View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
"the further art advances the closer it approaches science, the further science advances the closer it approaches art." Buckminster Fuller, 1938 TWO CULTURES & Moving towards the THIRD CULTURE
C.P. Snow said that these two statements should be equivalent: "I know what the Second Law of Thermodynamics is," and "I have read a play of Shakespeare's." You should be acquainted with both.
The compilers of the Oxford English Dictionary recognised that this was a fairly recent development, with no example given before the 1860's: "We shall . . . use the word "science" in the sense which the Englishmen so commonly give it; as expressing physical and experimental science, to the exclusion of theological and metaphysical." (Snow, 1964 pg. xi) William Whewell, a philosopher and historian of science who used 'science' in his Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences of 1840, is credited with establishing this term. The first time it was recorded as an idea, however, was at the Association for the Advanced Science in the early 1830's when it was proposed as an analogy to the term 'artist.'
STEREOTYPE ste·reo·typ·i·cal /"ster-E-&-'tip-i-k&l/ also ste·reo·typ·ic /-ik/ adjective Function: noun : something conforming to a fixed or general pattern; especially : an often oversimplified or biased mental picture held to characterize the typical individual of a group — A generalization, usually exaggerated or oversimplified and often offensive, that is used to describe or distinguish a group.
Thomas Kuhn (1962) Why should a change of paradigm be called a revolution? In the face of the vast and essential differences between political and scientific development, what parallelism can justify the metaphor that finds revolutions in both?