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Bhel EC


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a presentation on BHEL summer training

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Bhel EC

  1. 1. Bharat Heavy Electricals limited TRAINING SUMMARY ON TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Submitted To : Submitted By: Mrs.Ashita Vermani Mr. AWIK ET-J, IV Yr
  2. 2. THE ORGANISATION:-B.H.E.L • Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited • Established more than 50 years ago • Today it ranks among the leading power Equipment Manufacturers in the world • Largest engineering and Manufacturing enterprise in India
  3. 3. • Various energy-related and infrastructure sector include Power, Railways, Telecom, Transmission and Distribution, Oil and Gas sectors and many more with global credentials. • More than 65% of the installed capacity for electrical power in India is contributed by BHEL. • 14 manufacturing divisions, 8 service centers, 4 power sector regional centers, 18 regional offices and over 150 sites spread all over India & abroad.
  4. 4. TELECOMMUNICATION • Telecommunication is the assisted transmission over a distance for the purpose of communication • It involves the use of electronic devices such as telephone, television, radio or computer
  6. 6. TELEPHONE EXCHANGE • Often called Telephone Switch • First telephone exchange was installed in 1878 • The first switching technology implemented was MANUAL SWITCHING which required an OPERATOR • AUTOMATIC SWITCHING was introduced in 1891 and is of two types:- 1. ELECTROMECHANICAL 2. ELECTRONIC
  7. 7. 1. Electromechanical switching involved – STEPPING SWITCH called as the STROWGER SWITHING SYSTEM • It made use of a four number sequence to connect the call to a neighborhood • Later on, area codes were created. 2. Electronic switching system • Stored Program Control • Made use of computers as central control • High speed of operation
  8. 8. Powers providing circuits • Outside the exchange • Inside the exchange
  9. 9. • Outside the Exchange: • The voltage supplied in Indian Subcontinent is 220-volts/50 Hz. A.C. but for the normal working of the exchange 48(46-53) volts of D.C. is required. • Hence a Rectifier circuit, backed with battery array for power-failures, is used. • Inside the Exchange: • Inside the telephone exchange various types of power supplies are used for powering various modules (for example: - Line-cards, Ringer). .From M.D.F. a number of cables, based upon the requirement of a place, are connected to cabinets. On the cabinets these cables are divided into cables of 20 pairs. Now every 20 pair cable goes to the distribution box (D.B.). At the D.B. this 20 pair cable is further divided into two parts of 10 pairs each. These pairs are then connected to the subscriber ports via jumpers.
  10. 10. TONES USED IN MODERN TELEPHONY  DIAL TONE • Heard when handset is picked • Indicates that exchange is ready to receive dialled digits from subscriber • Tone is a continuous burble sound of 400 Hz modulated by 25Hz  BUSY TONE • Heard when the called subscriber is engaged • 400 Hz signal which is regularly interrupted at equal intervals • It is generally on for 0.75 sec and off for also 0.75 sec.
  11. 11.  RINGING TONE • Informs the calling subscriber that the called line is being rung • Has a double ring pattern • Each ring is separated by 0.2 sec and each double ring pattern by 2 sec • Frequency is 133 or 400 Hz NUMBER UNOBTAINABLE TONE • Sent when the number dialed cannot be obtained • Tone of 400 Hz
  12. 12. Frequencies used in Telephony • High band tone (1216 Hz. to 1645 Hz.) • Low band tone (701 Hz. to 936 Hz.) 1 to 5 fall in low band 6 to 9, 0 fall in high band
  13. 13. HOOK SWITCH • Off-hook for a tip condition or to describe a circuit that is in use (i.e., when a phone call is in progress) • On-hook for an idle circuit (i.e. no phone call is in progress)
  14. 14. TYPES OF CONNECTION 1) With wires i.e. cables 2) Wireless Microwave Links through Satellite CABLES 1. Underground cables: These types of cables run under the earth 2. Overhead cables
  15. 15. FAULTS IN AN EXCHANGE 1. Faults that occur from Line • Break fault Disconnection faults "Telephone is dead". • Loop fault Line-Shorting faults connectors are shorted • Earth fault: Wetting of connectors Connectors can either touch from earth, with other connector or with any conductor (such as metallic table, frame etc.) 2 . Faults that occur due to instrument Dial tone breaks after two or three rings. Instrument circuitry faulty.
  16. 16. FACILITY OF TELEPHONE • CONFERENCE-3 PARTY • LAST CALLER CALLBACK: 851 • APPOINTMENT REMINDER:852 then dial the time • LAST NO. REDIAL: 854 • CALL PICK UP: 89-xxxx to pick up a call ringing at another location xxxx. • CALL TRANSFER: 2 Parties conversing, any party can dial 3rd party, then Conversation among them Hang-up. The party on line now Talks to 3rd party
  17. 17. CONCLUSION • Telecommunication has a significant social, cultural and economic impact on modern society. • Telecommunication is playing an increasingly important role in social relationships. • Now-a-days Electronic Exchanges are used. • Developments have provided opportunities to go far beyond the vision of telephony on which this industry was built.
  18. 18. THANK YOU…..