Time and Responsibility: Examining theVolunteer Workload of School-based Personnel      in One Distance Education Program ...
Newfoundland and Labrador• the island is 43,359 square miles, while  Labrador covers 112,826• population was 505,469 in 20...
Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation                           CDLI Statistics                  2001- 2002- 2003- 2...
Centre for Distance Learning and InnovationSynchronous – Online•   30% to 80%, depending on    subject area•   taught via ...
Virtual School Teachers                                                 + More schoolsT: teacher    F: facilitator/proctor...
Mediating Teachers/Team• Technical - to provide initial maintenance and trouble-  shooting for the CDLI computers (all maj...
Sample
Sample             Schools   M-Team    Schools         M-Team          Completed   Opted-Out   Not                       M...
Sample• 75% of the schools representing 74% of the m-teachers• Response rate – 23%• Opted out – 21%• Unresponsive – 56%• A...
ResponsibilitiesOften•   Monitoring the progress of distance learning students, including accepting e-    mail notificatio...
Time:SurveysTask                                   M-Teachers   TimeSupervising tests/exams                  90.0%      60...
Time:Weekly LogsTask                                   M-Teachers    Average TimeSupervising tests/exams/class           5...
Time:ComparisonTask                                   Survey Time   Log Time   2004 StudySupervising tests/exams/class    ...
Time:SummaryAverage 2.3/week per  m-teacherCDLI utilizes 5X14  timetable• 10 hours per 14 daysAverage m-teacher spend  2/3...
System         How often do you access the any of your           students course management systems?         • Never – 65%...
Discussion & Initial Conclusions• m-teacher duties occupy significant amounts of  teacher time  – one teaching unit / 175 ...
Future Research• expand or repeat survey   – possible addition of District 1• additional teacher logs &  interviews• 6 m-t...
YourQuestions  andComments
Assistant Professor Wayne State University, USA     mkbarbour@gmail.comhttp://www.michaelbarbour.com
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AECT 2009 - Time and Responsibility: Examining the Volunteer Workload of School-based Personnel in one Distance Education Program

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Barbour, M. K., & Mulcahy, D. (2009, October). Time and responsibility: Examining the volunteer workload of school-based personnel in one distance education program. Roundtable presented at the annual convention of the Association for Educational Communication and Technology, Louisville, KY.

Historically, K-12 distance education in Newfoundland & Labrador largely worked due to the widely known, but rarely documented content-based assistance from school-based personnel. Currently, more rural schools find they must rely upon distance education to offer academic-level courses to students with a wide range of abilities, creating new responsibilities for teachers that have also gone undocumented. This study will document the duties and time required to provide support for this new model of distance education.

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AECT 2009 - Time and Responsibility: Examining the Volunteer Workload of School-based Personnel in one Distance Education Program

  1. 1. Time and Responsibility: Examining theVolunteer Workload of School-based Personnel in One Distance Education Program Michael Barbour, Wayne State University Dennis Mulcahy, Memorial University of Newfoundland
  2. 2. Newfoundland and Labrador• the island is 43,359 square miles, while Labrador covers 112,826• population was 505,469 in 2006 Census – 551,795 in 1996 / 568,350 in 1986• 294 schools in 2005-06 – 343 in 2000-01 / 472 in 1995-96• 76,763 students in 2005-06 – 110,456 in 1995-96 / 142,332 in 1985-86• average school size is 220 pupils – 45% > 200 and 25% > 100
  3. 3. Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation CDLI Statistics 2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- 2008- 02* 03 04 05 06 07 08 09Number ofcourses 10 18 25 30 33 32 38 37Number ofteachers 5 18 23.5 25.5 27.5 - - -CourseRegistrations 200 1000 1200 1300 1650 1539 1787 1616Percentagepasses N/A 88 90 90 88 - - - * Pilot year
  4. 4. Centre for Distance Learning and InnovationSynchronous – Online• 30% to 80%, depending on subject area• taught via a virtual classroom (e.g., Elluminate Live)Asynchronous – Offline• remainder of their time• taught via a course management system (e.g., WebCT/D2L)• usually consists of independent work from posted homework or assignments or from their textbooks
  5. 5. Virtual School Teachers + More schoolsT: teacher F: facilitator/proctor A: administrator, recruiterS: student P: parent IT: technology coordinator
  6. 6. Mediating Teachers/Team• Technical - to provide initial maintenance and trouble- shooting for the CDLI computers (all major problems are handled by a district-level technician or by the CDLI)• Coach – to provide support (although not academic support) in gaining the independent learning and self- motivation skills that may be needed to succeed in the online environment• Administrative – to proctor tests and exams, monitor student attendance and behavior, and provide supervision• school administrator, technology teacher, secretary, custodian, and/or a student enrolled in the CDLI (i.e., e- tutor)
  7. 7. Sample
  8. 8. Sample Schools M-Team Schools M-Team Completed Opted-Out Not Members Participating Members responsive ParticipatingDistrict 1 10 34 - - - - -District 2 32 83 18 46 16 7 22District 3 33 102 33 102 17 27 58District 4 21 62 20 58 15 9 34District 5 2 3 2 3 0 1 2Private 2 5 2 5 1 0 4SchoolsTotals 100 289 75 214 49 44 121
  9. 9. Sample• 75% of the schools representing 74% of the m-teachers• Response rate – 23%• Opted out – 21%• Unresponsive – 56%• Administrative - 60.5%• Technical - 23.3%• Coach - 16.3%
  10. 10. ResponsibilitiesOften• Monitoring the progress of distance learning students, including accepting e- mail notification from the e-teacher which express concern regarding the failure of a student to submit assignments, exams, etc. on time.• Following-up with such students to ensure future compliance.• Accepting grades and reports from the e-teacher and ensure that these get entered in the students term/end of year report cards.Sometimes• Supervising distance learning students while they engage in online activities.• Providing limited assistance to students who encounter difficulty in using asynchronous communication tools (chat, discussion threads, e-mail, etc., web browser, and learning management system).• Meeting, as requested, with the e-teacher, web-based initiatives facilitator, high school programme specialist.
  11. 11. Time:SurveysTask M-Teachers TimeSupervising tests/exams 90.0% 60 minTracking down missing 41.5% 35 minassignments/homeworkRecording attendance or other 36.6% 20 minadministrative dataProviding content-based tutoring 46.3% 40 minProviding technology-based tutoring 48.8% 25 minProviding technical trouble shooting 70.7% 30 minGeneral supervision 12..2% 60 minSupervising science labs 12.2% 50 min
  12. 12. Time:Weekly LogsTask M-Teachers Average TimeSupervising tests/exams/class 5 teachers 80 min 16/16 weeksTracking down missing 2 teachers 2 minassignments/homework 3/16 weeksRecording attendance or other 3 teachers 3 minadministrative data 5/16 weeksProviding content-based tutoring 3 teachers 15 min 4/16 weeksProviding technology-based tutoringProviding technical trouble shooting 5 teachers 29 min 13/16 weeksSupervising science labsPreparing and submitting tests/exams 6 teachers 19 min 16/16 weeks
  13. 13. Time:ComparisonTask Survey Time Log Time 2004 StudySupervising tests/exams/class 58 min 80 min 58 minTracking down missing 31 min 2 min 28 minassignments/homeworkRecording attendance or other 17 min 3 min 27 minadministrative dataProviding content-based tutoring 40 min 15 min 12 minProviding technology-based tutoring 23 min - 30 minProviding technical trouble shooting 37 min 29 min 81 minSupervising science labs 60 min - -Preparing and submitting 20 min 19 min -tests/exams
  14. 14. Time:SummaryAverage 2.3/week per m-teacherCDLI utilizes 5X14 timetable• 10 hours per 14 daysAverage m-teacher spend 2/3 course slot on their duties
  15. 15. System How often do you access the any of your students course management systems? • Never – 65% • Couple of times a month – 15% • Once a month – 10% What do you access in the students course management systems? • To check test dates and assignment deadlines • To check student marks How often are you in communication with e-teachers of your students? • Couple of times a month – 39% • Once a month – 22%
  16. 16. Discussion & Initial Conclusions• m-teacher duties occupy significant amounts of teacher time – one teaching unit / 175 students (Shortall & Greene- Fraize, 2007)• Logs recorded less overall time than surveys• level of involvement hasn’t decreased – actually increased by ~50 minutes between 2004 & 2009 surveys
  17. 17. Future Research• expand or repeat survey – possible addition of District 1• additional teacher logs & interviews• 6 m-teachers were interviewed and recordings are being transcribed• creation of a web-based orientation for m-teachers – examination of the effects of that orientation
  18. 18. YourQuestions andComments
  19. 19. Assistant Professor Wayne State University, USA mkbarbour@gmail.comhttp://www.michaelbarbour.com

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