Ichnology of bhuban and boka bil formations, oligocene miocene by p kundal


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ichnology of bhuban and boka bil formations, oligocene miocene by p kundal

  1. 1. JOURNAL GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF INDIA Vol.76, December 2010, pp.573-586 Ichnology of Bhuban and Boka Bil Formations, Oligocene-Miocene Deposits of Manipur Western Hill, Northeast India M. CHANDRA SINGH1, P. KUNDAL2 and R.A.S. KUSHWAHA3 1 Department of Geology, Imphal College, Imphal – 795 001 2 PG Department of Geology, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur - 440 001 3 Department of Earth Sciences, Manipur University, Imphal – 795 003 Email: m_2008chand@rediffmail.com; ppk_kundal@rediffmail.com; rs_kushwaha@rediffmail.com Abstract: Oligocene-Miocene deposits of Bhuban and Boka Bil Formations, Surma Group, Manipur Western Hill consist of well preserved ichnofossil assemblages. These formations are represented by eight lithofacies such as Massive sandstone (Sm), Rippled marked argillaceous sandstone (Sr), Wavy laminated sandstone-siltstone-silty shale (Sw), Laminated shale (Fl), Massive mudstone (Fm), Trough cross-bedded sandstone (St), Lenticular laminated sandstone- siltstone-silty shale (Sll) and Laminated to massive sandstone-siltstone (Ssc). Fifteen ichnospecies were identified, which further categories into Skolithos, Cruziana, and Skolithos/Cruziana ichnofacies. Overall distribution pattern and behavioural nature of the ichnoassemblage and sedimentological attributes suggests that the sediments of Bhuban and Boka Bil Formations were deposited under frequent fluctuating sea level, moderate to strong energy condition, subtidal to lower intertidal environment, rich in organic nutrients. Keywords: Ichnofossil, Depositional Environment, Oligocene-Miocene, Surma Group, Manipur. INTRODUCTION Kulkarni et al. (2008) and Patel et al. (2008) have done Tertiary sediments of the study area, belongs to Bhuban significant contributions in various aspects of the and Boka Bil Formations of Surma Group, characterized ichnological studies. by several lithofacies, consisting large number of In the context of Manipur only little research work has ichnofossils. However, no research work has been done on been taken up in this field. Tripathi and Satsangi (1982) the ichnological studies of this region. In absence of body have reported trace fossils from upper part of the Disang fossils, ichnofossils provides an important tool for Group of Manipur; Chandra and Kushwaha (2008) studied palaeoenvironmental and stratigraphic interpretation the Eocene- Miocene ichnofossils of Laisong Formation, (Mcllroy 2004, Miller 2007). Barail Group exposed between Bijang and Tupul, western Although the ichnological studies in India started very part of Manipur; Hemanta et al. (2008) have reported rich late, there is considerable progress in the field of ichnological assemblage of ichnofossils from Upper Eocene-Lower researches. Many workers like Rajnath (1942), Chiplonkar Oligocene deposits exposed along Thongjaorok stream and Badve (1970), Kumar et al. (1975,1982), Tondon and section, Manipur. Recently ichnofossils were recovered from Bhatia (1978), Badve and Ghare (1978,1980), Chiplonkar the Bhuban and Boka Bil Formations, Nungba -Kaiphundai and Ghare (1975,1979), Biswas (1981), Shringarpure (1984, section, Western Hill Manipur, which is selected for the 1986), Badve (1987), Howard and Singh (1985), Ghare and present ichnological studies. Kulkarni (1986), Kulkarni and Ghare (1989, 1991), Patel Main objectives of the study are to reconstruct the and Shringarpure (1990,1992), Srivastava and Kumar palaeoenvironment and palaeoecology of the Bhuban and (1992), Borkar and Kulkarni (1992, 2006), Guha et al. Boka Bil formations on the basis of sedimentary attributes (1994), Sanganwar and Kundal.(1997), Kundal. and of facies and associated ichnofossils. Sanganwar (1998, 2000), Draganits et al. (1998, 2001), Sudan et al. (2000, 2002), Chakraborty and Bhattacharya LOCATION (2005), Kundal et al. (2005), Kundal and Dharashivkar (2006), Kundal and Mude (2008),Desai et al (2008), The study area between Nungba and Kaiphundai 0016-7622/2010-76-6-573/$ 1.00 © GEOL. SOC. INDIA
  2. 2. 574 M. CHANDRA SINGH AND OTHERS Fig.1. Location and geological map of the study area. covering a linear stretch of about 85 km along NH-53 is from the Lower Member of the Bhuban Formation. The part of Tamenglong district, Manipur. It is bounded within Middle and Upper Member of Bhuban Formation and Boka the latitude from 24°44'40" N to 24°47'42" N and longitude Bil Formation represent well preserved ichnofaunal from 93°25'42" E to 93°13'50" E (Fig.1). assemblages. Boka Bil Formation gradually grades upward to the Tipam sandstone near Kaiphundai village. GEOLOGICAL SETTING LITHOFACIES Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary sequences of Manipur are represented by the Surma Group of rocks. It has been A facies is a body of rock with specific characteristics divided into two formations the lower one as Bhuban and and defined on the basis of colour, composition, texture, upper as Boka Bil. The Bhuban Formation is unconformably fossils and sedimentary structures (Teichert, 1958; Readings, overlain by the Renji Formation with a thin bed of 1996). In other words, facies is defined as a distinctive body conglomerate near Rengpang village. A simplified of rock that forms under certain set of environmental lithostratigraphic succession of the study area along with conditions reflecting the sedimentary processes (Middleton their brief description is given in Table 1. Lower Member and Hampton, 1973; Cant and Walker, 1976). The purpose of Bhuban Formation is well exposed in and around Nungba of the facies analysis is to prepare a simplified facies village and consists of khaki coloured shale and cross- model, that can be used as a tool along with the ichnofossils bedded, light grey sandstones. The shale facies contains for the interpretation and discrimination of the depositional bivalve fossils. Till date there is no record of trace fossil environment. JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010
  3. 3. ICHNOLOGY OF BHUBAN AND BOKA BIL FORMATIONS, MANIPUR WESTERN HILL, NE INDIA 575 Table 1. Simplified lithostratigraphic succession of the study area Group Formation Lithology Age Tipam Tipam Massive sandstone, shale and mottled clay Late Miocene Sandstone ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~Gradational contact ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Surma Boka Bil Mainly argillaceous sediments with massive-bedded sandstones, siltstone, mudstone and shale Upper: Massive sandstone, clayey sandstone, bedded siltstone and shale Miocene to Bhuban Middle: Cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstones and Clayey shale Late Oligocene Lower: Light grey cross-bedded sandstone and fossiliferous Khaki colour shale and conglomeratic bed at the basal part with some coaly bed ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~Unconformity ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Barial Renji Alternations of shale and argillaceous sandstones Oligocene A generalised lithostratigraphic column showing Boka Bil Formations exposed near Barak suspension Bridge distribution of lithofacies and ichnofossils of the study area (Barak waterfall) and Kaiphundai village respectively. It is is given in Fig.2. characterized by wavy laminated to thinly bedded fine- Eight lithofacies identified from the Bhuban and Boka grained light grey to buff colour sandstone, siltstone and Bil Formations based on the scheme suggested by Miall silty shale, consisting of Ancorichnus ancorichnus and (1978, 1990), Rust (1978), Reading (1996), Allen (1970), Arthrophucus isp., ichnofossils, indicating shallow marine, Reineck and Singh (1980), Walker (1984) and Stow (1986) subtidal depositional environment. are discussed below. Laminated Shale Lithofacies (Fl) Massive Sandstone Lithofacies (Sm) It is associated with the lower unit of Boka Bil Formation, This facies is represented by light grey coloured fine- exposed near Oinamlong village and characterized by the grained massive sandstone. At places sandstone is reddish presence of alternate sub facies of thinly laminated yellowish brown ferruginous and massive containing ichnofossils of grey and light grey shales. Presence of Gyrochorte comosa, Thalassinoides isp. It occurs in the middle and lower unit Helminthoida isp, Lockeia siliquaria and Phycodes isp of Bhuban and Boka Bil Formations and exposed near indicates fluctuation in the sea level during deposition of Sebirong and Oinamlong villages respectively. such lithofacies. Ripple Marked Argillaceous Sandstone Lithofacies (Sr) Massive Mudstone Lithofacies (Fm) It is characterized by about 8 m thick yellowish white Massive mudstone facies is defined on the basis of the coloured argillaceous sandstone with ripple marks and has presence of massive light grey coloured mudstone. It is well sharp contact with overlying massive sandstone facies and exposed in the lower unit of Boka Bil Formation near gradational contact with underlying wavy laminated Oinamlong village and consists of Rutichnus and sandstone-siltstone-silty shale facies. It occurs in the lower Palaeophycus ichnofossils suggesting fluctuation in the sea unit of the Boka Bil Formation exposed near Oinamlong level and low to moderate energy conditions during the village, containing Psilonichnus upsilon ichnofossil, deposition of the sediments of the facies. It has sharp contacts suggesting backshore marginal shallow marine depositional with both overlying and underlying facies. environment (Frey et al. 1984). Presence of flat-crested symmetrical ripples further supports the shallow condition Trough Cross-Bedded Sandstone Lithofacies (St) of the deposition, probably under tidal flat depositional It is associated with the middle unit of the Bhuban environment. Formation exposed near Kambirong and Sebirong villages and has gradational contact with the underlying lenticular Wavy Laminated Sandstone-Siltstone-Silty shale laminated sandstone-siltstone-siltyshale facies. Presence of Lithofacies (Sw) trough cross stratifications in the brownish to light grey, This lithofacies is very common in Upper Bhuban and moderate to fine grain sandstone and Planolites, JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010
  4. 4. 576 M. CHANDRA SINGH AND OTHERS Fig.2. Generalised lithostratigraphic column of the study area showing distributions of ichnofossils and lithofacies. JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010
  5. 5. ICHNOLOGY OF BHUBAN AND BOKA BIL FORMATIONS, MANIPUR WESTERN HILL, NE INDIA 577 Ophiomorpha and Diplocraterion ichnofossils indicating structure surrounded by distinct lining and its outer layer is shallow marine subtidal depositional environment with separated from the host rock by sharp discontinuities. moderate to high energy conditions. Remarks: The main morphological features of the recorded burrows as described above agree well with Lenticular Laminated Sandstone-Siltstone-Silty shale Ancorichnus ancorichnus Heinberg (1974); Bromley Lithofacies (Sll) (1990), in respect of the presence of outer lining and This lithofacies occurs in upper unit of the Bhuban and inner meniscus layers. Hence, it has been placed under lower unit of the Boka Bil Formations exposed near Ancorichnus ancorichnus. Kaiphundai village and Barak waterfall. It is characterized Occurrence: Wavy laminated sandstone-siltstone-silty by the presence of lenticular structure and Planolites, shale facies of the Upper Member of Boka Bil Formation, Palaeophycus , Fucusopsis, Gyrochorte Ophiomorpha exposed near the Kaiphundai village. ichnofossils, suggesting fluctuation in the sea level and energy condition during the deposition of the type facies. Ichnogenus: Arthrophycus Hall, 1852 Ichnospecies: Arthrophycus isp. Laminated to Massive Sandstone-Siltstone Lithofacies (Ssc) Figs.3e, f It consist of laminated to massive, reddish brown to greyish white, fine grained sandstone and siltstone associated Material: Sp. No. DGIC /IF/ S-110 with the upper unit of Boka Bil Formation exposed near Description: Burrows are flattened, simple to slightly Kaiphundai village and characterized by the presence of curved, branched and un-branched, annulated, downward Palaeophycus alternatus ichnofossils, suggesting shallow tapering, oval to lensoid in cross section, commonly bi-lobed to moderately deep marine environment. It has gradational with median longitudinal depression, disposed slightly contact with the overlying facies. oblique to bedding plane. Diameter of burrow ranging from 0.5 -1.8 mm and observed length is about 3.2 cm. Remarks: After going through main morphological SYSTEMATIC ICHNOLOGY features such as annulations, presence of median longitudinal Identification and classification of the present depression, oval to lensoid in cross section, present burrow ichnofossils, followed the Treatise on Invertebrate is identical to Arthrophycus Hall (Haentzschel, 1975). Paleontology (Haentzschel, 1962, 1975), classification However, it is distinguishable from other ichnospecies on scheme suggested by Simpson (1975) and Seilacher (1964, account of smaller diameter and less crowded nature. Hence 1967). Altogether fifteen ichnospecies such as Ancorichnus it is described as Arthrophycus isp., Ksiazkiewicz (1970) ancorichnus, Arthrophycus isp, Diplocraterion isp, reported the ichnospecies from Polish Carpathian; Ghare Fucusopsis angulatus, Gyrochorte comosa, Helminthoida and Kulkarni, (1986) from Jurassic of Kutch, Wagad region. isp, Lockeia siliquaria, Ophiomorpha nodosa, Occurrence: Wavy laminated sandstone-siltstone-silty Palaeophycus alternatus, P. tubularis, Planolites shale facies of the Upper Member of Bhuban Formation, beverleyensis, Phycodes isp, Psilonichnus upsilon, exposed near Barak waterfall. Rutichnus irregularis and Thalassinoides isp. have been identified from fourteen ichnogenera . Their systematic Ichnogenus: Diplocraterion Torell, 1870 descriptions are given below. Ichnospecies: Diplocraterion isp. Fig.3g Ichnogenus: Ancorichnus Heinberg, 1974 Ichnospecies: Ancorichnus ancorichnus Heinberg, 1974 Material: Sp. No. DGIC /IF/ S-115 Figs.3a- d Description: The specimen is vertically elongated U shaped burrow with distinct physical luminae. Limbs of U Material: Sp. Nos. DGIC/IF/ S-105, 106, 107 & 108 tube runs more or less parallel to each other and its opening Description: Straight to gently curved, unbranched appeared funnel shape. At places part of U is not distinct burrows of circular to semicircular in cross section. Diameter probably due to periodic erosion. Diameter, distance ranges from 2 to 3 mm and observed length from 1.5 to between limbs and maximum observed depth of the burrow 4.2 cm, disposed parallel to sub parallel to the bedding plane, are 8 mm, 22 mm and 52 mm respectively. Bottom of burrow commonly interpenetrated and cross over each other. is almost semi-circular. Its surface is ornamented with Burrows consist of central cylindrical meniscus, backfill protrusive spreite and well preserved as full relief. JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010
  6. 6. 578 M. CHANDRA SINGH AND OTHERS k 6 mm Fig.3. (a) Ancorichnus ancorichnus, specimen no. DGIC/IF/S-105. (b) Ancorichnus ancorichnus, specimen no. DGIC/IF/S-106. (c) Ancorichnus ancorichnus, specimen no. DGIC/IF/S-107. (d) Ancorichnus ancorichnus, specimen no. DGIC/IF/S -108. (e) Arthrophycus isp. specimen no. DGIC/IF/S-110. (f) Closer View of Arthrophycus isp., specimen no. DGIC/IF/S -110. (g) Diplocraterion isp., specimen no. DGIC/IF/S -115. (h) Fucusopsis angulatus specimen no. DGIC/IF/S /IF/S-117 (i) Fucusopsis angulatus specimen no. DGIC/IF/S -118 (j). Gyrochorte comosa specimen no. DGIC/IF/S-120 (k) Gyrochorte comosa Specimen no. DGIC/IF/S-122. Longitudinal section through the vertical burrow shows Occurrence: Trough cross bedded sandstone facies of several thin concentric laminae. the middle member of Bhuban Formation exposed near Remarks: The main morphological feature of the present Kambirong village. specimen at large is quite similar to the ichnogeneric characters of Diplocraterion Torell, (Haentzschel, 1975). Ichnogenus: Fucusopsis Palibin in Vassoevich, 1932 Therefore, certainly it belongs to ichnogenera Ichnospecies: Fucusopsis angulatus Haentzschel, 1975 Diplocraterion. However, it has been assigned to Figs.3h, i Diplocraterion isp, since no single burrow exhibit well preserved habit and ornamentation (Pemberton and Frey, Material: Sp. No DGIC /IF/S-117,118 1982). Description: Burrows small, long, straight, slightly JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010
  7. 7. ICHNOLOGY OF BHUBAN AND BOKA BIL FORMATIONS, MANIPUR WESTERN HILL, NE INDIA 579 flattened with parallel longitudinal striations, occasionally Remarks: Generic features of the present traces are crossed each other and penetrating to the host rock. Diameter similar with that of Helminthoida (Schafhäutl, 1851). of the burrows range from 2-4 mm and observed length However they are distinguishable from the other known from 5-6 cm, disposed parallel to the bedding plane and ichnospecies like H. labyrinthica Heer (1865); H. crassa preserved as positive hyporelief. Schafhäutl (1851) recorded by Haentzschel (1975), in view Remarks: In view of size and position, the present of their proper parallel and regular trail alignment and less burrows are tally with the characters of Fucusopsis angulatus crowded nature, appeared to be a new in the Science of Palibin (Haentzschel, 1975) and therefore it has been Ichnology. Even though, it needs to study more on the placed under this ichnospecies. This genus is described by reported allied ichnospecies. Therefore it is tentatively Ghare and Kulkarni (1986) from Jurassic of Kutch. described as Helminthoida isp. Occurrence: Lenticular laminated sandstone-siltstone- Occurrence: Laminated shale facies of the Lower silty shale facies of the upper unit of the Bhuban Formation, unit of Boka Bil Formation, exposed near Oinamlong exposed near Barak waterfall. village. Ichnospecies: Gyrochorte comosa Heer, 1865 Ichnospecies: Lockeia siliquaria James, 1879 Figs.3j, k and 4a Fig.4d Material: Sp. No DGIC /IF/S-120, 122,123 Material: Sp. No. DGIC /IF/S-127 Description: Unbranched, winding, plaited, bilobed Description: Small almond shaped oblong bodies, trails separated by a median furrow with obliquely aligned tapering at both ends, making conical obtuse sharp points, pads of sediments, commonly crossing over one another or smooth surface, showing parallel to sub parallel alignment. with the other traces and preserved as ridges in positive Maximum observed length range from 2.8 to 3 cm and width epirelief and as smooth biserial grooves in hyporelief. Width from 2.5 to 3.0 mm, preserved in convex epirelief. of Trails range from 2 to 4 mm and number of pads of Remarks: The morphological characters of the present sediment per cm is 5-6. burrows are tallying very well with Lockeia siliquaria Remark: The diagnostic features of the present traces James (1879) reported by Patel et al. (2008) from Jurassic of like width size, number of pads per cm, presence of bi-lobed Kachchh, Gujarat. Eager et al. (1985) have interpreted trails separated by a median furrow with obliquely aligned Lockeia as resting burrow of nestling and semi-infaunal pads of sediments, agrees well with the generic characters bivalves. of Gyrochorte comosa Heer (Haentzschel, 1975). Ghare and Occurrence: Laminated shale facies of the Lower unit Kulkarni (1986) and Patel et al. (2008) reported this of Boka Bil Formation, exposed near Oinamlong village. ichnospecies from Jurassic of Kachchh, Gujarat. Kundal and Sanganwar (1998) documented the same species from Bagh Ichnospecies: Ophiomorpha nodosa Lundgren, 1891 Group of Jhabua (M. P). Fig.4e Occurrence: Laminated shale and Lenticular laminated sandstone-siltstone-silty shale facies of upper part of the Material: Sp. No. DGIC /IF/S-131 Boka Bil Formation, exposed near Kaiphundai village and Description: The burrow is vertical shaft, unbranched upper part of the Bhuban Formation, exposed near Barak tunnels, consisting of regular distributed discoid pellets, and waterfall. preserved as full relief. Diameter of burrows varies from 6- 8 mm and pellets diameter ranging from 2 to 3 mm and Ichnogenus: Helminthoida Schafhautl, 1851 observed length is about 2 cm. The tunnels are filled with Ichnospecies: Helminthoida isp. same sediments of the host rock. Figs.4b, c Remarks: The main morphological features of the recorded burrow is very identical with the Ophiomorpha Material: Sp. No. DGIC /IF/S-125,126 nodosa Lundgren (1891) reported by Patel et al. (2008) from Description: The Specimens are flattened, meandering Jurassic of Kachchh, Gujarat; Kundal and Dharashivkar tunnels trails having closed spaced, parallel and very regular (2006) from the Gaj Formation. alignment, disposed parallel to the bedding plane and pre- Occurrence: Lenticular laminated sandstone-siltstone - served as epi-relief. Width of the tunnel is range from 1-2 silty shale facies of the Upper part of Bhuban Formation, mm and maximum observed length varies from 2.5-3.4 cm. exposed near Shiva temple, Barak waterfall. JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010
  8. 8. 580 M. CHANDRA SINGH AND OTHERS 6 mm Fig.4. (a) Gyrochorte comosa, specimen no. DGIC /IF/S-123. (b) Helminthoida isp. specimen no. DGIC /IF/S-125. (c) Helminthoida isp, Specimen No. DGIC/IF/S-126. (d) Lockeia siliquaria, specimen no. DGIC /IF/S-127. (e) Ophiomorpha nodosa, specimen no. DGIC/IF/S-131. (f) Palaeophycus alternatus, specimen no. DGIC/IF/S-133. (g) Palaeophycus alternatus, specimen no. DGIC/IF/S-134. (h) Palaeophycus tubularis, specimen no. DGIC /IF/S-137. (i) Palaeophycus tubularis, specimen no. DGIC/IF/ S-138. (j) Planolites beverleyensis, specimen no. DGIC/IF/S-141. Ichnogenus: Palaeophycus Hall, 1847 lined, straight to slightly curve, little collapse, striates and Ichnospecies: Palaeophycus alternatus Pemberton and annulated with alternately varying in diameter ranging from Frey, 1982 2- 4 mm, decreases in the annulated area and maximum Figs.4f, g observed length is about 5 cm and preserved as hyporelief .The surface of the burrow is ornamented with thin wavy Material: Sp. Nos. DGIC /IF/S-133,134 ridges and grooves. Description: The specimens are sub-cylindrical, thinly Remarks: The diagnostic features of the present JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010
  9. 9. ICHNOLOGY OF BHUBAN AND BOKA BIL FORMATIONS, MANIPUR WESTERN HILL, NE INDIA 581 specimens are very much identical to Palaeophycus Occurrence: Lenticular laminated-sandstone-siltstone- alternatus, Pemberton and Frey (Pemberton and Frey, silty shale facies of the Lower unit of Boka Bil Formation 1982). exposed near Kaimai village. Occurrence: Buff colour bedded sandstone facies of Ichnogenus Phycodes Richter ,1850 upper Boka Bil Formation, exposed near Kaiphundai Ichnospecies: Phycodes isp. village. Figs.5a, b Ichnospecies: Palaeophycus tubularis Hall, 1847 Material: Sp. Nos. DGIC /IF/S-143,144 Figs.4h, i Description: Burrows broom like, consisting of horizontal tunnels of diameter varies from 1-3 mm and Material: Sp. Nos. DGIC /IF/S-137, 138 preserved as full relief. The proximal part of the main tunnels Description: This ichnospecies is simple elongated, unbranched while distal tunnels divide into several straight to slightly curved, thinly lined, nearly cylindrical, cylindrical/ sub-cylindrical tunnels. semicircular in cross section, irregular in diameter ranging Remarks: The present burrows displayed all important from 3-6 mm and maximum observed length is about 5.4 characteristics of Phycodes circinnatum Seilacher (1955). cm. They exhibit collapse feature with smooth walled and However their size is smaller than that of the reported disposed parallel to the bedding plane. The colour of the ichnospecies. Therefore they are placed under Phycodes isp, burrows and host rocks are same and preserved as positive till better preserved material becomes available. epi-relief. Occurrence: Light grey laminated shale facies of upper Remarks: In view of the above morphological characters part of the Lower unit of Boka Bil Formation, exposed near the present burrows are identical to Palaeophycus tubularis Oinamlong village. Hall (Pemberton and Frey, 1982). Badve (1987) and Kundal and Sanganwar (1998) reported it from the Bagh Group of Ichnogenus: Psilonichnus Fürsich, 1981 M.P. Kundal and Dharashivkar (2006) from Miocene Ichnospecies: Psilonichnus upsilon Frey et al. 1984 sediments of Dwarka Formation, Dwarka-Okha area, Gujarat Fig.5d and Patel et al. (2008) from Middle Jurassic horizon of Kachchh, Gujarat. Material: Holotype. No. DGIC /IF/S-155 Occurrence: Laminated sandstone-siltstone-silty shale Description: The burrow exhibit steeply inclined Y facies of the Upper part of the Boka Bil Formation exposed shaped structures in the upper part, grading downward with near Kaiphundai village. slightly curved shafts. One of the branched is more curved and smaller in diameter than the other. Diameter of the Ichnogenus: Planolites Nicholson, 1873 burrow varies from 1.5-2 cm, angle of bifurcation is greater Ichnospecies: Planolites beverleyensis Billings, 1862 than 65° and maximum observed depth is about 65 cm. Fig.4j Remarks: Comparing with the records of Frey et al. (1984), Kundal and Dharashivkar (2006), the present burrow Material: Sp. No DGIC /IF/S-141, is similar with Psilonichnus upsilon in all respect, and hence Description: The burrow specimen is straight, sub- it has been placed under this ichnospecies. cylindrical and unbranched, elliptical in cross section, large Occurrence: Buff colour ripple marked argillaceous in diameter ranging from 45-50 mm and maximum observed sandstone facies of the Lower unit of Boka Bil Formation, length is about 42 cm; disposed parallel to the bedding plane exposed near Oinamlong village. with different colour from the host rock, and preserved as positive epirelief. Ichnospecies: Rutichnus irregularis D‘Alessandro, 1982 Remarks: Since, the present burrow exhibits typical Fig.5c morphological characters of Planolites beverleyensis (Pemberton and Frey 1982), and therefore it has been placed Material: Sp. No DGIC/IF/S-148 under it. Borkar and Kulkarni (1992) reported similar Description: Burrows dome shaped; composed of many ichnospecies from the Wadhwan Formation of Gujarat; irregular branches arising from main branch. Burrows cross Kundal and Sanganwar (1998, 2000) from Bagh Group, M. each other. In most cases the tunnels terminated with rounded P. and Kundal and Dharashivkar (2006) from Neogene conical shape; maximum thickness of the tunnels is about 8 Quaternary sediments of Dwarka Formation, Gujarat. mm and angle of branching is less than 30°. JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010
  10. 10. 582 M. CHANDRA SINGH AND OTHERS 6 mm Fig. 5. (a) Phycodes isp., specimen no. DGIC /IF/S-143. (b) Phycodes isp., specimen no. DGIC /IF/S-144. (c) Rutichnus irregularis specimen no. DGIC /IF/S-148. (d) Psilonichnus upsilon, holotype no. DGIC /IF/S-155. (e).Thalassinoides isp., holotype no.DGIC /IF/S-157. (f) Closer view of the Thalassinoides isp,. specimen no. DGIC/IF/S-158. Remarks: Present burrows exhibit similar morphological horizontal branching tunnels of widening 2 to 4 cm and characters of Rutichnus irregularis D’Alessandro 1982, observed length about 12 cm; surface ornamented with reported by Patel et al. (2008) from Middle Jurassic horizon scratch mark, different in colour from the host rock, swelling of Kachchh and therefore they are placed under Rutichnus at the bifurcation points, preserved as full relief and disposed irregularis. parallel to slightly oblique to the bedding plane. Occurrence: Mudstone facies of the Upper Member of Remarks: On the basis of the presence of cylindrical Y- Bhuban Formation, exposed near Shiva temple, Barak shaped, horizontal branching tunnels and swelling at the waterfall. bifurcation points present burrow is quite identical with Thalassinoides paradoxicus Woodward, (Kundal and Ichnogenus: Thalassinoides Ehrenberg, 1944 Dharashivkar 2006). However, the present ichnospecies is Ichnospecies: Thalassinoides isp. partially preserved and therefore it is described as Figs.5e, f Thalassinoides isp till better material available. Material: Holotype. No DGIC/IF/S-157 and Specimen Occurrence: Ferruginous massive sandstone facies of No DGIC/IF/S-158 the Upper unit of Bhuban Formation exposed near Barak Description: Cylindrical to sub cylindrical, Y-shaped, suspension Bridge. JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010
  11. 11. ICHNOLOGY OF BHUBAN AND BOKA BIL FORMATIONS, MANIPUR WESTERN HILL, NE INDIA 583 Table 2. Ethological and ichnofacies classification of ichnofossils of ichnofacies indicating sudden changed in the colonization the study area pattern of benthic community. These ichnotexa showing Sl. Name of Ichnospecies Ethological Ichnofacies higher degree of bioturbation suggests shallow to deep No Group marine environment (subtidal to shelf). Their ichnological 1 Ancorichnus ancorichnus Fodinichnia Cruziana features and colonization pattern are approaching to tectonic 2. Arthrophycus isp. Fodinichnia Cruziana subsidence criteria, as suggested by Desai and Patel (2008) 3. Diplocraterion isp. Domichnia Skolithos on the basis of increasing bioturbation and diverse 4 Fucusopsis angulatus Fodinichnia Cruziana community colonization. 5 Gyrochorte comosa Fodinichnia Cruziana Middle member of Boka Bil Formation represented by 6. Helminthoida. isp. Fodinichnia Cruziana / Zoophycos brownish ripple marked argillaceous sandstone facies 7 Lockeia siliquaria Cubichnia Cruziana consisting Psilonichnus upsilon suggests backshore marginal 8 Ophiomorpha nodosa Domichnia Skolithos/ marine environment (Frey et al. 1984). It is also in support Cruziana of changed in the colonization pattern of benthic community. 9 Palaeophycus alternatus Fodinichnia Cruziana The Upper Boka Bil Formation consists of bioturbated 10 Palaeophycus tubularis Fodinichnia Cruziana pinkish to reddish ferruginous wavy laminated sandstone- 11 Planolites beverleyensis Fodinichnia Cruziana siltstone-silty shale facies consisting low diversity, high 12. Phycodes isp. Fodinichnia Cruziana 13 Psilonichnus upsilon Domichnia Skolithos density, shallow tier surface deposit feeder ichnofossils 14. Rutichnus irregularis Fodinichnia Cruziana assemblage, dominated by Ancorichnus ancorichnus, 15. Thalassinoides isp. Domichnia Skolithos/ Palaeophycus alternatus, Palaeophycus tubularis and Cruziana Gyrochorte comosa, suggested well oxygenated, low rate of sedimentation, fluctuating energy condition and shallow DISCUSSION marine environment with availability of the abundant food The recorded ichnospecies of the study area are mixture resources. of domicnia and fodinichnia. They belong to Skolithos, Cruziana, Skolithos/ Cruziana and Cruziana/ Zoophycos CONCLUSIONS ichnofacies as shown in Table 2. Till date, there is no record of ichnofossils from lower member of the Bhuban Ichnofossil assemblages recorded from different Formation. Middle Member of Bhuban Formation consist stratigraphic horizons of the Bhuban and Boka Bil of Diplocraterion isp. of Skolithos facies indicating littoral Formations exposed in between Nungba and Kaiphundai to very shallow sublittoral environment with high-energy appear to be unique for each formation which can be used conditions. for correlation of the particular sequence. Overall Upper Member of the Bhuban Formation is characterized distribution pattern of the ichnofossils assemblages of by bioturbated light grey cross-bedded sandstone and buff various benthic palaeocommunity and sedimentary colour medium to coarse-grained clayey sandstone facies attributes are concerned, Bhuban and Boka Bil Formations interbeded with non bioturbated greyish siltstone facies. were deposited during fluctuating sea level, low to The cross-bedded sandstone facies consist of dominantly moderate, moderate to high energy, tectonically unstable deep tier dwelling/feeding burrows of Thalassinoides and conditions, with abundant food sources, in shallow marine Ophiomorpha , indicating high energy storm dominated environment. shallow marine environment (Bromley, 1990). Presence of Repository: The Specimens described, illustrated and discussed surface deposit feeder of Ancorichnus ancorichnus and herein are lodged in the Departmental Museum of Geology, Imphal Gyrochorte comosa of Cruziana ichnofacies in such member College Imphal, with Specimen numbers, DGIC/IF/ S-105 to is an indication of fluctuating sea level conditions and DGIC/IF/ S-158. moderate to low energy, shallow marine environment (Gilbert and Benner, 2002). Acknowledgement: One of the author M. Chandra Singh, gratefully acknowledges the UGC, New Delhi for providing Lower Member of the lower part of Boka Bil Formation financial assistance in the form of Research Project vide office is characterized by argillaceous sandstone facies consisting order No. F. No. 34-43/2008 (SR). Help rendered by Shri P. Surjit diverse group of benthic communities such as grazing Singh and P. Shanti Devi during field work is thankfully and feeding assemblage burrows of Phycodes isp and acknowledged. We are sincerely indebted to an anonymous referee subsurface deposit feeder of Lockeia, Helminthoida, whose comments and suggestions on interpretation of manuscript Palaeophycus and Planolites ichnoassemblage of Cruziana have considerably benefited us. JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010
  12. 12. 584 M. CHANDRA SINGH AND OTHERS References ALLEN, J.R.L. (1970) Physical Processes in Sedimentation. George of Ichnoguilds and their Significance in Interpreting Allen & Unwin, London, 248p. Ichnological Events: A Study from Jhuran Formation (Upper BADVE, R.M. (1987) Reassessment of stratigraphy of Bagh Beds Jurassic) Western Kachchh. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.72 pp.458- ,Barwah area ,Madhya Pradesh, with description of trace 466. fossils. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.30, pp.106-120. DRAGANITS, E., GRASEMANN, B. and BRADDY, S.J. (1998) Discovery BADVE, R.M. and GHARE, M.A. (1978) Jurassic Ichnofauna of of abundant arthropod trackways in the Lower Devonian Muth Kutch. Pt.I., Biovigyanam, v.4, pp.125-140. Quartzite (Spiti, India): implications for the depositional BADVE, R.M. and GHARE, M.A. (1980) Ichnofauna of Bagh Beds, environment. Jour. Asian Earth Sci., v.16, pp.109-118. from Deva river valley, South of Narmada, Biovigyanam, v.6, D RAGANITS, E, B RADDY , S.J. and BRIGGS , D.E.G. (2001) A. pp.121-130. Gondwanan coastal arthropod ichnofaunal from the Muth BILLINGS, E. (1862) New species of fossils from different parts of formation (Lower Devonian, northern India); the Lower, Middle and Upper Silurian rocks of Canada. In: palaeoenvironment and tracemaker behaviour. Palaios, v.16, Paleozoic fossils, Geol. Soc. Canada Adv. Sheet v.1, pp.96- pp.126-147. 168. EAGER, R.M.C., BAINES, J.G., COLLINSON, J.D., HARDY, P.G., OKOLO, BISWAS, S.K. (1981) Basin framework, Paleoenvironment and S.A. and POLLARD, J. E.(1985) Deltaic sediments of the Central depositional history of the Mesozoic sediments of Kutch basin, Pennine Basin, England. In: H.A.Curran (Ed.), Biogenic Western India. Quart. Jour. Geol. Min. Metall. Soc. India, v.53, structures, Their use in interpreting depositional environments. pp.56-85. SEPM, USA, pp.99-150. BORKAR, V.D. and KULKARNI, K.G. (1992) On the occurrence of EHRENBERG, K. (1944) Ergünzende Bemeroungen zu den scincrzcit Planolites Nichloson from the Bhaduka Limestone of the ans dem Miozün ton Burgschleinitz beschrichenen Gangiernen Wadhwan Formation (Cretaceous). Kathiawar, Gujarat. Jour. und Bauten deoapoder krcbsc Paleont. Zeitschr., v.23. pp. Geol. Soc. India, v.40, pp.468-473. 354-359. BORKAR,V.D. and KULKARNI, K.G. (2006) Parallel succession of FREY, R.W., CURRAN H.A. and PEMBERTON S.G. (1984) Trace making ichnologic and diagenetic events from Baishakhi Formation, activities of crabs and their environmental significance: the Rajasthan. Curr. Sci., v.91, pp.429-431. ichnogenus Psilonichnus. Jour. Palaeontology, v.56, No.2, BROMLEY, R.G. (1990) Trace Fossils-Biology and Taphonomy. pp.333-350. Unwin Hyman, London, pp.1-280. FÜRSICH, F.T. (1981) Invertebrate trace fossils from the Upper CANT, D.J. and WALKER, R.G. (1976) Development of Braided- Jurassic of Portugal. Comumicacoes Servicos Geologicos de fluvial facies model for the Devorian Bettery Point Sandstone, Portugal, v.67,pp.153-168. Quebec. Can. Jour. Earth Sci., v.13, pp.102-119. GHARE, M.A. and KULKARNI, K.G. (1986) Jurassic ichnofauna of CHANDRA, M.S. and Kushwaha, R.AS. (2008) Ichnofossils from Kutch-II Wagad region. Biovigyanam, v.12, pp.44-62 . the Eocene- Oligocene Deposits between Bijang and Tupul, GILBERT, J M. DE. and BENNER, J.S. (2002) The trace fossil Manipur, India. Jour. Indian Assoc. Sediment., v.27, pp.35- Gyrochorte; ethology and palaeoecology. Revista Española 44. de Paleontologia, v.17, pp.1-12. CHAKRABORTY and BHATTACHARYA, H.N. (2005) Ichnology of a late GUHA, P.K.S., MUKHOPADHYAY, S.K. and DAS, R.N. (1994) Trace Palaeozoic (Permo-Carboniferous) glaciao-marine deltaic fossils as indicator of palaeoenvironment of Talchir Formation environment, Talchir Formation, Saharjuri Basine, India. in Raniganj and Deogarh Group of Coalfields, India. 9th Ichnos., v.12, pp.31-45. Internat.Gondwana Symp., v.1, pp.493-504. CHIPLONKAR, G.W. and BADVE, R.M. (1970) Trace fossils from the Hall, J. (1847) Palaeontology of New York. C. Van Benthuysen Bagh beds. Jour .Paleont. Soc. India, v.11.pp.1-10. Albany, v.1, pp.1-338. CHIPLONKAR, G.W. and GHARE, M.A. (1975) Some additional trace HALL, J. (1852) Palaeontology of New York. C. Van. Benthuysen, fossils from the Bagh Beds. Bull. Indian Geol. Assoc., v.8, Albany, v.2, 362p. pp.71-84. HAENTZSCHEL, W. (1962) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. CHIPLONKAR, G. W. and GHARE, M. A. (1979) Trace fossils from In: R.C. Moore (Ed.), pt.W, Miscellania, pp. W177-W222, Upper Cretaceous rocks of Trichinopoly district, Tamil Nadu. Geol. Soc. Amer. and Univ. Kansas Press. Geol. Surv. India. Misc. Publ., No.45, pp.101-109. HAENTZSCHEL W. (1975) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. In: D’ALESSANDRO, A.(1982) Processi tafonomici e distribuzione delle C. Teichert (Ed.), pt.W, Miscellania, pp. W1-W122, Geol. Soc. trace fossili nel Flysch di Gorgoglione (appennino Amer. and Univ. Kansas Press. meridionale). Rev. Ital. Paleont. Stratigr., v. 87, pp.511-559. HEER, O. (1865) Die Urwelt der Schewiz. F. Schulthess (Zürich), DESAI, B.G. and P ATEL, S.J. (2008) Trace fossil assemblage pp.1-622. (Ichnocoenoses) of the Tectonically Uplifted Holocene HEINBERG, C. (1974) A dynamic model for a meniscus filled tunnel Shorelines, Kachchh, Western India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, (Ancorichnus n. ichnogenus.) from the Jurassic Pecten v.71 pp.527-540. Sandstone of Milne Land, East Greenland, Grønlands DESAI, B.G., PATEL, S.J. SHUKLA, R. and SURVE, D. (2008) Analysis Geologiske Undersøgelse, v.62, pp.1-20. JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010
  13. 13. ICHNOLOGY OF BHUBAN AND BOKA BIL FORMATIONS, MANIPUR WESTERN HILL, NE INDIA 585 HEMANTA R.K., TOVER, F.J.R. and IBOTOMBI S. (2008) Trace fossils MIALL, A.D (1978) Lithofacies type and vertical profile model in of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene Transition of Manipur. braided river deposits: a summary. In: A.D. Miall (Ed,), Fluvial Turkish Jour. Earth Sci., v.17, pp.821-834. Sedimentology. Can. Soc. Petr. Geol. Mem., v.5, pp. 597-604. HOWARD, J.D. and SINGH, I.B. (1985) Trace fossils in the Mesozoic MIALL, A.D. (1990) Principle of Sedimentary Basin Analysis. 2nd sediments of Kachchh Western India. Palaeogeo., ed. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 688p. Palaeoclimat., Palaeoeco., v.52(1-2), pp.92-122. MIDDLETON, G.V. and HAMPTON, M.A. (1973) Sediment gravity JAMES, U. P. (1879) Description of new species of fossils and flow: mechanism of flow and deposition, p. 1-38. In: G.V. remarks on some others, from the Lower and Upper Silurian Middleton and A.H. Bouma, Chm. (Eds.), Turbidites and Deep- rocks, Ohio. The Paleontologist, v.3, pp.17-24. water Sedimentation. SEPM. Pacific Section, Short Course, KSIAZKIEWICZ, M. (1970) Observations on the Ichnofauna of the Anaheim, 158p. Polish Carpathians. In: T.P. Crimes and J.C. Harper (Eds.), MILLER, W. (Ed.) (2007) Trace Fossils. Concepts, Problems, Trace fossils. Geol. Jour. Spec. Issue, v.3 ,pp.407-438. Prospects. Elsevier, Amsterdam. KULKARNI, K.G. and GHARE, M.A. (1989) Stratigraphic distribution NICHOLSON, H.A. (1873) Contributions to the study of the errant of ichnotaxa, in the Wagad region, Kutch, India. Jour. Geol. annelids of the older Palaeozoic rocks. Proc. Royal Soc. Soc. India, v.33(6), pp.259-267. London, v.21, pp.288-290 . KULKARNI, K.G. and GHARE M.A. (1991) Locomotory traces PATEL, S.J. and SHRINGARPURE, D.M. (1990) Oligocene-Miocene (Repichnia) from the Jurassic Sequence of Kutch, Gujarat. stages and trace fossil characteristics in Western Kutch. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.37(4), pp.374-387. Gujarat. Mem. Geol. Soc. India, v.16, pp.97-109 KULKARNI, K.G, BORKAR, V.D. and PETARE, T.J. (2008) Ichnofossil P ATEL , S.J. and S HRINGARPURE , D.M. (1992) Trace fossil from Fort Member (Middle Jurassic formation, Rajasthan. Jour. Lumulicubichnus from the Lower Miocene rocks of Kutch. Geol. Soc. India, v.71, pp.731-738. Curr. Sci., v.63, pp.682-684. KUMAR, S., SINGH, I.B. and SINGH, S.K. (1975) Lithostratigraphy, PATEL, S.J., DESAI, B.G., VAIDYA, A.D. and SHUKLA, R. (2008) structure, depositional environments, palaeocurrent and trace Middle Jurassic Trace Fossils from Habo Dome, Mainland fossils of the Tethyan sediments of Mala Johar area., Kachchh, Western India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.71, pp.345- Pethoragarh-Chamoli district. Uttar Pradesh, India. 362. Jour.Paleont. Soc. India, v.20,pp.296-435. PEMBERTON, S.G. and FREY, R.W. (1982) Trace fossil nomenclature KUMAR, A., BARTARYA S.K. and BISHT, K. (1982) Distribution of and the Planolites-Paleophycus dilemma. Jour. Paleont., v.56, trace fossils in the Mesozoic rocks of Kutch, India. N. Jb. pp.843-881. Geol. Paleont. Mh., v.1,pp.36-40. RAJNATH (1942) The Jurassic of Kutch, their bearing on some K UNDAL , P. and S ANGANWAR , B.N. (1998) Stratigraphy and problems of Indian Geology. Presidential address, Proc. 29th Palichnology of Nirmar Sandstone, Bagh Beds of Jobat area, Indian Science Congress, pt. 2, pp.93-106. Jhabua district, M. P. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.51(5), pp.619- READING, H.G. (1996) Sedimentary Environments and Facies: 634. Processes, Facies and Stratigraphy. Oxford, Blackwell Science KUNDAL, P. and DHARASHIVKAR, A.P. (2006) Ichnofossils from the Publ. Co., 3rd edition, 688p. Neogene and Quaternary deposits of Dwarka-Okha area REINECK, H.E. and SINGH, I.B. (1980) Depositional Sedimentary Jamnagar District, Gujarat. Jour. Geol. Soc, India. v.68, pp.299- Environments. New York-Heidelberg-Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 315. 439p. KUNDAL, P. and MUDE, S.N. (2008) Ichnofossils from the Neogene- RICHTER, R. (1850) Ausder thiiringischen Grauwacke. Deutch. Quaternary Sediments of the Porbandar area, Saurashtra Giol. Gesell., Zeitchr.,v.2, pp.198-206 Gujarate, India. Jour. Palaeontol. Soc. India, v.53(2), pp.207- RUST, B.R. (1978) Depositional Model for Braided alluvium. In: 214. A.D. Miall (Ed.), Fluvial Sedimentology. Canadian Soc. Petrol. KUNDAL, P. and SANGANWAR, B.N. (2000) Ichnofossils from Nimar Geol. Mem., v.5, pp.605-626. Sandstone Foromation, Bagh Group of Manawar Area, Dhar SANGANWAR, B.N. and KUNDAL, P. (1997) Ichnofossils from Nimar District, Madhya Pradesh. Mem. Geol. Soc. India., v. 46, pp. Sandstone Formation, Bagh Group of Barwah area, Khargaon 229-243. district, M.P. Gondwana Geol. Mag., v.12, pp.12-33. KUNDAL, P., MUDE, S.N. and HUMANE, S.K. (2005) Ichnofossils SCHAFHÄUTL, K.E. (1851) Geognostiche Untersuchungen des from the Late Eocene to Early Miocene of Narmada Block of Stidbayrischen Alpengebirges, 208p.,45 pl.,Literarich- Cambay Basine, Gujarat, India. Jour. of the Porbandar area, artistische Anstalt (Munchen). Saurashtra Gujarat, India. Jour. Palaeontol. Soc. India. v.50 SEILACHER, A. (1955) Spuren and Fazies im Unterkambrium: In (2), pp.177-182. O.H. Schindewolf & A. Seilacher, Beitrage zur kenntnis des LUNDGREN, S.A.B. (1891) Studier Öfver fossilförande lösa block; Kamnbriums in der “Salt Range (Pakistan). Akad, Wiss, Lit. Geol Fören. Stockholm, Forhandl., v.13, pp.111-121. Mainz, math.-Nat. Kl. Abhandl., no.10, pp.11-143. M CILROY, D. (Ed.) (2004) The application of Ichnology to SEILACHER, A. (1964) Biogenic sedimentary structures. In: N.D. Palaeoenvironmental and Stratigraphic Analysis. Geol. Soc. Newell, J. Imbrie and N.D. Newell (Eds.), Approaches to London Spec. Publ., v.228. Palaeoecology. John Willy and Sons, New York, pp.246-316. JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010
  14. 14. 586 M. CHANDRA SINGH AND OTHERS SEILACHER, A. (1967) Bathymetry of trace fossils. Marine Geol., Palaeont. Soc. India, v.45, pp.165-171. v.5, pp.413-428. SUDAN, C.S., SINGH, B.P. and SHARMA, U.K (2002) Ichnofacies in SHRINGARPURE, D.M. (1984) Mesozoic of Kutch (India): Middle the Murree Group in Jammu area and their ecological Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous depositional environments as implications during Late Palaeogene in the NW Himalaya. revealed by biosedimentary structure. In: W.E. Reif and P. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.60, pp.547-557. Westphal (Eds.), Third Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial TEICHERT , C. (1958) Concept of facies, Bull. Amer. Assoc. Eco-system, Tubingen pp.227-229. Petroleum Geol., v.42, pp.2718-1744. SHRINGARPURE, D.M. (1986) Trace fossils at emission surfaces TANDON, S.K. and BHATIA, S.B. (1978) Ichnocoenosis of the from the Mesozoic of Kutch, Gujarat, and Western India. Bull. Tethyan zone of Kumaun Himalaya with special reference to Geol. Mining and Metallurgical Soc. India, v.54, pp.131-148. the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. In: V. K. Verma et al. SIMPSON, S. (1975) Classification of trace fossils. In: R.W. Frey (Eds.), Recent Researches in Geology, v.2, pp.378-389. (Ed.), The Study of Trace Fossils. New York (Springer-Verlag), TORELL, O.M. (1870) Petrificata Seccana Formationis Cambricae: pp.39-54. Lunds Universittets. Årsskrift,, v.6, pp.1-14. SRIVASTAVA, A.K. and KUMAR, S. (1992) Trace fossils from the Muth TRIPATHI, C. and SATSANGI, P. P. (1982) Crustacean Burrows from the Quartzite of Malla Johar area, Tethys Kumaon Himalaya. Jour. Disang Group of Manipur. Indian Minerals, v.36, pp.24-26. Geol. Soc. India, v.40, pp.43-47. V ASSOEVICH , N.B. (1932) O nekotorykh priznskskh STOW, D.A.V. (1986) Deep Clastic Seas. In: H.G. Reading (Ed.), poxbolysyudhfhikh oylirhy’optokinuyor poloxhrnir Sedimentary Environment and Facies. Blackwell Scientific glidhrbykh obtsxobsniy ot normalynogo: Akad. Nauk SSSR, Publication, London, 2nd edn., pp.399-443. Geol. Inst. Trudy, v.2, pp.47-64. SUDAN, C.S., SAHNI, A.K. and SHARMA, U.K. (2000) Trace fossils WALKER, R.G. (1984) Facies Models. Geoscience Canada Reprints from the Jurassic sequence of Jaisalmer basin, Rajasthan. Jour. Series 1, Geol. Assoc. Can. Publ., 317p. (Received: 9 December 2009; Revised form accepted: 13 August 2010) JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.76, DEC. 2010