A Project report for Spencer’s Retail Mani Square, Kolkata Submitted to Prof. Anindra Kumar HaldarIn partial fulfilment of the requirements of the course Retail Management In Practice Post Graduate Program in Business Management On March 5th ‗2012 By Nahid Anjum Praxis Business School Kolkata (2010-2012)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI express my sincerest gratitude to Miss. Sharmila Das Gupta(Branch Operations Head), Miss. Sagarika (HR Head), Mr.Sukumar Paul (Ware house incharge) for their valuable guidancethroughout the duration of this training project. The quality of thiswork owes a great deal to the help rendered by them and theircritical reviews through various stages of the project. I would alsolike to express my sincere thanks to all the employees of Spencer‘s,Mani Square, Kolkata who have been instrumental in thesuccessful completion of this project.I also express my deep gratitude to our faculty Prof. AnindraKumar Haldar for giving me such a nice opportunity to work withSpencer‘s and get a lot of learning and experience from here.Nahid Anjum
PrefaceWith great pleasure I am presenting my project report on RetailManagement in Practice in Spencer‘s, Mani Square, Kolkata. It wasan amazing experience to get exposed to a retail corporate world withimmense learning at every step of the project and to know about thework culture and how an organization works.Therefore, I take this opportunity to present the project report andsincerely hope that it will be as much knowledge enhancing to thereaders as it was to use during the fieldwork and the compilation ofthe report.
Objectives of the projectThe major objectives of this project are as follows: To get exposed to the practical situations of retail business To know how things work practically in retail world To learn to interact with various people in corporate To understand the importance of logistics and operations in retail business To know various details which are important in a retail company
INTRODUCTIONDate of Establishment 1996Revenue Rs. 10,913 crores (FY 2007) – RPG GroupMarket Cap Rs. 8,314 crores (2007) – RPG GroupAddress RPG Enterprises, CEAT Mahal, 463, Dr. Annie Besant Road, Worli, Mumbai 400 030, Maharashtra, IndiaBranches Mumbai, Gurgaon, Ghaziabad, Lucknow, Calicut, Hyderabad, Vizag, Vijayawada, Aurangabad Durgapur and KolkataManagement Team R.P Goenka – Chairman Emeritus Harsh Goenka – Chairman Sanjiv Goenka – Vice Chairman S Bannerjee – President/Chief Executive Power Sector P.K Chowdhary – President/Chief Executive Tyre Sector Subroto Chattopadhayay – President/Chief Executive Entertainment Sector P.K Mohapatra – President/CEO, Technology Sector Arvind Agrawal – President/Chief Executive Corporate Development and HR Ramesh Chandak - President/Chief Executive Transmission Sector P. Sampath Group CFOOverview Spencer‘s Retail is a part of the RPG Companies that deals with food, apparel, fashion, electronics, lifestyle products, music and books. It operates through over 350 stores. It also offers services such as gift vouchers and easy loans in association with CitiFinancial Consumer Finance India Ltd. It consists of Spencer‘s Hypermarkets, Spencer‘s Super, Spencer‘s Daily and Spencer‘s Express.
Company HistoryYEAR EVENTS1987 - The company was established in the year. The main objects of the company aremarketing and distribution manufacture of Pharmaceuticals-Aerated waters and other foodproducts- Marketing of consumer durables- Trawlers and marine products processing- Traveland shipping- Imports and Exports - Hotels and Catering- Tea estater-Chain departmentalstores-computer and computer services- Real Estates.- M/s Kellner Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Vulcan Electricals Ltd., Spencer International HotelsLtd., Spencer, Furnitures & Furnishing, Spencer Estates Ltd., Spencer Consumer Productsand Services Ltd., Spencer Pharmaceticals Ltd., G.F.Kellner & Co. Ltd., Fiesta RestaurantLtd., Kartik Pharmaceuticals Ltd., and Spencer Information Services are the subsidiaries.1995 - Spencer Industrial Fund Ltd has become a Subsidiary of Spencer International HotelsLtd under provision of Section 4(1) (a) of the Companies Act, 1956 and accordingly aSubsidiary of this Company also from 24th January.1996 - The Company has entered into a Technical Assistance cum Joint venture optionsAgreement with M/s. Dairy Farm International Holdings Ltd., a major International retailingforce operating in several countries.1997 - During the year the company has entered into a Joint Venture agreement with DFIMauritius Limited to enter yet another Retail Format. A chain of retail drugstores, dealing inMedicines, Cosmetics, Toiletries and allied Health and Beauty products, is proposed to be setup on a nation-wide basis.- A new company has been named as RPG Guardian Private Limited and is on a mission tolop a highly regarded retail business in India by offering excellent service and value tocustomers. The company has been set up on a 50 : 50 equity partnership basis. The total paidup capital of the company will be Rs. 450 lakhs consisting of 45,00,000 of equity shares ofRs. 10/- each.1998 - Mr P.K. Mohapatra appointed as Managing Director w.e.f. 1st April.- The Companys expansion into Food Retailing through the chain of Food WorldSupermarket started during 1996 made significant progress during the year. - Foodworld hasbecame a household name in three cities enjoying high patronage from its customers andsuppliers.2000 - Spencer & Company, an RPG group outfit, has signed a joint venture agreement withDairy Farm International Mauritius (DFI) to launch a chain of large distributioninfrastrucutre, essentially meant to serve the small retailer.- The Company will form a joint venture company, as a subsidiary of Spencer‘s.
Spencer’s RetailBased in Kolkata, India, Spencers Retail is one of the countrys fastest growing retailcompanies with approximately 2 million square feet of retail space and more than 400 storesin 65 cities. Products include food, apparel, electronics, lifestyle products, music, and books.Spencers Retail is a division of RPG Enterprise, a business group with more than 20companies in industries such as power, technology, retail, and entertainment. Established in1979, RPG Enterprises has annual revenue of $3.25 billion.Story DetailsSpencers Retail in India is in an enviable but challenging position instead of trying togenerate new business, it is struggling to keep up with explosive growth. Approximately twoyears ago, the company had approximately 60 stores and 4,000 employees; today, it has morethan 350 stores and 15,000 employees.By 2004 the retail industry was growing rapidly in India, and Spencers Retail decided topursue an aggressive expansion strategy. The company had the customers, the products, andthe employees to make it happen. It just needed an IT infrastructure that could support rapidgrowth. Current servers were at capacity, and the company needed to upgrade before addingnew stores. Amit Mukerjee, Group CIO of the RPG Group, describes the challenge as part ofthe learning curve for retail development in India. ―Retailing is a new business in thiscountry. As the business matures, the process matures, and IT systems must evolveaccordingly.‖" One benefit for us with Sun Microsystems is its understanding of retail and its ability toarchitect a solution for this type of business. The second benefit is that Sun has thetechnology to support a transaction-intensive environment, and it can provide us a solutionthat can handle large amounts of data so that business runs smoothly. "— Amit Mukherjee, Group CIO, RPG GroupThe company also needed an enterprise resource planning (ERP) solution to handle criticalprocesses such as supply-chain management. It decided to implement mySAP ERP, nowcalled SAP ERP, and realized the solution needed to run on high-performance servers.Spencers Retail evaluated several possibilities, including servers from HP, IBM, and SunMicrosystems. It decided to build its IT infrastructure on Sun systems for several reasons.Sun SPARC Enterprise Servers had the performance and scalability needed to sustain itsbusiness, and they delivered higher performance at less cost. Suns knowledge of the retailspace in India, as well as its long history with RGP Enterprises, were also deciding factors.Spencers Retail chose Sun SPARC Enterprise M5000 servers with four dual-core 2.1 GHzSPARC 64 VI processors as the center of its production environment. Designed forconsolidation and virtualization, Sun SPARC Enterprise Servers bring mainframe-classutilization and efficiency levels to the open systems market. Supporting hardware partitionsand Solaris Containers, these systems deliver deliver 24/7 mission-critical services whilereducing power, cooling, and space requirements.
After an eight-month testing period beginning in early 2005, the company installed the SAPERP database software on two Sun SPARC Enterprise M5000 servers in a high-availabilitycluster with Sun Cluster 3.2 software. The disaster recovery solution ensures businesscontinuity with advanced failover protection.The cluster is connected to a Sun StorageTek6540 array through a Dell Brocade SW200E Switch. ASun StorageTek SL500 ModularLibrary System is used for data backup as well. The solution also includes Sun SPARCEnterprise T5120, Sun SPARC Enterprise M4000, and Sun Fire V490 servers used to supportboth production and quality assurance functions.Spencers Retail has rolled out its SAP solution to approximately 160 stores and expects tocomplete deployment to more than 350 stores by October 2008. The company purchased theSunSpectrum Enterprise Service Plan to help support the ambitious project. Indranil Guha,head of the ERP data center at Spencer & Co. says, ―We are always in touch with Sun; wework with it as a partner. Good customer service is very important to us, because we run ourentire business on Sun servers.‖The company is meeting its initial goals for a high-performance solution with room forgrowth. It has already observed that data transactions run as much as five times faster on thenew systems. And it estimates that its current solution can easily handle up to 1,000 stores.The company also appreciates that the more energy-efficient and compact design will reducespace and power requirements.Spencers Retail plans to enhance its IT environment further with a new disaster recovery site,which will include Sun Fire V890 servers and Sun SPARC Enterprise T5120 servers runningSolaris Cluster software connected to a StorageTek 6140 array. It will also use SunStorageTek Data Replicator Software software to mirror data between the productionenvironment and the remote location. Together with its new server infrastructure, the disasterrecover installation will provide the high-performance, high-availability solution thecompany envisioned. With its business processes running on Sun infrastructure, SpencersRetail can meet business growth with confidence.
SPENCERS RETAIL LIMITEDCompany ProfileCompany Profile Spencers retail is the largest* supermarket chain in India. We offer acomplete range of products & durables, from bread to bed cover; from toothpaste to eventelevision sets. Today Spencers has 100 stores spread across 25 cities with a retail tradingarea of more than half a million square feet, and were growing rapidly. Spencers is theshopping choice for millions across the country, 2.8 million to be exact, who frequent ourstores every month.Today Spencers offers its customers a customized and convenient shopping experience in 5different formats. Each format, namely the Spencers Express, Spencers Fresh, SpencersDaily, Spencers Super and Spencers Hyper is differently sized and caters to the variousneeds of our consumers. We at Spencers offer a pleasant and delightful shopping experienceby ensuring convenient store locations, trusted quality, great value for money and a widearray of products. And these qualities characterize all of our 100 stores, across the country.Technology in Retail: The ERP Initiative at Spencers Retail Ltd.Over the years, during the turn of twentieth century as the consumer demand increased andthe retailers geared up to meet this increase world over, technology evolved rapidly tosupport this growth. The hardware and software tools that have now become almost essentialfor retailing can be classified into 3 broad categories:Customer Interfacing Systems Bar Coding and Scanners Point of Sale (POS) systems use scanners and bar coding to identify an item, use pre- stored data to calculate the cost and generate the total bill for a client. Payment Payment through credit cards has become quite widespread and this enables a fast and easy payment process. Electronic cheque conversion, a recent development in this area, processes a cheque electronically by transmitting transaction information to the retailer and consumers bank. Internet Internet is also rapidly evolving as a customer interface, removing the need of a customer physically visiting the store.
Operation Support Systems ERP System Various Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) vendors have developed retail-specific systems which help in integrating all the functions from warehousing to distribution, front and back office store systems and merchandising. An integrated supply chain helps the retailer in maintaining his stocks, getting his supplies on time, preventing stock-outs and thus reducing his costs, while servicing the customer better. CRM Systems The rise of loyalty programs, mail order and the Internet has provided retailers with real access to consumer data. Data warehousing and mining technologies offers retailers the tools they need to make sense of their consumer data and apply it to business. Advanced Planning and Scheduling Systems APS systems can provide improved control across the supply chain, all the way from raw material suppliers, right through to the retail shelf. They enable consolidation of activities such as long term budgeting, monthly forecasting, weekly factory scheduling and daily distribution scheduling into one overall planning process using a single set of data.Strategic Decision Support Systems Store Site Location Demographics and buying patterns of residents of an area can be used to compare various possible sites for opening new stores. Today, software packages are helping retailers not only in their locational decisions but in decisions regarding store sizing and floor-spaces as well. Visual Merchandising The decision on how to place and stack items in a store is no more taken on the gut feel of the store manager. A larger number of visual merchandising tools are available to him to evaluate the impact of his stacking optionsTo manage this kind of growth, it was necessary to move out of legacy systems, as they didntprovide the scalability that was needed. Plus, some of its stores are currently working on asmany as four different legacy systems, managing which was very difficult. It needed asolution to manage everything under one umbrella. So it engaged a team of experts toevaluate various solutions in the market. Spencers found that SAP came closest to fulfillingits needs.
An important pillar of retail business is ERP, which has three elements – People, Process andTechnology. The People part is most difficult to manage as it needs to recruit, train andmotivate people constantly, generate awareness and do change management. This makes thetask more challenging, as it needs to manage deployments in such a dynamic environmentkeeping pace with the companys exponential growth plans.OperationsSpencers has retail footage of over 1 million square feet and over 275 Spencers stores in 50cities. The company operates through the following formats: The Spencers Hyper stores are destination stores, of more than 15,000 sq. ft in size. They offer everything under one roof. The merchandise ranges from fruits & vegetables, processed foods (Ready to Eat, Ready to Cook, FMCG products),specialty foods including international, sugar free, organic foods, etc...groceries, meat, chicken, fish, bakery, chilled and frozen foods, garments, consumer electronics & electrical products, home care, home décor & home needs, office stationeries, soft toys. Besides, the stores also comprise book & music retailing, electronic gadgets and IT accessories. On an average, a Spencers hyper stocks 70,000 SKUs across 35,000 items. The Spencers stores are neighborhood stores ranging from 1500 less than 15000 sq. ft. These stores stock the necessary range and assortment in fruit and vegetables, fmcg food and non-food, staples and frozen foods and cater to the daily and weekly top-up shopping needs of the consumer. Some of these stores which have floor area of more than 10,000 sq ft sometimes offer home care products; personal care products, bakery, chilled and frozen food; baby care, basics in garments and limited range of electronics and electrical.
VisionTo ―build Spencer‘s as the most professionally managed retail business in the countrythrough: Excellence in all operating process; Nurturing and facilitating a learning and growth culture; Building a unique retail experience for the customers‖.MissionStrives to exceed the aspirations of its customers for a healthy and fulfilling lifestyle byproviding: The most innovative customer goods and delectable taste experience. The ultimate shopping experience. Unbeatable value. The ―next‖ place away from home or office to relax and indulge themselves.
Formats of Spencer’s outletsSpencer‘s has retail footage over 2 million square feet and over 400 Spencer‘s stores in65 cities.The Company operates through the following formats:1. Spencer’s Hypermarkets: A fast growing retail network of hypermarkets with large format stores in Mumbai, Gurgaon, Ghaziabad, Lucknow, Calicut, Hyderabad, Vizag, Vijaywada, Aurangabad, Durgapur and Kolkata.2. Spencer’s super: One of the largest supermarket chains in the food and grocery segment in India.3. Spencer’s Daily: Small format stores conveniently located with a range of products to meet daily household needs.4. Spencer’s express: Food and grocery store next door.
Spencer’s Daily Fresh Fruit Stall Market stall Manton Market The Spencer‘s Daily store is a friendly neighborhood store, which caters to the entire daily shopping needs- from regular groceries to fresh food and also weekly top-up shopping. It is about 4000-7000 sq ft in size and with a bright and friendly atmosphere; Spencer‘s Daily saves the hassle of bargaining with the local kirana shop owners (because it offers the lowest possible prices).
Spencer’s Express Spencer‘s Express is a store next door for the fresh needs at arm‘s length. These stores are around 1000 sq ft in size. They are open from 7 am to 9 pm and also provides with home delivery. The Express stores stock dairy, fruit and vegetables, bread and bread products, cut vegetables/ready to cook, fruit juice, fresh batter, fresh coffee/tea, fresh masalas, fresh pickles, fresh Ghee, fresh Fish and meat.
Spencer’s Fresh Spencer‘s fresh stores provide with an enjoyable and convenient shopping environment in very own neighborhood. These 2000 sq ft. air conditioned stores are well stocked with Fresh food of very best quality, such as fresh farm produce, vegetables, fruit, milk, eggs, breads and much more. With an impressive range and a clean, bright and hygienic ambience, Spencer‘s Fresh is far better the regular sabzi mandis or local vegetables markets and at Spencer‘s. Fresh consumers not only do get fresh, clean and tasty farm produce but also the lowest possible prices in the locality, yes even lower than sabziwala!
Spencer’s Super The Spencer‘s Super is the place to go for the monthly shopping. About 8000-15000 sq ft. in size, the Spencer‘s Super not only caters to the daily needs but also stocks home care products; personal care products, Bakery, Chilled and frozen food; Baby care besides groceries & staples, Fresh fruits and vegetables.
Spencer’s Hyper The Spencer‘s Hypermarkets are huge destination stores, more than 25,000 sq ft. in trading area. Shoppers come here looking for fantastic deals across all categories. Hypermarkets ensure a comfortable, clean, bright and functional ambience to shop along with the convenience of finding everything under one roof at the best value for money.
Snapshot Different Formats of Spencer’s Format Stocks Minimum Trading Area (sq. ft.)Spencer’s Express dairy, fruit and vegetables, bread and bread products, fruit juice, fresh batter, fresh 1000 coffee/tea, masalas, pickles, Ghee, Fish and meat.Spencer’s Fresh vegetables, fruit, milk, eggs, breads 2000Spencer’s daily regular groceries 4000-7000Spencer’s Super home care products; personal care 8000-15000 products, Bakery, Chilled and frozen food; Baby care productsSpencer’s Hyper Miscellaneous More than 25000
Spencer’s Mani SquareThere are four distribution centers in Kolkata which supplies products to Mani SquareSpencer‘s. First one is in Dankuni from where FMCG, staples, home, work, play, furniture &living, high tech electronics comes to Spencer‘s mani square. This Dankuni distributioncenter gets its stuff from various places. The second is in south city which supplies fish &meat on private labels. Third is also in south city which supplies fruits & vegetables and thefourth is also in south city which supplies patisseries. DC code-W013 DC code-W008 South City (Fish & Dankuni(FMCG, staples, Home, work meat) & play, electronics) DC code-W018 South City (Fruits & DC code-R004 South City (Pattisaries) Vegetables)Food & Staples sectionProcessed food and staples of various brands comes either to Dankuni DC or directly to thestore from any particular brand. Fruits & Vegetables come from local vendor to South cityDC and then to store. The quantity of order are decided on the basis of past records of sales,so that there is no less or extra supply. Fish & meat are also ordered daily on the basis of pastdata and they get the fresh food from South City DC.Gourmet CentreRun by an expert Food Scientist cum Cordon Bleu Chef, our food innovation wing researchesworld cuisines and develops recipes for a wide range of popular and trendsetting dishes.These form the basis for developing their own range of products, which include deliciouscookies and sauces, pickles and jams. Ingredients for these dishes are also retailed throughtheir stores, for those who‘d like to prepare the dishes at home.
Spencers Patisserie - The Fresh Baked DailySpencer‘s Patisserie is Spencer‘s LIVE Bakery offering simple, specialty and exotic range offreshly made bakery and confectionery items. The recipes are authentic, gathered from thebest ones from all across the world, including Indian favourites. The products are an idealmix of simple, specialty and exotic varieties from all across the world, including Indianfavourites. Be it Focaccia-the Italian flat bread, Baguette-the French classic, Spicy SalsaPicante Bread-the Mexican twist, Masala Bread-pure Indian, White Bread-the simple one,Multigrain & Whole Wheat Bread-for the health conscious are some of the breads. Hot Puffs,the dry fruit cakes, Exotic cookies, mouth-watering cakes and pastries like Blueberry CheeseCake, Trio of Chocolate, Black Forest cater to all.Wine & Spirits - Wine ignoramuses or aficionados … they cater to both, with a wide rangeof wines expertly selected from as many as 181 countries. Spencer‘s was, in fact, the firstIndian retailer to offer a selection of Wine & Spirits in its stores, and the first to present an in-store wine and cheese tasting experience to shoppers.Meat, Chicken, Fish - the counters for fresh non-vegetarian items truly represent the finestfresh cuts a shopper can get. Seafood lovers, can be sure to take their pick from the live fish-tanks on display.Live Kitchen - Live Counters with Master Chefs preparing gourmet delights are alwayspopular at buffets … this concept was brought to the stores in the form of the Spencer‘s ChefCorner, a first-of-its-kind in-store experience that involves customers even as it showcasesthe ingredients displayed in their Specialty Bays. From Salads to Sushi, from Pastas to Sataysand from Cheese Fondue to Cool mocktails,Spencer’s Chef Corner gives customers an opportunity to learn more about their favouriteworld cuisines.Modern Menu – to stop by at their food court and treat oneself to a shake, swirl or savoury.ApparelsThe garment section is divided into Men, women and kids section as well as lifestyleaccessories and shoe wears. They have all the major brands in their apparels section. Theyalso have some private label garments.
Mother Dankuni Spencers Apparel DC DC storesThe garments section includes: 1. Watch section 2. Sunglass section 3. Fashion accessoriesAll these product range are exclusively for the High grade income level customers.Home, Work & PlayThe Home, Work & Play section is consisting of high class home furnishings and personalgrooming products. They are introducing it by the name of ―Home Centre‖. It‘s a one-stopdestination for furniture, home ware and home furnishings that enterprises elegance, luxuryand individuality. Home Centre houses a wide range of contemporary and classic furniture,linen as well as other home accessories, thus providing customers a high range product.Consumer DurablesThis section consists of Television, Refrigerator, mixer grinder, emergency lights and otherelectronic items. It includes different brands of products of different ranges.
Private brandsPrivate Brands in Spencer‘s offer a wide range of products from food, personal care, andfashion to home utility items. Spencer‘s Smart Choice, Tasty Wonders, Clean Home andMaroon are some of their brands which host a varied choice that fulfils almost all needs of amodern household. Rice, pulses, whole spices, dry fruits and nuts, sauces, instant noodles,breakfast cereals, honey, breads, beverage, wafers, pickles, jams and cookies- to name a fewin their food range. While the personal care range covers face wipes, tissues, baby needs,hand wash etc. Detergents, dish wash, toilet cleaners, floor cleaners support the home needs. The pickles are customized to regional flavours as well. Our South Indian range of pickleshas a wide assortment catering to regional tastes.Maroon is a brand for premium home care solutions. From cooking to serving- Maroon isyour complete kitchen partner. From a range of premium storage and kitchen utensils, tobeautifully designed melamine ware and foil wraps, you will also find smart backpacks andconvenient travel accessories.Fruits and Vegetables another category where their private brand Spencer‘s Nature‘s Bestoffers freshly packed greens which include some select exotic herbs and aromaticingredients.In fashion, they have choices, both contemporary and classic. sporty or stylish, as one prefer.Office or occasion-specific formals, casuals for lounging or leisure, and accessories likeleather items, junk jewelry and footwear to complete the look. Trendy designs in comfortablefits and cheerful colours, to express personal style. Some of their popular labels are IslandMonks and Mark Nicolas (both for men and women), Asankhya (women‘s ethnic wear),Scorez (sportswear), La Bonita (footwear).All their private brand products are conveniently priced and come with a promise of greatquality. All these brands and products are available in all stores. FMCG food and non-food FMCG food only, currently in breakfast cereals, snacks and savouries Home Essentials Home cleaning products
Range of stationery range Ethnic wear for women Casual wear for both men and women Formal wear and footwear for men Sportwear for men and women Kidswear Footwear for all Fashion AccessoriesIT infrastructure Purchase Order raised and sent to vendor Goods Invert Note created to check PO rate and invoice rate Goods Received Note sent to Distribution Centre within 24 hours Sales and stock updated in SAP from back office explorer (Inbound) Sales and stock updated in back office explorer from SAP (Outbound) Vendor payment within 35 days Non-returnable Gate Pass is done in case of any damage or expiry return Products on which the margin is low, there is no stock return and therefore, no NRGP
WarehousingThe following process depicts the warehousing and flow of goods from the distribution centreand the vendor: Vendor/ Distribution Centres (D.C.) agents brings in invoice and purchase order. The records are maintained in the vendor reporting register. Goods Inward Note (GIN) is prepared except for frozen & chilled. Pass in slips are raised from the security desk Goods are brought inside the warehouse. Spencers‘ staff tallies with (GIN) For any excess/damage/near to expiry/shortage/MRP mismatch discrepancy note is prepared. One sample from the goods lot is kept aside for scanning to prepare a Goods Received Note (GRN). Enter the details of GRN at the security desk. Security will tally all the details and release the vendor. In case of D.C. receiving: o Transfer out note is prepared with load counting sheet. o Trip & tick sheet is prepared.