are used for data (which may include voice), and D channels are intended for signaling and control (but can also be used for data).
This list is in no way exhaustive, and you’re likely to see more broadband players emerge in the near future
Applogic Broadband Systems Providing broadband service since : November 2000 Bandwidth provided : 1 Mbps Technology used : Wireless connectivity, last-mile connectivity Market segment targeted : Corporates Tariff : Rs 600,000 per annum per connection Area of operation : Hyderabad (at present), Bangalore, Chennai, and Pune by March 15, 2001
BSES Telecom Providing broadband service since : June 2000 Bandwidth provided : Each household port is capable of carrying 2 Mbps data Technology used : Internet over fiber optic cable Market segment targeted : Corporates , SMEs and Households ; started with Corporates and extended to residential users from October 2000. Tariff : Households : One-time installation Rs 5,000; monthly charges Rs 1,000 Corporates : Pricing for Corporates and SMEs depends on bandwidth requirement Area of operation : Mumbai
One of the great challenges of broadband is to provide service to potential customers in areas of low population density
Several rural broadband solutions exist, though each has its own pitfalls and limitations. Some choices are better than others, but depend on how proactive the local phone company is about upgrading their rural technology.