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Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
Safer metropolitan cities
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  • 1. Safety of Metropolitan Cities from Disasters A Case Study of Mumbai Floods, 2005 Anil K. Sinha Amit PrakashBIHAR STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY 2nd Floor, Pant Bhawan, Patna -800001
  • 2. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority A Paper onSAFETY OF METROPOLITAN CITIES FROM DISASTERS A CASE STUDY OF MUMBAI FLOODS, 2005 ANIL K SINHA1 IAS (rtd) AMIT PRAKASH2 M.Sc (Disaster Management) B.Tech BIHAR STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY 2nd Floor, Pant Bhawan, Patna -8000011 Anil K Sinha, IAS (rtd.) is Vice Chairman of Bihar State Disaster Management Authority, Patna2 Amit Prakash is Capacity Building & Training Officer, Bihar State Disaster Management Authority, Patna1|Page
  • 3. Bihar State Disaster Management AuthorityTable of ContentsSAFETY OF METROPOLITAN CITIES FROM DISASTERS ............................................................................................ 11. Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 42. Disaster Management............................................................................................................................ 5 a. Disaster Management Cycle ............................................................................................................. 73. Urban Risks ........................................................................................................................................... 9 a. Factor influencing the Urban Risks ................................................................................................ 10 i. Societal Factors: .......................................................................................................................... 10 ii. Physical factors: .......................................................................................................................... 10 iii. Policy Level Factors: .............................................................................................................. 11 iv. Other factors: .......................................................................................................................... 114. Development and Disaster: A Sustainable and Planned Development approach ............................... 125. Case Study: Mumbai Flood, 2005....................................................................................................... 13 a. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 13 b. Background ..................................................................................................................................... 13 c. The Vulnerability profile of Mumbai .............................................................................................. 14 d. The Flood ........................................................................................................................................ 14 e. The Causes ...................................................................................................................................... 16 i. Urban Planning ........................................................................................................................... 16 ii. Land Use, Land Cover and destruction of Mangrove ecosystem ............................................... 17 iii. Mithi River .............................................................................................................................. 18 iv. Drainage System ..................................................................................................................... 186. Risk Reduction Approaches ................................................................................................................ 197. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) ...................................................... 228. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................... 26Appendix 1: Definitions in Disaster Management ...................................................................................... 27Appendix 2: List of Disaster as mentioned in HPC Report, 2001 .............................................................. 29Appendix 3: Map of Mumbai ..................................................................................................................... 31Bibliography: .............................................................................................................................................. 322|Page
  • 4. Bihar State Disaster Management AuthorityList of FiguresFigure 1: Trend of Urban Growth in less developed countries (ALNAP, 2009) .......................................... 4Figure 2: PAR model of Vulnerability .......................................................................................................... 6Figure 3: Disaster Management Cycle .......................................................................................................... 7Figure 4: Glimpses of devastation in Mumbai Floods, 2005 ...................................................................... 13Figure 5: Mumbai Floods, 2005 .................................................................................................................. 15Figure 6: The Powai Lake area is witnessing construction at an alarming rate .......................................... 17Figure 7: Destruction of Mangrove (Source: Outlook India)...................................................................... 17Figure 8: Mithi River obstructed by the runway (Source: The Hindustan Times Blog) ............................. 18Figure 9: Map of Mumbai (Source www.mapofmumbai.com) .................................................................. 313|Page
  • 5. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority 1. IntroductionIndia is a developing country. The country is witnessing rapid economic growth andtransformation, and its towns and cities are at the heart of this process. All over India, growth istaking place in dynamic sectors such as manufacturing, information technology, high-end serviceindustries, trade, retail, banking, insurance and finance, all of which are urban-centric. By theend of the year 2012, the urban share in India‟s national income is expected to go up to morethan 65% (Chakrabarti et al., 2010). In such situations, rapid urbanization can‟t be negated. So,the rapidly growing population, the limited infrastructure and natural and made-madeintervention on environment accentuate the risks due to hazards. The uncontrolled and largelyunplanned growth of large cities in India has had negative effects on urban dwellers and theirenvironment. The provision of infrastructure facilities and services is lagging far behind the paceof urbanization, and in consequence the urban environment, particularly in large cities, isdeteriorating rapidly. All the cities and towns of India are facing serious shortage of power,water, sewerage, developed land, housing, transportation, communication and other facilities(Chakrabarti et al., 2010). Figure 1: Trend of Urban Growth in less developed countries (ALNAP, 2009)This calls for a comprehensive approach aimed at Urban Risk Reduction and making citiesresilient to disasters. Such an approach will help building capacities of people and institutions,enforce policies aiming at risk reduction, identify and address the underlying factors such as4|Page
  • 6. Bihar State Disaster Management Authorityvulnerability and risk thus helping building safer cities. This paper attempts to explore andexplain the issue of safe cities with help of a case study of Mumbai Floods, 2005. 2. Disaster ManagementDisaster Management is a very old practice that has recently gained importance owing to therapidly degrading natural and man-made environment3. Earlier, Disaster Management waseverything related to response and relief. But the Disaster Management Act of 2005 gave atotally new dimension to the subject. It very well defined the scope and extent of incorporationof Disaster Risk Reduction through the process of institutionalization of the subject. It definessome of the important terminology that we, as Disaster Management practitioners need to know.Before we go into the details of Disaster Management, we need to understand few terminologiesthat are widely used in this perspective.Disaster: "Disaster" means a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area,arising from natural or man-made causes, or by accident or negligence which results insubstantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damageto, or degradation of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond thecoping capacity of the community of the affected area.Disaster Management: It means a continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing,coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for-  Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster;  Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences;  Capacity-building;  Preparedness to deal with any disaster;  Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster;  Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster;  Evacuation, rescue and relief;  Rehabilitation and reconstruction;3 Please refer to the appendix 2 for the categories of disasters as identified in HPC report, 2001.5|Page
  • 7. Bihar State Disaster Management AuthorityDisaster Management is a very wide term that can be concisely put into the following sentence;the systematic management of administrative decisions, organization, operational skills andresponsibilities to apply policies, strategies and practices for disaster risk reduction (ADPC,2004).Now, disaster is a situation that is created when a number of factors interact with each other.These factors are hazard, risk, vulnerability and coping capacity. They can be represented by thesimple equation mentioned below: Risk = Hazards x Vulnerability/ Coping Capacity4Here we need to understand some of the very important aspect of this equation. The risk ofdisaster can be lowered if the vulnerability of community is lowered or its coping capacity isincreased. The vulnerability has been clearly explained in the Pressure and Release Model asshown below (ADPC, 2004). Figure 2: PAR model of Vulnerability4 Please see the Appendix 1 for the definition of the terms.6|Page
  • 8. Bihar State Disaster Management AuthoritySo we see a plenty of independent and dependent factors that determine vulnerability. Similarly,there are numerous factors that affect the coping capacity of the people and organizations and letthem use existing resources to achieve various beneficial ends during unusual, abnormal, andadverse conditions of a disaster event or process. a. Disaster Management CycleTill now we have been discussing about the meaning of Disaster Management and associatedterms. Now we need to know the various phases of Disaster Management known as DisasterManagement Cycle. The figure below (fig. 3) shows the complete Disaster Management Cycle.It consists of broadly response/ relief, reconstruction, mitigation and preparedness. These phasesare not clearly demarcated as there is overlap in all the phases. Disaster Preparedness Response and Relief Rhabilitation/ Mitigation Reconstruction Figure 3: Disaster Management CycleThe phase Response and Relief corresponds to phase immediately after disaster. There is nodefined time line for this phase as it is guided by the extent and damage caused by the disaster. Itmay be as short as 4 days and can extend up to few months. Once the Response and Relief phaseis diminishing, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction is taken up. It consists of the phase where the7|Page
  • 9. Bihar State Disaster Management Authoritylife of the affected is restored to the normal situation. This phase usually extends for few monthsto even many years. Mitigation is perhaps the most important and a never ending process of thewhole of the Disaster Management Cycle. It deals with the methods, tools, techniques that needto be implemented in order to lower the risk. These include structural as well as non-structuralmeasures. The last phase, preparedness is a phase that is executed just ahead of any disaster.8|Page
  • 10. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority 3. Urban RisksIn the section above, we discussed the factors that accentuate the probability of a disaster.Hazards are beyond the control of human beings. Given the situation in which the majority ofurban population is being forced to live in, aggravated the affects due to the presence of thesehazards. Due to limited infrastructure and ever-growing demands, the vulnerability of thepopulation is further intensified.First we need to understand that why cities live under constant risk of disaster. Cities and urbanareas represent dense and complex systems of interconnected services. As such, they face agrowing number of issues that drive disaster risk. Strategies and policies can be developed toaddress each of these issues, as part of an overall vision to make cities of all sizes and profilesmore resilient and livable. Among the most significant risk drivers are (For & Government,2010):1. Growing urban populations and increased density, which put pressure on land and services, increasing settlements in coastal lowlands, along unstable slopes and in hazard-prone areas.2. Concentration of resources and capacities at national level, with a lack of fiscal and human resources and capacities in local government, including unclear mandates for disaster risk reduction and response.3. Weak local governance and insufficient participation by local stakeholders in planning and urban management.4. Inadequate water resource management, drainage systems and solid waste management, causing health emergencies, floods and landslides.5. The decline of ecosystems, due to human activities such as road construction, pollution, wetland reclamation and unsustainable resource extraction, that threatens the ability to provide essential services such as flood regulation and protection.6. Decaying infrastructure and unsafe building stocks that may lead to collapsed structures.7. Uncoordinated emergency services, which decreases the capacity for swift response and preparedness.8. Adverse effects of climate change that will likely increase or decrease extreme temperatures and precipitation, depending on localized conditions, with an impact on the frequency, intensity and location of floods and other climate-related disasters.9|Page
  • 11. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority a. Factor influencing the Urban Risks i. Societal Factors:The reasons stated above merely outline the physical and institutional factors that add to the risk.But we need to look beyond the obvious. There have been a number of social factors specificallyin case of India that have generally been ignored. We are statistically aware of the fact that citieshave seen a large scale migration. When observed closely, there are certain social and economicissues created in the rural areas that force the inhabitants to migrate. There have been instancesof a complete migration of male population of some of the villages on western coast to Mumbai.The climate change and natural disaster in rural areas force the people to migrate to the urbanareas in search of livelihood. These people without adequate access resources stay in temporaryand spatially unsafe settlements. This creates pressure on the limited available resources in thearea thus making the migrants further vulnerable. One of the widely quoted examples can be theDeonar Dumping ground of Mumbai. Several of the unauthorized settlements that have emergedover the passage of time have promoted human habitation subjected to utmost risk. The absenceof electricity, unsafe drinking water and complete absence of health facility coupled with poorsanitation, lack of basic education, poor standard of living and uncertain livelihood has worsenedthe condition of the people living in the area. Presence of large number of vulnerable groupslargely consisting of children and women add to the risk factor further. ii. Physical factors:Humans have never learned from their mistake they have committed in past while dealing withnature. They go against the laws of nature and thus bear its wrath. Construction of dams,embankments, canals etc. might have helped in dealing with the water shortage problems butnow that has added to the risk. In cities like Mumbai, the city planners have undertakenconstructions by reclaiming the underwater areas and constructing buildings on them. Also, themigrated populations settling down in hazard prone areas (hill slope, river banks etc.) invitedisasters. The development brings with itself industrialization. Industrialization is symbol ofeconomic prosperity and it is required to meet the ever-growing demand of the population. Butthis industrialization has a dark face too. They add to the vulnerability of already vulnerablepopulation. The affect and result of the same can be clearly seen in the case of Bhopal GasTragedy, the biggest industrial disaster known to mankind. It has killed more than 25000 peopleand the victims continue to perish due to the contamination and genetic disorders. Much of the10 | P a g e
  • 12. Bihar State Disaster Management Authoritymedium-large industrial establishments consume lot of natural resources and deplete them. Theyalso release the toxics back to the nature thus adding to the risk. iii. Policy Level Factors:These are the sets of factors that if implemented, could resolve many of the issues and minimizethe risk due to the hazards. There have been several policies well in place such as BIS codes forconstruction. But its implementation has miserably failed all over India. The mere fulfillment ofneeds at lowest possible price has driven people to bypass these measures. Also, implementationof code is adds to the cost of the construction and we generally tend to compromise on the same.Again, when it comes to the establishment of large scale industries, many of them have oftenbeen lacking the will to adhere to the norms and policies that are required from ensure safetyonsite as well as offsite. Had there been strict implementation of safety measures in the Dowchemical plant‟s Bhopal unit, lives of thousands could have been saved. iv. Other factors:One of the pressing issues that a city generally faces is the lack of adequate infrastructure torespond to an emergency situation. This could either be due to low investment in the safetymeasures and equipment, early warning systems etc. Also, one of the biggest factors thatattributes to the risk is lack of awareness about the hazards that could affect the city. Majority ofthe population doesn‟t know what to do when an emergency situation arises. This adds to acompletely chaotic environment thus aggravating the situation.11 | P a g e
  • 13. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority 4. Development and Disaster: A Sustainable and Planned Development approachThe relationship between development and disaster is quite complex subject and a widelydebated one. One of the relationships established the fact that disaster leads to development. Thishas been proved on several occasions in the Bhuj earthquake of 2001 and Latur earthquake. Afterthe earthquake razed the city Bhuj to the ground, the government together with otherstakeholders, planned the city properly, followed strict building codes and provided adequateinfrastructure and made the city safer. But opponents of development consider development ,unplanned development to be more precise, as the factor that aggravated disasters by adding tothe risks. The Mumbai flood of 2005 is believed to be a result of development in an unplannedway. The natural flow of Mithi River was obstructed, there were constructions on reclaimed landand natural drainage system of Mumbai was tampered with under the pretext of development.So the idea of a development has changed to Sustainable Development We call the citiesadopting such approach as Sustainable Cities. A sustainable city (SC) is defined as one which issafe, orderly, healthy, culturally and physically attractive, a city that is efficient in its functioningand development does not have a negative impact on the environment or on its cultural/historicheritage, and, as a result of all this, is governable. The final goal is to achieve a competitive city,capable of producing goods and services efficiently, which will attract investment to create newjob opportunities, thereby making it possible to raise the standard of living of its inhabitants.Evidently, all these attributes can materialize only in the long term, but it is possible to carry outpriority actions in the short term; one of which is to protect life and health, every individual‟smost precious possession. Obtaining the other attributes becomes, in the long term, the objectiveof local, regional, and national governments; their objectives in this context will serve them asguidelines in their decision-making and short-term activities. In this way, there will be nosquandering of the nearly always scanty funds, and a clear line of action will have been defined,to put an end to the series of tentative advances and disappointed retreats that have caused somany delays in the past, increasing the poverty (Kuroiwa, n.d.).12 | P a g e
  • 14. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority 5. Case Study: Mumbai Flood, 2005 Figure 4: Glimpses of devastation in Mumbai Floods, 2005 a. IntroductionOn July 26th, 2005, Mumbai faced one of the worst days ever. The God of Rains brought downhavoc on to the city by showering very heavily. The city that never sleeps has sleepless nightsand it was brought to a complete arrest. There were people stuck in the offices and thepassengers stuck in cars and buses. The daily local train commuters were stranded either atworkplace or on the way to home. There were no roads that could be used, all the buses weregrounded, the local trains were off the service and the flooding of the runway paralyzed the airtraffic. This is just a glimpse of what nature was up to in Mumbai on the ill-fated day. b. BackgroundMumbai is one of the largest mega cities5 in the world in terms of population and is currentlyranked 4th after Tokyo, Mexico City and New York. The city is the financial capital of Indiawith a large commercial and trading base. It plays host to a number of industries, multinationalcompanies and important financial institutions. With a per capita income thrice that of thenational average, Mumbai makes huge contribution to the total tax revenues of the country. Thecity is also an important international sea port and strategic from defense perspective.Unfortunately, the city is also more vulnerable to climate risks due to its flood prone location andthe landmass composed largely of reclaimed land. The most vulnerable section is also the slumdwellers and squatter communities in the city that comprise more than half of the total residents5 Please refer to the Annexure 3 for the political map of Mumbai.13 | P a g e
  • 15. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority c. The Vulnerability profile of MumbaiMumbai is an island outside the mainland of Konkan in Maharashtra State. The city issurrounded on three sides by the sea. The height of the city is just 10-15 meters above the sealevel. A large part of the City District and Suburban District is land reclaimed from the sea. Theoriginal city of Mumbai consisted of a group of 7 islands which were later on reclaimed andgiven the form of the present city. The new industrial, commercial and residential settlementshave developed along the reclaimed coastal areas which are low-lying and flood prone. Mumbaifalls in the seismic zone III which is Moderate Damage Risk Zone. As per 2001 census, Mumbaihas over 276,000 dwellings (residential, industrial and commercial) of which only 9% are madeof reinforced concrete, 31% are engineered constructions and around 60% are non-engineeredconstructions, which correspond with the large presence of slum settlements. Mumbai also playshost to around 900 industries that are involved in manufacturing or processing or storage ofhazardous goods. Many of these are in close proximity to residential and commercial areas,thereby increasing the risk of fires and explosions. The major concentration of such industries isin the Chembur-Trombay belt (Wards M-West and M-East). The area has major chemicalcomplexes, refineries, fertilizer plans, atomic energy establishment and thermal power plant. Thepresence of such industries only enhances the vulnerability in case of extreme weather events(Patankar, Patwardhan, Andharia, & Lakhani, 2010).On the socio-economic terms, Mumbai is very unfortunate to have more than half of its 1.8million populations living in unplanned and highly vulnerable areas. There is a huge influx ofmigrated labors, daily wage workers and unemployed youths who settle down in some of themost vulnerable areas of Mumbai such as dumping grounds, sea coasts, Meethi River bank, andalong the railway lines. Given the increasing population and more than half living a life ofpoverty and destitution with limited access to basic civic amenities and infrastructure, healthvulnerabilities have become quite imminent. Slums have mushroomed in almost all the wards ofMumbai, along the coast, on the hill slopes, along the highways, railways and in low-lying areas.Many settlements lack even basic infrastructure like water, sanitation and legal electricityconnections d. The Flood26th July 2005, Mumbai recorded its highest ever rainfall in a single day. It crossed a mind-boggling figure of 944 mm. Santa Cruz, in north Mumbai, recorded a rainfall of 94.4 cm on 26th14 | P a g e
  • 16. Bihar State Disaster Management AuthorityJuly. Rainfall over Vihar Lake was 105 cm. The previous record of heaviest 24- hour rainfallover Mumbai was 58 cm for Santa Cruz. Although Colaba, in Mumbai‟s southern tip recordedjust 7.3 cm, the rainfall which was in no way a typical. Low lying areas of the city were as goodas a part of the sea. The Eastern and Western Expressways could easily have been mistaken forrivers. Slums were converted to ponds. The Mithi River was flooded and water gushed into thesurrounding regions. People waded through water or were forced to remain in water for manyhours. The water-logging affected transport and electric supply and disrupted the daily life forthe next seven days. It was estimated that at least 3 million citizens remained in contact with atleast knee-deep water for over one hour. For the very first time, the Navy has had to step in forrescue operations in Mumbai‟s suburbs. Kalina went under water on 26th night. Two teams ofnaval divers were sent by road to the area. In many parts of Mumbai, naval helicopters were usedto drop food. Naval boats and diving teams were also standing by to assist in Karanja north ofMumbai.Transport statistics of the city  52 local trains damaged  37,000 rickshaws & 4,000 taxis spoilt  900 BEST buses damaged  10,000 trucks and tempos stranded Figure 5: Mumbai Floods, 2005Mumbai‟s vital systems got a severe trounce. Majority of railway tracks were submerged inwater. Many long distance trains got cancelled else halted or terminated at nearby secure citieslike Valsad in gujrat. Of the 2,412 city buses, another lifeline of the city, only 394 plied. Flights15 | P a g e
  • 17. Bihar State Disaster Management Authoritycould not land in the city. For the first time ever, Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Saharand Juhu aerodrome were shut for more than 30 hours due to water logging water logging of therunways and extremely poor visibility. Over 700 flights were cancelled or delayed. Mumbai-Pune Expressway witnessed a number of landslides and was closed for 24 hours. The financialcost of flood was unprecedented and it caused a stoppage of entire commercial, trading, andindustrial activity for days. The floods caused a loss around Rs. 450 crores. The financial impactof the floods was manifested in a variety of ways. The state government declared the 27th and28th July as a public holiday. In Mumbai, ATM of several banks like SBI, ICICI Bank, HDFCBank, Citibank and HSBC stopped functioning. ATM operations outside Mumbai were alsoseverely hit due to connectivity failure with their central systems located in Mumbai. TheBombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange of India could function only partially.As most of the trading is e-Trading, trading terminals of the brokerage houses across the countryremained largely inoperative. (IIT Bombay, 2005). e. The CausesOwing to the high physical, social and economic vulnerability of the people living in the city, thereasons of 2005 floods encompasses the issues related to development, land use and land cover,the urban planning, the reclamation of the land, the treatment with Meethi River, the destructionof Mangrove ecosystem and inadequate drainage facility. Each one of these have been discussesin brief below. i. Urban PlanningUnlike South Mumbai, development in northern suburbs of Mumbai is haphazard and buildingsare constructed without proper planning. The drainage plans in northern suburbs is chalked outas and when required in a particular area and not from an overall point of view. In the Powai lakeregion, new colonies have come up. The area next to Heeranandani has been claimed from hills.Again the Bandra Kurla Complex has been constructed partially on the Meethi river bed. Theconstruction of runway at the airport has been done in such a way that it has altered the naturalflow of the Meethi River.16 | P a g e
  • 18. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority Figure 6: The Powai Lake area is witnessing construction at an alarming rate ii. Land Use, Land Cover and destruction of Mangrove ecosystemThe Powai was home to several animals and it had a very dense forest area. Now due todeforestation, the land use and land cover pattern has severely been affected. Hundreds of acresof swamps in Mahim creek have been reclaimed and put to use for construction by builders.These ecosystems serve as a buffer between land and sea. Figure 7: Destruction of Mangrove (Source: Outlook India)17 | P a g e
  • 19. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority iii. Mithi RiverMithi River served as the Mumbai‟s natural drainage. But due to reclamation of its river bed andaltering of its natural path due to developmental plans have severely affected the naturalcharacteristics of the river. At several places, this River has been reduced to Nala. Figure 8: Mithi River obstructed by the runway (Source: The Hindustan Times Blog) iv. Drainage SystemThe present storm-water drainage system in Mumbai was put in place in the early 20th centuryand is capable of carrying only 25 millimeters of water per hour which was extremely inadequateon a day when 944 mm of rain fell in the city. The drainage system is also clogged at severalplaces. Only 3 „outfalls‟ (ways out to the sea) are equipped with floodgates whereas theremaining 102 open directly into the sea. As a result, there is no way to stop the seawater fromrushing into the drainage system during high tide (IIT Bombay, 2005).18 | P a g e
  • 20. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority 6. Risk Reduction Approaches a. Institutional and Administrative Framework:To be effective and contribute to a city‟s development and safety, managing disaster risk andunderstanding the potential threats of complex events requires a holistic approach and mustinclude the involvement of local government decision makers, city officials and departments,academia, business and citizens groups. Experience gained through the Hyogo Framework forAction has shown that appropriate policies and an institutional framework are preconditions fordecision making and sound disaster risk reduction actions. Accompanied by decentralized powerand resource allocations and the participation of all major groups and actors in planning,implementation and monitoring mechanisms, this Framework contributes to the city‟sdevelopment objectives and sustainability. b. Risk Identification using Multi Hazard Risk Assessment System:Unless cities have a clear understanding of the risks they face, planning for meaningful disasterrisk reduction may be ineffective. Risk analysis and assessments are essential prerequisites forinformed decision making, prioritizing projects, planning for risk reduction measures andidentifying high-, medium- or low-risk areas, according to their vulnerability and the costeffectiveness of potential interventions. A well-maintained database of disaster losses and aGeographic Information System to map hazards, vulnerabilities, the exposure of people andassets and capacities will provide the foundation for the risk assessment. c. Mainstreaming DRR in Developmental PlansNot all hazards are destined to cause disasters. Preemptive measures can help avoid thedisruption, incapacitation or destruction of networks, grids and infrastructure, which can causesevere social, health and economic consequences. Collapsed buildings are the greatest cause ofmortality during earthquakes. Poorly planned roads or insufficient drains cause many landslides.Lifelines such as roads, bridges and airports, electric and communications systems, hospital andemergency services and energy and water supplies are essential for a city to function during aresponse to disaster.19 | P a g e
  • 21. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority d. Better Land Use Planning and Adherence to Building and Construction CodeCountries and cities will have safer infrastructure when standards are in place through buildingcodes and regulations. The application of construction codes and mechanisms for planning andmonitoring the use of city land is a valuable way to reduce disaster vulnerability and risk fromextreme events such as earthquakes, floods, fires, the release of hazardous materials and otherphenomena. It is the responsibility of local authorities to monitor their application, complianceand follow up. Using resilient design standards and land use planning is cost effective whencompared to relocation and/or retrofitting unsafe buildings. e. Capacity Building of general massesIf citizens are to take part in the collective responsibility of creating disaster- resilient cities,training, education and public awareness are critical (these must also be incorporated into all TenEssentials). The entire community must know about the hazards and risks to which they areexposed if they are to be better prepared and take measures to cope with potential disasters.Awareness, education and capacity building programs on disaster risk and mitigation measuresare key for mobilizing citizen participation in the city‟s disaster risk reduction strategies. Thiswill improve preparedness and help citizens respond to local early warnings. f. Strengthening of basic amenities for publicSchools and health facilities provide essential social services. As such, special attention must bepaid to their safety and risk reduction efforts must focus on ensuring they can continue providingservices when most needed. Not only do they house among the most vulnerable groups insociety, schools and hospitals are also places of care, development and well-being. They carryout essential functions during and after a disaster, where they are likely to accommodate andtreat survivors. The normal educational routines of children must be restored as soon as possibleto avoid social and psychological repercussions. g. Protection of Ecosystem and better environmental resource managementEcosystems serve as protective buffers against natural hazards. They increase the resilience ofcommunities by strengthening livelihoods and the availability and quality of drinking water, foodsupplies and other natural resources. Through the process of urban expansion, cities transform20 | P a g e
  • 22. Bihar State Disaster Management Authoritytheir surrounding environment and often generate new risks. The urbanization of watersheds canmodify hydrological regimes and destabilize slopes, increasing hazards such as floods andlandslides. Maintaining a balance between human actions and ecosystems is an excellent strategyfor reducing risk and contributing to resilience and sustainability. h. Effective Early Warning System, Preparedness and Response coordinationWell-conceived emergency preparedness and response plans not only save lives and property,they often also contribute to resilience and post- disaster recovery by lessening the impact of adisaster. Preparedness efforts and early warning systems help ensure that cities, communities andindividuals threatened by natural or other hazards can act in sufficient time and appropriately toreduce personal injury, loss of life and damage to property or nearby fragile environments.Sustainability can be achieved if the community itself and local authorities understand theimportance of and need for local emergency preparedness and response (For & Government,2010)21 | P a g e
  • 23. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority 7. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)The Central Government has started the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission(JNNURM) in the year 2005-06 for a period of 7 years, to improve urban infrastructure andurban governance as well as to provide basic services to the urban poor. Under the UrbanInfrastructure and Governance (UIG) Sub-Mission, funds are provided to the extent of 50% to90% of the project cost depending on the population of various cities, by the Central and StateGovernments whereas the balance funds have to be raised by concerned agencies. It can beconsidered as one of the biggest and the most ambitious urban development program in Indialaunched so far.Its key objectives are of this program are: a) Focused attention to integrated development of infrastructure services in cities covered under the Mission b) Establishment of linkages between asset-creation and asset-management through a slew of reforms for long-term project sustainability;. c) Ensuring adequate funds to meet the deficiencies in urban infrastructural services d) Planned development of identified cities including peri-urban areas, outgrowths and urban corridors leading to dispersed urbanization e) Scale-up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access to the urban poor;. f) Special focus on urban renewal program for the old city areas to reduce congestion; and g) Provision of basic services to the urban poor including security of tenure at affordable prices, improved housing, water supply and sanitation, and ensuring delivery of other existing universal services of the government for education, health and social security.From point of view of Urban Risk Reduction, this national flagship program becomes verysignificant. The program has a lot of scope when it comes to mainstreaming of developmentalplans in urban settings. Following are the key components as identified by National Alliance forDisaster Risk Reduction in their JNNRUM linkages to DRR, which need special attention inrelation to the integration of DRR components with Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban RenewalMission (JNNURM).22 | P a g e
  • 24. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority 1. Strengthening of institutional mechanisma) There in a need to strengthen institutional mechanism further. Presently it has limited reach.Actually it should be looked for long term future strategy in alignment with concerneddepartments and nodal agencies.b) Preparing a roadmap, in terms of in-situ urbanization for DRR, instead of selecting few cities,which of course should also be taken up as a component of overall urbanization issues.c) National Steering Group should ensure the Techno Legal regime in cities, under its fold thatpromises a safe built environment.d) The state level steering committees and urban local bodies should pursue the respective tasksin line with disaster risk reduction initiatives and disaster management committees‟ activities atstate & district level.e) Provisions under Disaster Management Act 2005 at district level should be integrated withfuture plans for cities, through integration between development plan and disaster managementplan. 2. Compliance to Safe construction practices (GNDR)a) Government should make a condition for the cities to amend first their existing GNDR(General Development Control Regulations) for accessing funds from JNNURM. It will motivatethe city administrations to amend their GDCR prior to executing the physical projects under theprogramb) Adhere safe construction practices; follow Building Bye laws, Town and Country PlanningActs. Safe construction should be a made a mandatory reform, not an optional reform.c) Aiming at reducing risks in urban areas, all the concerned persons related to constructiondomain, should be trained, including masons, rod benders, supervisors, engineers, architects,contractors and local builders as well.23 | P a g e
  • 25. Bihar State Disaster Management Authorityd) The old system embedded in construction practices need to be kept alive to promote the DRRthrough seismic resistant architecture. The traditional building architecture and constructionpractices have proved to be very safe and especially highly seismic resistant. Ex. Uttarakhand.e) Housing for the poor should look at the locally available materials and technologies that aremore appropriate for a particular area than importing new technologies that is not ecologicallyviable. 3. Contribution towards preparing a comprehensive City Disaster Management Plana) While preparing City disaster management plan, all the vulnerable factors to be analyzed indetail and the probable risks to assessed, with future projections of urban population anddevelopment works.b) All the basic infrastructural facilities, (including sewage, rail & road transport network, water,gas & petrol piping, power & telecom) should be taken into account, while preparing anintegrated city disaster management plan (DM plan).c) The nodal agencies of the program should actively involve the local community in the makingof city Disaster management plan, as it is being done for them and they know their environmentbest. In our country, it is a fact majority of urban poor live in slums, situated in vulnerable areassuch as river embankments, under flyovers without any land record. This aspect should not bemissed out.d) There is a need to create and adopt the different standard operating procedures of DM plan,for handling disasters for “sites” already developed and “potential sites” under development.Here one of the ways to start is identifying the most vulnerable spots in the city, and thenproceed for specific block disaster management plan. 4. Public Private Partnership (PPP)a) Public private partnership is the key for successful institutionalization of any developmentprogram. For an effective integration of DRR in urban renewal, a proper Government-NGO-Community interface needs to be in place to ensure that the Government can lead from the frontwith policies and administrative support, with community mobilization, regular contacts and a24 | P a g e
  • 26. Bihar State Disaster Management Authoritygood amount of problem solving to be left to the NGOs, while building community structures forsustainability of the process and program through participatory planning and monitoring.b) Urban local bodies (ULBs) are also a part of Public private partnership. In comparison, ULBshave the potential to become more accountable and accessible to citizens. Being one of the nodalagencies of renewal mission, the ULBs need to take care of the sustained micro level progressand carry out periodic monitoring.c) Community should be sensitized first towards the key program objectives and concernedbenefits, with reference to respective activities. Apart from the Government, If the local citizens,and private organizations, will be aware of the facts and figures then it will be quite easier toimplement the program (by abiding the required conditions), and the success will be multipliedthrough partnership.The opportunity provided by JNNURM must not be allowed to go untapped and it must be usedfurther for DRR agenda. It is better to be pro-actively disaster safe today than tomorrow byhindsight (Nehru et al., 2007).25 | P a g e
  • 27. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority 8. ConclusionWith the large scale growth in several of its cities, today India stands at a verge of attaining aneconomic and developmental superiority. It has witnessed a growth rate of significantly highmagnitude when the rest of the world was grappling with the financial crisis. In such anenvironment, it becomes quite obvious for the citizens to harness the fruits of globalization. Thisresulted in significant switch-over from agriculture to industrial sector. There were other socialperspectives too attached to this plight of migration. A gradient thus created due to influx ofpopulation from rural India to the urban and semi-urbanized region has created a world risksociety.On the other hand, this trend has brought about a significant increase in the purchasing power ofpeople. The demand has soared up. The pressure on the natural resources has increasedsubstantially. So on such occasions, we see rampant invasion of planning processes adopted insettlements. The cities are not able to cope with the existing infrastructure and the one that are inplace since last several years are increasingly finding it difficult to handle to the explosivesituation.Under such circumstances, if there is any disaster striking us, the results in form of widespreaddestruction have been quite evident in the past. So, in order to strengthen the disastermanagement operations, we need a strong institutional base supported by the people who are thecenter of the activities. Besides this, there needs to be a proper natural resource management,public awareness, accurate early warning systems, compliance to building construction codes,education etc. that can significantly alter the way Indian cities respond to emergency situation.At the same time it becomes quite necessary for us to mainstream the future development planswith the existing national and state government programs. This will ensure that there is noduplicity of the work and the structures so made would be contributing to DRR.We therefore cannot prevent disaster from striking us. But we can definitely prepare for the sameto respond to and minimize the losses due to the disasters.26 | P a g e
  • 28. Bihar State Disaster Management AuthorityAppendix 1: Definitions in Disaster ManagementA list of common terminologies used in Disaster Management 1. Risk: The probability of harmful consequences, or expected loss (of lives, people injured, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human induced hazards and vulnerable/capable conditions. 2. Hazard: A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Hazards can include latent conditions that may represent future threats. They can be natural in origin (geological, hydro-meteorological and biological) and/or induced by human processes (environmental degradation and technological hazards). Hazards can be single, sequential or combined in their origin and effects. Each hazard is characterized by its location, intensity and probability. 3. Vulnerability: A set of conditions and processes resulting from physical, social, economic and environmental factors, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards. 4. Positive factors that increase the ability of people and the society they live in to cope effectively with hazards, that increase their resilience, or that otherwise reduce their susceptibility, are considered as capacities. 5. Capacity: The manner in which people and organizations use existing resources to achieve various beneficial ends during unusual, abnormal, and adverse conditions of a disaster event or process. The strengthening of coping capacities usually builds resilience to withstand the effects of natural and other hazards. 6. Resilience: The capacity of a system, community or society to resist or to change in order that it may obtain an acceptable level in functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself, and the ability to increase its capacity for learning and adaptation, including the capacity to recover from a disaster.(ADPC, 2004) 7. Mitigation: Structural and non-structural measures undertaken to limit the adverse impact of natural hazards, environmental degradation and technological hazards.27 | P a g e
  • 29. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority 8. Preparedness: Activities and measures taken in advance to ensure effective response to the impact of disasters, including the issuance of timely and effective early warnings and the temporary removal of people and property from a threatened location. 9. Prevention: Activities to provide outright avoidance of the adverse impact of hazards and related environmental, technological and biological disasters. 10. Relief: The provision of assistance or intervention during or immediately after a disaster to meet the life preservation and basic subsistence needs of affected communities. 11. Rehabilitation: Decisions and actions taken after a disaster with a view to restoring the pre-disaster living conditions of the affected community. 12. Reconstruction: Full restoration of all services and infrastructure, replacement of damaged physical structures, revitalization of economy and restoration of social and cultural life with necessary measures to prevent future disasters.28 | P a g e
  • 30. Bihar State Disaster Management AuthorityAppendix 2: List of Disaster as mentioned in HPC Report, 2001Water and Climate related Disasters 1. Floods and Drainage Management 2. Cyclones 3. Tornadoes and Hurricanes 4. Hailstorm 5. Cloud Burst 6. Heat Wave and Cold Wave 7. Snow Avalanches 8. Droughts 9. Sea Erosion 10. Thunder and LightningGeological Disasters 1. Landslides and Mudflows 2. Earthquakes 3. Dam Failures/ Dam Bursts 4. Mine FiresChemical and Industrial Disasters 1. Chemical and Industrial Disasters 2. Nuclear DisastersAccident related Disasters 1. Forest Fires 2. Urban Fires 3. Mine Flooding 4. Oil Spill 5. Major Building Collapse29 | P a g e
  • 31. Bihar State Disaster Management Authority 6. Serial Bomb Blasts 7. Festival related disasters 8. Electrical Disasters and Fires 9. Air, Road and Rail Accidents 10. Boat Capsizing 11. Village FireBiological Disasters 1. Biological Disasters and Epidemics 2. Pest Attacks 3. Cattle Epidemics 4. Food Poisoning The list is not a very comprehensive one and needs to be revised.30 | P a g e
  • 32. Bihar State Disaster Management AuthorityAppendix 3: Map of Mumbai Figure 9: Map of Mumbai (Source www.mapofmumbai.com)31 | P a g e
  • 33. Bihar State Disaster Management AuthorityBibliography: 1. ALNAP. (2009). ALNAP Responding to urban disasters. 2. Bombay, I. I. T. (2005). Mumbai Flood: Act of God or Inaction of Human. 3. Chakrabarti, P. G. D., Davis, I., Bendimerad, F., Shaw, R., Fernandez, G., Setchell, C. A., Luther, C. N., et al. (2010). Urban Risk Management in South Asia. 4. Disaster, A. (2004). Environmental Degradation and Disaster Risk Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre, (February). 5. For, A. H., & Government, L. (2010). How to Make Cities More Resilient A Handbook For Local Government Leaders. 6. Kuroiwa, J. (n.d.). Integrated Natural Risk Reduction through a Sustainable Cities Programme, 61–67. 7. IIPA. (2001). The High Powered Committee Report, 71. 8. Patankar, A., Patwardhan, A., Andharia, J., & Lakhani, V. (2010). Mumbai City Report, (August). 9. Nehru, J., Urban, N., Mission, R., Alliance, T. N., Reduction, D. R., Reduction, D. R., Drr, D., et al. (2007). JNNURM - Recommendations for DRR Linkage Integrating Disaster Management with programmes and policies of Urban Sector.32 | P a g e

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