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Chapt 18

Chapt 18

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  • 1. Splash Screen
  • 2. Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1 Roosevelt Takes Office Section 2 The First New Deal Section 3 The Second New Deal Section 4 The New Deal Coalition Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  • 3. Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 4. Intro 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives
    • Discuss Franklin Roosevelt’s early political career.
    • Explain the worsening situation in the U.S. banking system in the early 1930s.
    Section 1: Roosevelt Takes Office
  • 5. Intro 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 2: The First New Deal
    • List three programs of the First New Deal that provided jobs for the unemployed.
    • Discuss why New Dealers believed that sometimes the government needs to regulate industry and labor.
  • 6. Intro 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 3: The Second New Deal
    • Describe the political challenges Roosevelt faced in the mid-1930s.
    • Explain why the Social Security Act is still regarded as an important piece of legislation.
  • 7. Intro 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 4: The New Deal Coalition
    • Explain the achievements and the defeats of Roosevelt’s second term.
    • Analyze how the New Deal affected Americans’ sense of security toward the role of government.
  • 8. Intro 6 Why It Matters Unlike Herbert Hoover, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was willing to employ deficit spending and greater federal regulation to revive the depressed economy. In response to his requests, Congress passed a host of new programs. Millions of people received relief to alleviate their suffering, but the New Deal did not really end the Depression. It did, however, permanently expand the federal government’s role in providing basic security for citizens.
  • 9. Intro 7 The Impact Today Certain New Deal legislation still carries great importance in American social policy.
    • The Social Security Act still provides retirement benefits, aid to needy groups, and unemployment and disability insurance.
    • The National Labor Relations Act still protects the right of workers to unionize.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  • 10. Intro 8 The Impact Today Certain New Deal legislation still carries great importance in American social policy.
    • Safeguards were instituted to help prevent another devastating stock market crash.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation still protects bank deposits.
  • 11. Intro 9 continued on next slide
  • 12. Intro 10
  • 13. End of Intro
  • 14. Section 1-1 Guide to Reading Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s character and experiences prepared him for the presidency of a nation in crisis.
    • New Deal
    Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Key Terms and Names
    • polio
    • gold standard
    • bank holiday
  • 15. Section 1-2 Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Organizing As you read about Franklin Roosevelt’s background, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 552 of your textbook by listing the early influences and experiences that helped shape Roosevelt as a politician.
    • Discuss Franklin Roosevelt’s early political career.
    Reading Objectives
    • Explain the worsening situation in the U.S. banking system in the early 1930s.
  • 16. Section 1-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Individual Action Franklin Roosevelt’s optimism, determination, and outgoing personality shaped his approach to politics.
  • 17. Section 1-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 18. Section 1-5 Roosevelt’s Rise to Power Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Republicans nominated Herbert Hoover to run for a second term as president.
    • The Democrats selected New York Governor Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
    • Roosevelt became the first to deliver an acceptance speech to a nominating campaign.
    (pages 552–554)
  • 19. Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Roosevelt’s policies to end the depression became known as the New Deal.
    • Roosevelt won the election in a landslide.
    • Roosevelt came from a wealthy New York family and was educated at Harvard and Columbia Law School.
    • He was a distant cousin of President Theodore Roosevelt.
    • Franklin married Theodore’s niece, Eleanor.
    Roosevelt’s Rise to Power (cont.) (pages 552–554)
  • 20. Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Roosevelt’s political career began in 1910, with a seat in the New York State Senate where he supported progressive reform and opposed party bosses.
    • He was appointed assistant secretary of the navy by Woodrow Wilson.
    • In 1920 he caught polio, a paralyzing disease with no cure.
    • Roosevelt did not give in to the crippling disease.
    • He relied on his wife, Eleanor, to keep his name prominent in politics.
    Roosevelt’s Rise to Power (cont.) (pages 552–554)
  • 21. Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Roosevelt narrowly won the race for New York governor.
    • During his term as governor, Roosevelt used government power to help people deal with the economic challenges of the time.
    • His struggle with polio made people feel he could somehow understand their hardships.
    • His popularity in New York paved the way for his run for president.
    Roosevelt’s Rise to Power (cont.) (pages 552–554)
  • 22. Section 1-9 What did Americans see in Roosevelt? Americans saw Roosevelt as a sign of hope in their challenging economic times. His energy and optimism and his own struggle with polio gave him a better understanding of what Americans were going through. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Roosevelt’s Rise to Power (cont.) (pages 552–554)
  • 23. Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Roosevelt Is Inaugurated
    • Franklin Roosevelt won the November 1932 presidential election, but his inauguration would not occur until March 1933.
    • During this time, unemployment continued to rise, bank runs increased, and people began converting their money into gold.
    (pages 554–555)
  • 24. Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Some bank runs occurred out of fear that Roosevelt would end the gold standard, which would reduce the value of the dollar.
    • At that time, an ounce of gold equaled a set number of dollars.
    • To reduce the value of the dollar, the United States would have to stop exchanging dollars for gold.
    Roosevelt Is Inaugurated (cont.) (pages 554–555)
  • 25. Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • People began taking gold and currency out of banks, resulting in over 4,000 banks collapsing by March 1933.
    • Many governors declared bank holidays, which closed the remaining banks before bank runs could put them out of business.
    Roosevelt Is Inaugurated (cont.) (pages 554–555)
  • 26. Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why did bank runs occur before Roosevelt’s inauguration? Many Americans feared Roosevelt would abandon the gold standard and reduce the value of the dollar in order to fight the depression. To reduce the value of the dollar, the United States would have to stop exchanging dollars for gold. Many Americans and foreign investors with deposits in American banks took their money out of the banks and converted it into gold before it lost its value. Roosevelt Is Inaugurated (cont.) (pages 554–555)
  • 27. Section 1-14 Checking for Understanding gold standard Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Define Insert the key term that best completes the following sentence. A monetary standard in which one ounce of gold equaled a set number of dollars was called the .
  • 28. Section 1-15 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Describe the ways in which early influences and experiences shaped Roosevelt as a politician. Roosevelt was influenced by his experience with polio, his competitive nature, and his support for Wilson’s presidency. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 29. Section 1-16 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Individual Action Why did Roosevelt’s election lead to an increase in bank runs? People feared that Roosevelt would take the United States off the gold standard and that their paper money would become worthless.
  • 30. Section 1-17 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explaining How did FDR’s experiences as governor of New York prepare him for the presidency? He used government’s power to help New Yorkers in economic distress.
  • 31. Section 1-18 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Photographs Study the photograph on page 555 of your textbook. What did the president mean when he said “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself?” Fear would drive people to stop trying to get the economy out of its tailspin. If people could avoid fearing the future, they would be able to improve conditions.
  • 32. Section 1-19 Close Discuss America’s banking system in the early 1930s.
  • 33. End of Section 1
  • 34. Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading In the first 100 days of Roosevelt’s presidency, his team initiated a series of laws that transformed the United States.
    • Hundred Days
    Main Idea Key Terms and Names
    • fireside chats
    • Securities and Exchange Commission
    • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
    • Agricultural Adjustment Administration
    • Civilian Conservation Corps
  • 35. Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Sequencing As you read about President Roosevelt’s first three months in office, complete a time line similar to the one on page 556 of your textbook to record the major problems he addressed during this time.
    • List three programs of the First New Deal that provided jobs for the unemployed.
    Reading Objectives
    • Discuss why New Dealers believed that sometimes the government needs to regulate industry and labor.
  • 36. Section 2-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Groups and Institutions FDR’s attempts to end the Depression resulted in many new government agencies.
  • 37. Section 2-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 38. Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Hundred Days Begins Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Between March 9 and June 16, 1933, referred to as the Hundred Days, Roosevelt sent many bills to Congress.
    • Congress passed 15 major acts to help the economic crisis.
    • These programs made up the First New Deal.
    (pages 556–557)
  • 39. Section 2-6
    • To generate new ideas and New Deal programs, Roosevelt put together a group of advisers in the fields of academia, business, agriculture, government, law, and social work.
    The Hundred Days Begins (cont.) (pages 556–557)
  • 40. Section 2-7
    • Roosevelt’s advisers were divided into three main groups.
    • The first group supported the “New Nationalism” of Theodore Roosevelt and believed government and business should work together to manage the economy.
    • The second group distrusted big business and wanted government planners to run key parts of the economy.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Hundred Days Begins (cont.) (pages 556–557)
  • 41. Section 2-8
    • The third group supported the “New Freedom” of Woodrow Wilson and felt it was the government’s responsibility to restore competition to the economy.
    The Hundred Days Begins (cont.) (pages 556–557)
  • 42. Section 2-9 Why did Roosevelt choose advisers with differing views? Roosevelt purposely chose advisers who disagreed to hear many points of view and to ensure he alone would make the final decision on what policies to pursue. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Hundred Days Begins (cont.) (pages 556–557)
  • 43. Section 2-10 Fixing the Banks and the Stock Market Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • When Roosevelt took office, he knew the first thing he needed to do was to restore confidence in the banking system.
    • He called a national bank holiday and called Congress into special session.
    • Congress passed the Emergency Banking Relief Act, which required federal examiners to survey the nation’s banks and issue Treasury Department licenses to financially sound banks.
    (pages 557–559)
  • 44. Section 2-11
    • In Roosevelt’s first “fireside chat,” where he spoke on the radio directly to the people, he assured Americans that the banks were now secure.
    • The following day deposits in every city outweighed withdrawals, ending the banking crisis.
    Fixing the Banks and the Stock Market (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 557–559)
  • 45. Section 2-12
    • New regulations for banks and the stock market were implemented with the Securities Act of 1933 and the Glass-Steagall Banking Act.
    • Under the Securities Act of 1933, companies that sold stocks and bonds had to provide complete and truthful information to investors.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Fixing the Banks and the Stock Market (cont.) (pages 557–559)
  • 46. Section 2-13
    • The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) was created to regulate the stock market and prevent fraud.
    Fixing the Banks and the Stock Market (cont.) (pages 557–559)
  • 47. Section 2-14
    • The Glass-Steagall Act separated commercial banking from investment banking.
    • It no longer allowed depositors’ money to be risked by speculating on the stock market.
    • The act created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) that provided government insurance for bank deposits up to a certain amount.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Fixing the Banks and the Stock Market (cont.) (pages 557–559)
  • 48. Section 2-15 How did the FDIC change public opinion of the banking system? The FDIC increased public confidence in the banking system. Bank deposits were now insured up to a certain amount, so people could deposit money without fear that it would be lost. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Fixing the Banks and the Stock Market (cont.) (pages 557–559)
  • 49. Section 2-16 Managing Farms and Industry Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Roosevelt asked Congress to pass the Agricultural Adjustment Act–a plan that paid farmers not to raise certain crops to lower crop production.
    • The act was administered by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA).
    • While the plan reduced production, increased prices, and helped some farmers, thousands of tenant farmers were unemployed and homeless.
    (pages 559–560)
  • 50. Section 2-17
    • Large commercial farmers who raised one crop profited more than small farmers who raised several products.
    Managing Farms and Industry (cont.) (pages 559–560)
  • 51. Section 2-18
    • The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) suspended antitrust laws and allowed business, labor, and government to cooperate in setting up voluntary rules, known as codes of fair competition, for each industry.
    • The program was run by the National Recovery Administration (NRA), and it urged consumers to buy only from companies who signed agreements with the NRA.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 559–560) Managing Farms and Industry (cont.)
  • 52. Section 2-19
    • The gains of the NRA were short-lived and actually caused industrial production to fall.
    • It was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1935.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 559–560) Managing Farms and Industry (cont.)
  • 53. Section 2-20 What were codes of fair competition? These rules set prices, established minimum wages, and limited factories to two shifts per day to spread production to as many companies as possible. Other codes shortened hours to create additional jobs and gave workers the right to form unions. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. (pages 559–560) Managing Farms and Industry (cont.)
  • 54. Section 2-21 Providing Debt Relief
    • Several policies were introduced by Roosevelt to help Americans deal with their debt.
    (page 560)
  • 55. Section 2-22 Providing Debt Relief (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC) bought the mortgages of homeowners behind on payments and restructured them with longer terms of repayment and lower interest rates.
    • The HOLC gave loans only to those employed.
    • It foreclosed on property if payment could not be made.
    • The result was 100,000 foreclosures. However, the HOLC refinanced 1 out of every 5 mortgages in the United States.
    (page 560)
  • 56. Section 2-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Farm Credit Administration (FCA) was established to help farmers refinance their mortgages.
    • While the FCA loans helped many farmers in the short term, the loans may have slowed overall economic recovery by giving money to poor inefficient farmers instead of to businesses.
    Providing Debt Relief (cont.) (page 560)
  • 57. Section 2-24 Providing Debt Relief (cont.) How did the HOLC and the FCA help provide debt relief? The HOLC bought the mortgages of homeowners behind on payments and restructured them with longer terms of repayment and lower interest rates. The HOLC refinanced 1 out of every 5 mortgages in the United States. The FCA was established to help farmers refinance their mortgages. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. (page 560)
  • 58. Section 2-25 Spending and Relief Programs Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Roosevelt supported a series of government agencies to begin work programs for the unemployed.
    • The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) gave unemployed men aged 18 to 25 the opportunity to work with the national forestry service planting trees, fighting forest fires, and building reservoirs.
    • By the time it closed in 1942, the CCC had employed three million men.
    (pages 560–562)
  • 59. Section 2-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) was created to channel money to help state and local agencies fund relief projects.
    • In 1933 Congress authorized the Public Works Administration to begin a series of construction projects, creating additional jobs.
    Spending and Relief Programs (cont.) (pages 560–562)
  • 60. Section 2-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Harry Hopkins, the head of FERA, set up the Civil Works Administration (CWA), which hired workers directly and put them on the government’s payroll.
    • It was shut down when Roosevelt became fearful of the amount of money spent on the program.
    Spending and Relief Programs (cont.) (pages 560–562)
  • 61. Section 2-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The most important aspect of Roosevelt’s New Deal was the change in the spirit of the American people.
    • People became hopeful and optimistic, and their faith in America was restored.
    Spending and Relief Programs (cont.) (pages 560–562)
  • 62. Section 2-29 Why did Roosevelt want Congress to establish work programs for the unemployed? Roosevelt did not want to simply give money to the unemployed to help stimulate the economy. He and his advisers felt that work skills and self-respect could be maintained if people earned their money. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Spending and Relief Programs (cont.) (pages 560–562)
  • 63. Section 2-30 Checking for Understanding fireside chats Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Define Insert the key term that best completes the following sentence. Radio broadcasts made by FDR to the American people to explain his initiatives were called .
  • 64. Section 2-31 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Summarize the different viewpoints of Roosevelt’s advisers. One group wanted government-business cooperation; another wanted greater government control; another wanted to increase competition.
  • 65. Section 2-32 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Groups and Institutions How did the Glass-Steagall Act and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation help make the banking industry safer? The Glass-Steagall Act protected depositors’ money from speculation, and the FDIC insured bank deposits.
  • 66. Section 2-33 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Interpreting Did the CCC, CWA, and PWA achieve their goals? Explain your answer. They temporarily employed workers but did not reduce unemployment significantly.
  • 67. Section 2-34 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Charts Examine the chart on page 561 of your textbook. How did the various agencies listed change the historical role of the federal government? Answers will vary.
  • 68. Section 2-35 Close Discuss why many members of Roosevelt’s administration believed that the government should regulate industry and labor.
  • 69. End of Section 2
  • 70. Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading In 1935 Roosevelt introduced new programs to help unions, the elderly, and the unemployed.
    • deficit spending
    Main Idea Key Terms and Names
    • American Liberty League
    • Works Progress Administration
    • National Labor Relations Board
    • binding arbitration
    • sit-down strike
    • Social Security Act
  • 71. Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about President Roosevelt’s Second New Deal, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 564 of your textbook by filling in his main legislative successes during this period.
    • Describe the political challenges Roosevelt faced in the mid-1930s.
    Reading Objectives
    • Explain why the Social Security Act is still regarded as an important piece of legislation.
  • 72. Section 3-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Government and Democracy The Second New Deal was a political response to growing criticism from both the left and the right.
  • 73. Section 3-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 74. Section 3-5 Challenges to the New Deal Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Support of Roosevelt and his New Deal began to fade in 1935.
    • The effectiveness of the New Deal was questioned by right and left wing politicians.
    • Roosevelt used deficit spending to pay for his programs.
    • He abandoned a balanced budget and borrowed money to pay for his programs.
    (pages 564–566)
  • 75. Section 3-6
    • The American Liberty League was created as business leaders and anti-New Deal politicians from both parties organized to oppose the New Deal.
    Challenges to the New Deal (cont.) (pages 564–566)
  • 76. Section 3-7
    • Left-wing Democratic senator Huey Long proposed taking property from the rich and dividing it up amongst the poor.
    • It was believed that if he ran as a third- party candidate, he would win several million votes, possibly enough for a Republican victory.
    • Father Charles Coughlin, a Catholic priest in Detroit, gave further support to Huey Long through his popular radio broadcast.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Challenges to the New Deal (cont.) (pages 564–566)
  • 77. Section 3-8
    • Dr. Francis Townsend, a former public health official, proposed that the federal government pay citizens over the age of 60 a pension of $200 a month.
    • This would increase spending and create additional jobs for younger people.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Challenges to the New Deal (cont.) (pages 564–566)
  • 78. Section 3-9 How did the right wing and left wing politicians feel about Roosevelt’s New Deal? The right wing felt the New Deal imposed too many regulations on business and that it expanded the federal government’s power at the expense of states’ rights. The left wing believed that Roosevelt had not gone far enough. They wanted the government to intervene even more dramatically in the economy to shift wealth from the rich to middle-income and poor Americans. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Challenges to the New Deal (cont.) (pages 564–566)
  • 79. Section 3-10 Launching the Second New Deal Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • In 1935 Roosevelt’s second New Deal began with a series of programs and reforms to speed up recovery and provide economic security to every American.
    • Roosevelt hoped the plan would increase his chances of being reelected in 1936.
    (pages 566–567)
  • 80. Section 3-11
    • The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was a federal agency headed by Harry Hopkins.
    • It spent $11 billion over several years, creating jobs for workers.
    • Its most controversial aspect was offering work to artists, musicians, theater people, and writers.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Launching the Second New Deal (cont.) (pages 566–567)
  • 81. Section 3-12
    • In the Supreme Court case Schechter v. United States, the court struck down the National Industrial Recovery Act.
    • The Court ruled that the Constitution did not allow Congress to delegate its powers to the executive branch.
    • It ruled the NIRA codes unconstitutional.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Launching the Second New Deal (cont.) (pages 566–567)
  • 82. Section 3-13
    • Roosevelt feared that the Court would strike down the New Deal.
    • He ordered Congress to remain in session until his new bills were passed.
    • This was nicknamed the “second hundred days” by the press.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Launching the Second New Deal (cont.) (pages 566–567)
  • 83. Section 3-14 Why did Roosevelt plan a Second New Deal? Roosevelt feared that his political support could be undermined by the attacks from the left and right wings. He was disturbed that the New Deal failed to generate a rapid economic recovery. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Launching the Second New Deal (cont.) (pages 566–567)
  • 84. Section 3-15 The Rise of Industrial Unions
    • New labor legislation was created because Roosevelt believed in high union wages to allow more spending power to boost the economy.
    (pages 567–569)
  • 85. Section 3-16
    • In July 1935, the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) was passed, guaranteeing workers the right to organize unions without employer interference.
    • The law set up the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), which organized factory elections by secret ballot to determine if workers wanted to form a union.
    The Rise of Industrial Unions (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 567–569)
  • 86. Section 3-17
    • Binding arbitration was also set up, in which a neutral party would listen to both sides and decide the issue.
    • This gave dissatisfied union members a process to voice their complaints.
    • In 1935 the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) was formed to organize industrial unions.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Rise of Industrial Unions (cont.) (pages 567–569)
  • 87. Section 3-18
    • After two union men were demoted at the General Motors auto-body plant in Cleveland, Ohio, workers protested with a sit-down strike where they stopped working but refused to leave the plant.
    • Workers at the company’s plant in Flint, Michigan, did the same.
    • Violence broke out, and finally the company gave in.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Rise of Industrial Unions (cont.) (pages 567–569)
  • 88. Section 3-19
    • The United Auto Workers (UAW) was formed and quickly became one of the most powerful unions in the United States.
    The Rise of Industrial Unions (cont.) (pages 567–569)
  • 89. Section 3-20 Why did President Roosevelt and other Democrats push new labor legislation? They knew the working class vote was important in winning re-election. They also believed that unions could help end the Depression. They thought that high union wages would let workers spend more money. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Rise of Industrial Unions (cont.) (pages 567–569)
  • 90. Section 3-21 The Social Security Act Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Social Security Act became law in 1935, providing security for the elderly, unemployed workers, and other needy people.
    • The bill would provide a monthly retirement benefit and unemployment insurance.
    • Workers earned the right to receive the benefits by paying premiums.
    (page 569)
  • 91. Section 3-22
    • Social Security helped many people, but initially it left out many of the neediest members of society, such as farmers and domestic workers.
    The Social Security Act (cont.) (page 569)
  • 92. Section 3-23 What was the purpose of the Social Security Act? Its purpose was to provide some security for the elderly and unemployed workers. It provided welfare payments to other needy people, including those with disabilities and poor families with young dependent children. The act provided a monthly retirement benefit for people when they stopped working at age 65. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Social Security Act (cont.) (page 569)
  • 93. Section 3-24 Checking for Understanding __ 1. method of boycotting work by sitting down at work and refusing to leave the establishment __ 2. government practice of spending borrowed money rather than raising taxes, usually an attempt to boost the economy __ 3. a law requiring workers and employers to pay a tax; the money provides a monthly stipend for retired people A. deficit spending B. binding arbitration C. sit-down strike D. Social Security Act Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A D C
  • 94. Section 3-25 Checking for Understanding __ 4. process whereby a neutral party hears arguments from two opposing sides and makes a decision that both must accept A. deficit spending B. binding arbitration C. sit-down strike D. Social Security Act Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. B
  • 95. Section 3-26 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Contrast the ideas of Father Charles Coughlin, Senator Huey Long, and Dr. Francis Townsend. Father Charles Coughlin believed in taxing the rich and nationalizing the banking system. Senator Huey Long believed in sharing the wealth. Francis Townsend supported pensions for the elderly.
  • 96. Section 3-27 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government and Democracy How did the New Deal contribute to the growth of industrial unions? Legislation such as the Wagner Act encouraged workers to organize unions where none existed and set up a process to protect unions as they developed.
  • 97. Section 3-28 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Why is the Social Security Act an important piece of legislation? It forced the government to protect the unemployed.
  • 98. Section 3-29 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Graphs Examine the photo and graph on page 568 of your textbook. How did successful strikes such as the sit-down strike shown in the photograph lead to a rise in union membership? As workers saw that unions helped them, more workers supported and joined unions.
  • 99. Section 3-30 Close Explain why the Social Security Act is still regarded as an important piece of legislation.
  • 100. End of Section 3
  • 101. Section 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading Backed by a new coalition of voters, Roosevelt easily won a second term, but the opposition of conservatives weakened his ability to achieve additional reforms.
    • Frances Perkins
    Main Idea Key Terms and Names
    • court-packing
    • Henry Morgenthau
    • John Maynard Keynes
    • broker state
    • safety net
  • 102. Section 4-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Taking Notes As you read about the New Deal coalition, use the major headings of the section to create an outline similar to the one on page 572 of your textbook.
    • Explain the achievements and the defeats of Roosevelt’s second term.
    Reading Objectives
    • Analyze how the New Deal affected Americans’ sense of security and their attitude toward the role of government.
  • 103. Section 4-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Groups and Institutions The Democratic Party’s victory in 1936 resulted from a new alignment in politics that lasted for several decades.
  • 104. Section 4-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 105. Section 4-5 Roosevelt’s Second Term Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Millions of voters owed their jobs, homes, and bank accounts to the New Deal.
    • By the election of 1936, Democratic Party membership shifted from mainly white Southerners to include farmers, laborers, African Americans, new immigrants, ethnic minorities, women, progressives, and intellectuals.
    • First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt spoke with many people from these various groups, and she persuaded her husband to address some of their concerns in his New Deal programs.
    (pages 572–575)
  • 106. Section 4-6
    • Roosevelt’s Secretary of Labor, Frances Perkins, was the first woman appointed to a cabinet post.
    Roosevelt’s Second Term (cont.)
    • Roosevelt won the 1936 election in one of the biggest landslides in American history.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 572–575)
  • 107. Section 4-7
    • The Supreme Court did not support the president’s New Deal programs.
    • In January 1936, the Court declared the Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional.
    • After the election, Roosevelt attempted to change the political balance of the Supreme Court with the court-packing plan.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Roosevelt’s Second Term (cont.) (pages 572–575)
  • 108. Section 4-8
    • Roosevelt sent Congress a bill to increase the number of justices on the Supreme Court.
    • It was a political mistake and split the Democratic Party.
    • Americans felt it would give the president too much power.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Roosevelt’s Second Term (cont.) (pages 572–575)
  • 109. Section 4-9
    • In 1937 a sudden rise in unemployment further hurt Roosevelt’s popularity.
    • When he cut spending just as the first Social Security payroll taxes decreased paychecks, the economy plummeted and two million people were out of work.
    • This recession led to a debate about how to handle the situation.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Roosevelt’s Second Term (cont.) (pages 572–575)
  • 110. Section 4-10
    • Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau wanted to balance the budget and cut spending.
    • The opposition pushed for more government spending.
    • They supported “Keynesianism,” the theories of British economist John Maynard Keynes.
    • In his book, he argued that the government needed to spend heavily during a recession to jump-start the economy.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Roosevelt’s Second Term (cont.) (pages 572–575)
  • 111. Section 4-11
    • In 1938 Roosevelt asked Congress for $3.75 billion for the PWA, WPA, and other programs.
    Roosevelt’s Second Term (cont.) (pages 572–575)
  • 112. Section 4-12 How did Eleanor Roosevelt help bring change to the Democratic Party? Eleanor Roosevelt brought change by bringing in the African American and women’s vote. She had strong sympathy for both groups and spoke to many during her tours around the country. She persuaded her husband to address their problems in the New Deal. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Roosevelt’s Second Term (cont.) (pages 572–575)
  • 113. Section 4-13 The Last New Deal Reforms Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Roosevelt’s successes were limited in his second term in office.
    • The 1937 National Housing Act, promoted by Eleanor Roosevelt, created the United States Housing Authority to subsidize loans for builders willing to buy blocks of slums and build low-cost housing.
    (pages 575–576)
  • 114. Section 4-14
    • The Farm Security Administration gave loans to tenant farmers to purchase farms.
    • Congress kept appropriations low, believing that the plan made agricultural problems worse.
    • The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 gave protection to workers, abolished child labor, and created a 40-hour workweek for workers.
    The Last New Deal Reforms (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 575–576)
  • 115. Section 4-15
    • New Deal legislation began to get blocked as Congress began to turn against the New Deal.
    • The New Deal era ended by 1939.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Last New Deal Reforms (cont.) (pages 575–576)
  • 116. Section 4-16 Why was Roosevelt’s second term of office less successful than the first term? The fight over the court-packing scheme and the recession of 1937 had weakened Roosevelt politically. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Last New Deal Reforms (cont.) (pages 575–576)
  • 117. Section 4-17 The Legacy of the New Deal Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The New Deal had limited success, but gave Americans a stronger sense of security and stability.
    • The New Deal operated to balance competing economic interests.
    • The New Deal’s mediating role established the broker state, which helped work out conflicts among different interests.
    (pages 576–577)
  • 118. Section 4-18
    • The New Deal brought a new public attitude regarding the government.
    • The program gave Americans a safety net that provided safeguards and relief programs to protect them from economic disaster.
    The Legacy of the New Deal (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 576–577)
  • 119. Section 4-19 What two Supreme Court decisions gave federal government a new role as mediator between competing groups? In NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel the Court ruled that the federal government had the constitutional authority to regulate production within a state. In Wickard v. Filburn, the Court allowed the federal government to regulate consumption in the states. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Legacy of the New Deal (cont.) (pages 576–577)
  • 120. Section 4-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Checking for Understanding __ 1. something that provides security against misfortune; specifically, government relief programs intended to protect against economic disaster __ 2. role of the government to work out conflicts among competing interest groups A. broker state B. safety net Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A B
  • 121. Section 4-21 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain Roosevelt’s court-packing plan and how it was received. Roosevelt wanted to change the political balance of the Supreme Court. The plan was seen as interfering with separation of powers.
  • 122. Section 4-22 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Groups and Institutions What groups made up the New Deal coalition? African Americans, farmers, laborers, minorities, new immigrants, women, intellectuals, and progressives made up the New Deal coalition.
  • 123. Section 4-23 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Interpreting How did the New Deal change attitudes toward government? Americans felt government had a duty to maintain a safety net.
  • 124. Section 4-24 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Photographs Study the photograph on page 574 of your textbook. What does it suggest about Roosevelt’s methods of campaigning? The photograph shows that he went directly to the people.
  • 125. Section 4-25 Close Analyze how the New Deal affected Americans’ sense of security and their attitude toward the role of government.
  • 126. End of Section 4
  • 127. Chapter Summary 1
  • 128. End of Chapter Summary
  • 129. Chapter Assessment 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. process whereby a neutral party hears arguments from two opposing sides and makes a decision that both must accept __ 2. role of the government to work out conflicts among competing interest groups __ 3. a monetary standard in which one ounce of gold equaled a set number of dollars __ 4. method of boycotting work by sitting down at work and refusing to leave the establishment A. gold standard B. fireside chats C. deficit spending D. binding arbitration E. sit-down strike F. Social Security Act G. broker state H. safety net G A D E
  • 130. Chapter Assessment 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 5. radio broadcasts made by FDR to the American people to explain his initiatives __ 6. something that provides security against misfortune; specifically, government relief programs intended to protect against economic disaster __ 7. government practice of spending borrowed money rather than raising taxes, usually an attempt to boost the economy H C B A. gold standard B. fireside chats C. deficit spending D. binding arbitration E. sit-down strike F. Social Security Act G. broker state H. safety net
  • 131. Chapter Assessment 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) __ 8. a law requiring workers and employers to pay a tax; the money provides a monthly stipend for retired people F A. gold standard B. fireside chats C. deficit spending D. binding arbitration E. sit-down strike F. Social Security Act G. broker state H. safety net Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left.
  • 132. Chapter Assessment 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts Why was President Roosevelt reluctant to use deficit spending to help the American economy recover from the Great Depression? He was concerned about too much debt and its repercussions, especially on the business community.
  • 133. Chapter Assessment 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) Why did the federal government create work programs during the Depression? The programs were designed to speed up economic recovery by providing income to American workers.
  • 134. Chapter Assessment 6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) How did the Supreme Court challenge the New Deal? The Supreme Court overturned some of the New Deal legislation by declaring it unconstitutional.
  • 135. Chapter Assessment 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) How did the Wagner Act contribute to the growth of unions? The Wagner Act gave workers the right to organize without interference and forced companies to recognize unions as bargaining agents.
  • 136. Chapter Assessment 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) Why did President Roosevelt devise the court-packing plan? He was frustrated with the defeats he had suffered and wanted to change the makeup of the Supreme Court.
  • 137. Chapter Assessment 9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Economic Factors   What caused the recession in 1937, and how did Keynesian economics explain this recession? A reduction in government spending at the same time that the payroll tax went into effect was the main cause of the recession. Keynesian economics argued that government should increase spending during a recession.
  • 138. Chapter Assessment 10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking (cont.) Analyzing   Choose one of the New Deal programs. Describe its goals and evaluate its success. Answers will vary.
  • 139. Chapter Assessment 11 Economics and History Examine the graph below showing unemployment figures, and then answer the questions on the following slides.
  • 140. Chapter Assessment 12 Interpreting Graphs What was the difference in unemployment between 1937 and 1938? It increased from approximately 8 million to 10.5 million. Economics and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 141. Chapter Assessment 13 Economics and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Why did unemployment decline between 1933 and 1937? Why did it increase in 1938? It declined due to the New Deal programs and an improving economy. It increased in 1938 as a result of recession and reduced funding for some New Deal programs.
  • 142. Chapter Assessment 14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Test-Taking Tip Remember, this question asks for the true statement. Read through each answer carefully to see if it is true of FDR’s first Hundred Days. Since answer G refers to the Second New Deal, it could not refer to the first Hundred Days, so you can eliminate that answer. F They were intended to provide long-term relief to American citizens. G They were known as the Second New Deal. H They were designed as temporary measures to restart the economy. J They were the subject of divisive and protracted debate in Congress. Which of the following is true of the bills passed during the first Hundred Days of FDR’s presidency?
  • 143. Chapter Assessment 15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What board game became a national fad during the 1930s? Monopoly became a national fad during the 1930s.
  • 144. End of Chapter Assessment
  • 145. CC 4-1 Economics FDR favored a stronger role for federal government in improving the lives of all Americans. These improvements cost money. Under FDR the public debt increased more than it had in the nation’s history, reaching $43 billion in 1940 compared with $16.2 billion in 1930.
  • 146. FYI 2-1 Throughout his presidency Franklin Roosevelt averaged two press conferences a week. These were informal affairs, with as many as 200 reporters cramming into the Oval Office to hear Roosevelt’s pronouncements. He answered questions off the cuff and seemed to know each reporter by name.
  • 147. FYI Contents 3 American Liberty League Federal Theater Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 148. FYI 3-1a The American Liberty League had two objectives: to teach respect for the rights of person and property, and to teach that it was the duty of government to encourage private enterprise and protect property.
  • 149. FYI 3-2b Among the most exciting and innovative projects of the WPA was the Federal Theater. In 1936 a gifted young director named Orson Welles staged Shakespeare’s Macbeth, setting it in the West Indies and using an all African American cast. Many Federal Theater productions used the “living newspaper” technique, often taking on the style and method of radio and documentary cinema to build morality plays about current events.
  • 150. FYI 4-1 As part of the New Deal, the WPA produced posters publicizing a variety of programs and events. Over 2,000 of these graphically diverse posters are known to exist today. The Library of Congress has more than 900 of them.
  • 151. Moment in History 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 152. You Don’t Say 2-1 FDIC Since 1933 the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) has insured bank deposits. Originally the FDIC insured each bank account for up to $5,000. Today accounts are insured up to $100,000.
  • 153. SW Skill Builder 1 Outlining To draw a scene, first you would sketch the rough shape, or outline, of the picture. Then you would fill in this rough shape with details. Outlining written material is a similar process. You begin with the rough shape of the material and gradually fill in the details. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • 154. SW Skill Builder 2 Learning the Skill When studying written material, outlining helps you identify main ideas and group together related facts. In writing, it helps you put information in a logical order. There are two kinds of outlines– formal and informal. An informal outline is similar to taking notes. You write only words and phrases needed to remember ideas. Under the main idea, jot down related but less important details. This kind of outline is useful for reviewing material before a test. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Outlining
  • 155. SW Skill Builder 3 Learning the Skill (cont.) Outlining A formal outline has a standard format. In a formal outline, label main heads with Roman numerals, subheads with capital letters, and details with Arabic numerals. Each level must have at least two entries and should be indented from the previous level. All entries use the same grammatical form. For example, if one entry is a complete sentence, all other entries at that level must also be complete sentences.
  • 156. SW Skill Builder 3 Learning the Skill (cont.) Outlining When outlining written material, first read the material to identify the main ideas. In textbooks, section heads provide clues to main topics. Next, identify the subheads. List details that support or explain subheads underneath the appropriate subhead.
  • 157. SW Skill Builder 5 Practicing the Skill Study the outline on Roosevelt’s New Deal on page 563 of your textbook . Then answer the questions on the following slides. Outlining
  • 158. SW Skill Builder 6 1. Is this an example of a formal or an informal outline? 2. What are the main headings? It is a formal outline. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Outlining The entries beginning with Roman numerals are the main headings. Practicing the Skill (cont.)
  • 159. SW Skill Builder 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 3. How do the subheads under “Managing Farm and Industry” relate to the main idea? 4. Give two examples of grammatical inconsistency in the outline. They all deal with addressing problems during the Hundred Days. IIIA1 and IIIB2 are not complete sentences while other numbered points are. Outlining Practicing the Skill (cont.)
  • 160. M/C 1-1 The TVA, 1940 The First New Deal, 1933–1935 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • 161. M/C 1-1a
  • 162. M/C 2-1
  • 163. M/C 2-2e
  • 164. M/C 3-1
  • 165. M/C 4-1
  • 166. Why It Matters Transparency
  • 167. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 168. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 169. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 170. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • 171. GO 1
  • 172. GO 2
  • 173. GO 3
  • 174. GO 4
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