Beyond volunteerism and good will:Examining the commitment of school-based teachers to distance education      Michael Bar...
Newfoundland and Labrador• the island is 43,359 square miles, while  Labrador covers 112,826• population was 505,469 in 20...
Centre for Distance Learning and InnovationThe CDLI was founded in December  2000 by the Department of EducationSynchronou...
Mediating Team• Technical - to provide initial maintenance and trouble-  shooting for the CDLI computers (all major proble...
Methodology• Web-based survey  – based on survey used    in Barbour & Mulcahy    (2004)• Weekly Logs  – volunteers from su...
Sample             Schools   M-Teachers   Schools         M-Teachers      M-Teachers   M-Teachers   M-Teachers            ...
Sample• 77% of the schools representing 74% of the m-  teachers• Response rate – 24.8%• Opted out – 20.6%• Unresponsive – ...
Often•   Monitoring the progress of distance learning students, including accepting e-    mail notification from the e-tea...
Task                                   M-Teachers   TimeSupervising tests/exams/class            82.7%      58 minTracking...
Average 2.34/week per  m-teacherCDLI utilizes 5X14  timetable• 10 hours per 14 daysAverage m-teacher spends 65% or 2/3  co...
How often do you access the any of your  students course management systems?• Never – 60%• Couple of times a month – 15%• ...
Weekly Logs   • 6 teachers   • 4 weeksTask                                   M-Teachers    Average TimeSupervising tests/e...
Task                                   Survey Time   Log Time   2004 StudySupervising tests/exams/class             58 min...
Discussion & Initial Conclusions• m-teacher duties occupy significant amounts of  teacher time  – one teaching unit / 175 ...
Future Research• survey  – possible addition of District 1• 12 m-teachers have  volunteered to be  interviewed  – May & Ju...
Assistant Professor Wayne State University, USA     mkbarbour@gmail.comhttp://www.michaelbarbour.com
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AERA 2009 - Beyond Volunteerism and Good Will: Examining the Commitment of School-Based Teachers to Distance Education

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Mulcahy, D., & Barbour, M. K. (2009, April). Beyond volunteerism and good will: Examining the commitment of school-based teachers to distance education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Two decades ago Newfoundland and Labrador introduced distance education in the K-12 environment. The program focused upon providing advanced-level courses to rural school students, and worked largely due to the widely known, but rarely documented significant amounts of content-based assistance from school based personnel. In the past seven years the province has moved to a virtual school model of distance education and more rural schools find that they must rely upon this virtual school to offer academic-level courses to students with a wide range of abilities. This has created many new responsibilities for teachers that have also gone undocumented. This study will begin to document the duties and time required to provide support for this new models of distance education.

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AERA 2009 - Beyond Volunteerism and Good Will: Examining the Commitment of School-Based Teachers to Distance Education

  1. 1. Beyond volunteerism and good will:Examining the commitment of school-based teachers to distance education Michael Barbour, Wayne State University Dennis Mulcahy, Memorial University
  2. 2. Newfoundland and Labrador• the island is 43,359 square miles, while Labrador covers 112,826• population was 505,469 in 2006 Census – 551,795 in 1996 / 568,350 in 1986• 294 schools in 2005-06 – 343 in 2000-01 / 472 in 1995-96• 76,763 students in 2005-06 – 110,456 in 1995-96 / 142,332 in 1985-86• average school size is 220 pupils – 45% > 200 and 25% > 100
  3. 3. Centre for Distance Learning and InnovationThe CDLI was founded in December 2000 by the Department of EducationSynchronous – Online• 30% to 80%, depending on subject area• taught via a virtual classroom (e.g., Elluminate Live)Asynchronous – Offline• remainder of their time• taught via a course management system (e.g., WebCT/Desire2Learn)• usually consists of independent work from posted homework or assignments or from their textbooks
  4. 4. Mediating Team• Technical - to provide initial maintenance and trouble- shooting for the CDLI computers (all major problems are handled by a district-level technician or by the CDLI)• Coach – to provide support (although not academic support) in gaining the independent learning and self- motivation skills that may be needed to succeed in the online environment• Administrative – to proctor tests and exams, monitor student attendance and behavior, and provide supervision• school administrator, technology teacher, secretary, custodian, and/or a student enrolled in the CDLI (i.e., e-tutor)
  5. 5. Methodology• Web-based survey – based on survey used in Barbour & Mulcahy (2004)• Weekly Logs – volunteers from survey• Interviews – volunteers from survey – yet to be scheduled
  6. 6. Sample Schools M-Teachers Schools M-Teachers M-Teachers M-Teachers M-Teachers Participating Participating Completed Opted-Out Not ResponsiveDistrict 1 10 34 - - - - -District 2 32 83 20 46 17 7 22District 3 33 102 33 102 19 27 56District 4 21 62 20 58 16 9 33District 5 2 3 2 3 0 1 2Private 2 5 2 5 1 0 4SchoolsTotals 100 289 77 214 53 44 117
  7. 7. Sample• 77% of the schools representing 74% of the m- teachers• Response rate – 24.8%• Opted out – 20.6%• Unresponsive – 56.7%• Administrative – 60%• Technical – 21.7%• Coach – 18.3%
  8. 8. Often• Monitoring the progress of distance learning students, including accepting e- mail notification from the e-teacher which express concern regarding the failure of a student to submit assignments, exams, etc. on time.• Following-up with such students to ensure future compliance.• Accepting grades and reports from the e-teacher and ensure that these get entered in the students term/end of year report cards.Sometimes• Supervising distance learning students while they engage in online activities.• Providing limited assistance to students who encounter difficulty in using asynchronous communication tools (chat, discussion threads, e-mail, etc., web browser, and learning management system).• Meeting, as requested, with the e-teacher, web-based initiatives facilitator, high school programme specialist.• Including online students on the teachers class list and as such follow-up on absences from class as would be the case with other students in that class whom the m-teacher instructs directly.
  9. 9. Task M-Teachers TimeSupervising tests/exams/class 82.7% 58 minTracking down missing 44.2% 31 minassignments/homeworkRecording attendance or other 44.2% 17 minadministrative dataProviding content-based tutoring 42.3% 40 minProviding technology-based tutoring 50.0% 23 minProviding technical trouble shooting 73.1% 37 minSupervising science labs 15.1% 60 minPreparing and submitting tests/exams 18.9% 20 min
  10. 10. Average 2.34/week per m-teacherCDLI utilizes 5X14 timetable• 10 hours per 14 daysAverage m-teacher spends 65% or 2/3 course slot on their duties
  11. 11. How often do you access the any of your students course management systems?• Never – 60%• Couple of times a month – 15%• Once a month – 12%What do you access in the students course management systems?• To check test dates and assignment deadlines• To check student marksHow often are you in communication with e-teachers of your students?• Couple of times a month – 38%• Once a month – 19%• Couple of times a week – 19%
  12. 12. Weekly Logs • 6 teachers • 4 weeksTask M-Teachers Average TimeSupervising tests/exams/class 5 teachers 80 min 16/16 weeksTracking down missing 2 teachers 2 minassignments/homework 3/16 weeksRecording attendance or other 3 teachers 3 minadministrative data 5/16 weeksProviding content-based tutoring 3 teachers 15 min 4/16 weeksProviding technology-based tutoringProviding technical trouble shooting 5 teachers 29 min 13/16 weeksSupervising science labsPreparing and submitting tests/exams 6 teachers 19 min 16/16 weeks
  13. 13. Task Survey Time Log Time 2004 StudySupervising tests/exams/class 58 min 80 min 58 minTracking down missing 31 min 2 min 28 minassignments/homeworkRecording attendance or other 17 min 3 min 27 minadministrative dataProviding content-based tutoring 40 min 15 min 12 minProviding technology-based tutoring 23 min - 30 minProviding technical trouble shooting 37 min 29 min 81 minSupervising science labs 60 min - -Preparing and submitting 20 min 19 min -tests/exams
  14. 14. Discussion & Initial Conclusions• m-teacher duties occupy significant amounts of teacher time – one teaching unit / 175 students (Shortall & Greene- Fraize, 2007)• Logs recorded less overall time than surveys• level of involvement hasn’t decreased – actually increased by ~50 minutes between 2004 & 2009 surveys
  15. 15. Future Research• survey – possible addition of District 1• 12 m-teachers have volunteered to be interviewed – May & June 2009
  16. 16. Assistant Professor Wayne State University, USA mkbarbour@gmail.comhttp://www.michaelbarbour.com

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